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Investigating time reproduction in young adults
with high and low attention traits
Prospec6ve temporal reproduc6on is method of measuring 6me percep6on,
whereby par6cipants view a s6mulus (i.e. video clip) and then aIempt to
reproduce this s6mulus in its original 6me course


Conclusions and Future



Research has shown that individuals with High AIen6on Deficits (such as
AIen6on Deficit Hyperac6vity Disorder) tend to underes6mate the amount of
6me that has passed (Kerns et al, 2001), so they tend to display shorter 6me
reproduc6ons. Complexity of s6muli has been shown to heighten this effect.


This underes6ma6on of 6me may be linked to manifesta6on of ADHD
symptoms, such as difficul6es siSng s6ll and difficul6es concentra6ng for
prolonged periods of 6me.

The vast majority of research has been conducted in children, but aIen6on
deficits can be just as troublesome in adulthood (Kessler et al., 2006). Research
has shown that brain mechanisms that underlie 6me reproduc6on significantly
differ between adults and children (Paus, 2005). Clearly there is a
need for further research to be conducted in adult

MaIhews et al. (2016) found that Working Memory and
Inhibi6on may be implicated in 6me reproduc6on, so
further evalua6on of these factors may provide greater
insight into 6me reproduc6on and aIen6on deficits

All poten6al
completed the
Conners Scale to
measure AD
traits (n=112)

Data analysis
took place and
conclusions were

Those who scored
1 standard
devia6on above or
below the mean
were invited to
take part (n=14)

Data was scored
and split
according to High
AD and Low AD

aIended the
University of York
Department and
signed consent

All par6cipants
completed 6me
working memory,
inhibi6on and
IQ tasks

An Analysis of Variance found that there were no significant differences
between the high and low AD group in 6me reproduc6on [F (1, 12)=
1.57, p= .134] but the High AD group did underes6mate across all
s6muli, as shown in Figure 1. Complexity also did not have a significant
effect [F (1, 72)= 1.91, p= .192]

The current study and hypotheses

The current study proposed to inves6gate 6me reproduc6on in two different groups of
young adults; those with high and low aIen6on deficit (AD) traits, measured by the Conners
AIen6on Scale (Conners, 2011). Time reproduc6on, working memory, inhibi6on and IQ tests
were also completed by all par6cipants. S6muli of a complex and basic nature were used to
inves6gate the effect of complexity of s6muli during the 6me reproduc6on task. Based on
prior research, the current study predicted that:

1)  Time reproduc6ons will be significantly shorter within the High AD group, compared to
the Low AD group


Complexity will heighten these effects, with complex s6muli leading to shorter 6me
reproduc6ons in the High AD group compared to Low


Correla6ons will demonstrate links between working memory, inhibi6on and 6me
reproduc6ons, with poorer working memory scores occurring in the High AD group

Figure 1: Time
reproduc6on ra6os in
both groups across all
lengths of s6muli
shown (3-9 seconds).
Below 1=
Above 1=over

However, significant differences were found between working memory in
the two groups, with significant posi6ve correla6ons occurring in the high
AD group (r= .812, < .05) and nega6ve in the low AD group(r= -.611, p= .
108). When using working memory as the ANCOVA, 6me reproduc6on
scores just missed the significance level [F (3, 32)= 2.2, p= 0.052].

•  The results demonstrated that while those in the
High AD group underes6mated 6me across all
s6muli, these findings were not significant. There
was also no effect of complexity. However the
small sample size may have contributed to these
•  Correla6ons between 6me reproduc6on and
working memory showed a significant posi6ve
rela6onship in the Low AD group, but the
contrary occurred in the High. Findings moved
towards significance when controlling for WM

•  These findings may indicate that working
memory is implicated in 6me reproduc6on. Prior
research has shown that WM deficits occur in
those with aIen6on difficul6es

Future Research

•  Future research that focuses on 6me
reproduc6on tasks should incorporate working
memory tasks, which may provide greater insight
into working memory as a mediator in 6me
•  Limited treatments are available for those with
High AD traits and working
memory training has found to be
effec6ve in children with ADHD
(Chacko et al, 2014), so further
research inves6ga6ng its effects in
adults may be beneficial


Chacko, A., Bedard, A., Marks, D., Feirsen, N., Uderman, J., & Chimiklis, A. et al. (2013). A randomized clinical trial of Cogmed
Working Memory Training in school-age children with ADHD: a replica6on in a diverse sample using a control condi6on. Journal
Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, 55(3), 247-255.
Kerns, K., McInerney, R., & Wilde, N. (2001). Time Reproduc6on, Working Memory, and Behavioral Inhibi6on in Children with
ADHD. Child Neuropsychology (Neuropsychology, Development And Cogni6on: Sec6on C), 7(1), 21-31
Kessler, R. (2006). The Prevalence and Correlates of Adult ADHD in the United States: Results From the Na6onal Comorbidity
Survey Replica6on. American Journal Of Psychiatry, 163(4), 716.
MaIhews, W., Terhune, D., Meck, W., Sommer, M., Eagleman, D., & van Rijn, H. (2014). Subjec6ve Dura6on as a Signature of
Coding Efficiency: Emerging Links Among S6mulus Repe66on, Predic6ve Coding, and Cor6cal GABA Levels. Timing & Time
Percep6on Reviews, 1(1), 1-12. hIp://
Paus, T. (2005). Mapping brain matura6on and cogni6ve development during adolescence. Trends In Cogni6ve Sciences, 9(2),

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