Fundamentals of Electricity .pdf

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Fundamentals of Electricity
The anatomy of an atom:

_

Atoms make up all matter.

n+
+n

The nucleus is positive because of 
the protons.

_

n Neutron

The negative electrons orbit the 
nucleus because they are attracted 
its positive charge.

+ Proton

_ Electron

Neutral (no charge)

Positive charge

Negative charge

Helps protons to be held 
in the nucleus since they 
attract them.

Helps electrons orbit the 
nucleus since they are 
attracted to each other.

Attracted to positive 
charge and will orbit the 
nucleus if left there
(a.k.a. No electrical power).

Strongly bonded to the 
protons.

Fixed in the nucleus so 
they don't move around.

Are very light, can move 
around freely and create a 
current if all going in the 
same direction.

Conductivity:
         Insulator                     Conductor
_

_

n+
+n

_
n+
+n

_

_

Under electricity, the electrons will 
stay in orbit around the nucleus. 
Cannot generate a current. 

glass
rubber
oil
asphalt
fiberglass
porcelain
ceramic
quartz

(dry) cotton
(dry) paper
(dry) wood
plastic
air
diamond
pure water

n+
+n

_

_

_

n+
+n

n+
+n

_

Positive

n+
+n

Negative

_

Positive

Negative

_

_

Under electricity, the electrons will 
be free and will all flow in one 
direction. This generates a current. 
 
brass
silver    
copper
bronze
gold
mercury
aluminum
graphite
iron
dirty water
steel
concrete

The Electricity is Kind of Like Water (Analogy)

Electric

electro

ns

Water current is produced by the movement of water.

voltage

electrons

A higher pressure will make the water travel faster.

wire

current (I)

A wider pipe will be able to carry a bigger flow.

Important Electricity Terms
Voltage (V): "Pressure" ­ Unit: Volt
The speed of individual electrons. 
High voltage is like a car that goes fast.

Current (I): "Flow" ­ Unit: Amp
The amount of electrons moving together. 
Low current is like a small car that can only carry a few students 
(electrons) in one trip. 
High current is like a school bus that can carry a lot of students 
(electrons) in one trip. 

Power (W): "Rate" ­ Unit: Watt ­ I x V
Amount of electrons that goes through per seconds.
High power is like a lot of students arrived at the school in one 
hour. It doesn't matter if they went by car or bus, they got there 
in an hour.

Resistance (R):  "Friction" ­ Unit: Ohm
High resistance is like lots of bumps on the road that slows 
down the traffic.

Law of Electric Charges:
Will be applied to electrons (negative) since that's we care for in electricity.

_
+

n

_

Negative attracted to positive         

    (Opposite charges attract)

Negative attracted to neutral*         

    (Opposite charges attract)
*induced neutral ­ not a "neutron"

_

_

Negatives repel each other        

         (Like charges repel)

Electric charge of objects:
Depending on the number of electrons of an object have will determine its 
electrical charge. 
For example: 
­ A balloon rubbed on hair will be negatively charged and will stick to the neutral wall while 
the hairs are left positive.
­ One terminal on a cell or battery is negative and the other is positive.

Positive#

Neutral

Negative

#p > #e

#p = #e

#p < #e

+

_

+

+

+

_

+_ +_
+ _+

_ _ _
_+ _ +_
_+ _ + _

Lack of electrons

Naturally balanced

Extra electrons

It craves to gain 

All + and ­ will cancel

Electrons repel       

electrons

and want to escape 

Direct Current (DC)
e

Used in most electronics.

+

Life

+

_

_
+_
_
100% + _

+

The electrons flow from one negative 
terminal all to way to the positive 
terminal.

I

So the flow of electrons (e) is from 
negative to positive.

+

Current (  ) is the orientation 
I
of the positive charge.

_
+
_ I
+_

e

This is the opposite to the 
conventional current orientation (  ) 
I
that has been arbitrarily* decided to 
go from positive to negative. That 
conventional orientation is used to 
analyze circuits.

*like rules in a game

Direct Current (DC)
e

Used in most electronics.

Life

+ _+

+

The electrons flow from one negative 
terminal all to way to the positive 
terminal.

I

So the flow of electrons (e) is from 
negative to positive.

+

Current (  ) is the orientation 
I
of the positive charge.

_

_+ _ +_
I
78% + _ + _

_

e

This is the opposite to the 
conventional current orientation (  ) 
I
that has been arbitrarily* decided to 
go from positive to negative. That 
conventional orientation is used to 
analyze circuits.

*like rules in a game


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