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Index Diachronica v.8.1

November 16, 2015

Contents
1 Preface

1

2 Licensing and Legal Information

1

3 Contact Information

2

4 Changelog

3

5 Key to Abbreviations

6

6 Afro-Asiatic
6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotic . . . . . . .
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotic . . . . . .
6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Bench . . . . .
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizin . . . . .
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafa . . . . . .
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maale . . . . .
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkacho . . .
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolaytta . . .
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsa . . . . .
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergulla
6.1.2 South Omotic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aari . . . . . .
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dime . . . . .
6.2 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Erythrean . . . . . .
6.2.1 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-Cushitic . . . .
6.2.1.1 Agaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngi .
6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blin . .
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14

6.2.2

6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantney . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtanga . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythrean . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadic . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasian .
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berber . . . . .
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Coptic . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitic . . . . . .
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabic . . . . . . .
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabic . . . . . .
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami Arabic .
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to W¯ad¯ı Hadhrami Arabic . .
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Hass¯aniyya Arabic . . . . .
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabic . . . . . . . .
6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabic . .
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabic . .
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabic . . . . .
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Sa‘idi Arabic . . . . . . . .
6.2.2.1.15 Classical Arabic to Sudanese Arabic . . . . . .
6.2.2.1.16 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabic . . . . . .
6.2.2.1.17 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew . . . . . . . .
6.2.2.1.18 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrew . .

7 Algonquian
7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsina .
7.1.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho . .
7.1.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot . . . . . . . .
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Cree . . .
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree . . .
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Cree . . . . . . .
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree . . . . . .
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Cree . . . . . . .
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delaware . . . .
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Menominee . . . . . . .
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois . . . . . .
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaq . . . . . . . . .
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe . . . . . . . . . .
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Piscataway . . . . . . .
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Shawnee . . . . . . . . .

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24
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31
32
33
34
34
35

8 Altaic
8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonic . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanese
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolic . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusic . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkic . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchak . . . . . . .
8.5.1.1 Proto-Kypchak to Kazakh . . . .
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz . . . . .
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakha . . . . . . . . . . . .

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36
37
38
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40
41
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43
43

9 Austroasiatic
9.1 Vietic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamese . . . . . . . . .
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamese
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamese

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10 Austronesian
10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesian . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balinese . . . . .
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasak . . . . . .
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawan . . .
10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippine . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicol . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuano . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynon . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanag . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to Ilocano . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamian . . . . . . .
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynen . . . . .
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananen . . .
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwa
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanay . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalog . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Waray . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamic . . . . . . . . .

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10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorro . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayic . . . . . . . .
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) Malay . . . . . . .
10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanic . . . .
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javanese . . . . . . . .
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madurese . . . . . .
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanese . . . . . . .
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauan . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawak . . . .
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiput . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyah . . . . .
`
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Oma
L´ongh . . . . . .
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’ian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New Caledonia . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caa`ac . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jaw´e . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwai . . . .
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northern . . . .
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nˆelˆemwa
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelˆayu . . . . . . . . .
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaamei . . . . . . . .
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwˆa . . . . . . . . .
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunaga . . . . .
10.3.5.8.1 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 1 . . . . . . .
10.3.5.8.2 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 2 . . . . . . .
10.3.6 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz . . . . . . . . .
¨
10.3.6.1 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Aiwoo
. . . . . . . .
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Nagu . . . . . . . . .
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Nat¨
ugu . . . . . . .
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomako . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.9 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Utupua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboa . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebao . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibili . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikoro . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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10.4
10.5

10.6

10.7

10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Buma . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanema . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vano . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatu . . . . . . . .
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejom . . . . . .
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromango .
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Sye . . . . . . .
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Ura . . . . . . .
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tanna . . .
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamera . . . . . . .
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakel . . . . . . . .
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tanna . . . . .
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tanna . .
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesands . . . . . .
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Micronesian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallese . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Paiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6.1 Proto-Paiwan to Northern Paiwan . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6.2 Proto-Paiwan to Central Paiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6.3 Proto-Paiwan to Southern Paiwan . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Rukai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7.1 Proto-Rukai to Budai Rukai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 Northeast Caucasian
11.1 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Avar-Andic
11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakh . . . . . .
11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andi . . . . . . . . .
11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avar . . . . . . . . .
11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargi . . . . . . .
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalug . . . . .
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lak . . . . . . . .
11.5 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Lezgic . . .
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agul . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archi . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghi . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutul . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaran . . . . . . . .
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76
76
76
77
77
78
78
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80
81
81
81
82
82
83
84
84
84
85
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86

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91
91
92
92
93

11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udi . . . . . . . . .
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakh . . . .
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezic
11.7.1 Proto-Tsezic to Bezhta . . . . . . . .
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tsez . . . . . . . . .

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93
93
94
94
95

12 Northwest Caucasian
12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgi . .
12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abaza . .
12.1.2 Proto-Abazgi to Tapanta Abaza . . . .
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaz . . .
12.1.4 Proto-Abazgi to Bzyp Abkhaz . . . . .
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Proper . . . .
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywa . . . .
12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadz . . . . .
12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadz . . . .
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassian
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghe . . . . . . .
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghe .
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghe .
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghe . .
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghe .
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardian . . . . .
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykh . . . . .

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96
97
98
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100
100
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102
102
103
103
104
104

13 Chumashan
13.1 Proto-Chumash
13.2 Proto-Chumash
13.3 Proto-Chumash
13.4 Proto-Chumash
13.5 Proto-Chumash
13.6 Proto-Chumash

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106
106
106
106
107
107
107

14 Elamo-Dravidian
14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidian . .
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamite
14.3 Tamil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil . .

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108
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Barbare˜
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Cruze˜
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Inse˜
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Obispe˜
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Purisime˜
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15 Eskimo-Aleut
111
15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

vi

15.2 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Eskimo . . . . .
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow I˜
nupiaq . . .
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic I˜
nupiaq
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie I˜
nupiaq .
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales I˜
nupiaq . . . .
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ik .
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ik . . .
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ik . . .
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ik . . .

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16 Extended West Papuan
16.1 Tabla-Sentani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafri . . . . . .
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentani
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentani
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentani
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tabla . . . . . .

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112
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117

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17 Indo-European
17.1 Albanian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanian . . .
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanian . . .
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolian . . . . .
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittite . . . . . . . . .
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwian . . . . . . . .
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian . . . . . . . . .
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydian . . . . . . . . .
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaic . . . . . . . . .
17.3 Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian .
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian . .
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian .
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian .
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian
17.4 Avestan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestan . . . . . . .
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic . . . . . . . . .
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish . . . . . .
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welsh . . . . . . . . .

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122
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135
136
136
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137
139

vii

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17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old English . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle English . . . . . .
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle English . . . . .
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern English
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American English . . . .
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian English . . .
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British English . . . . .
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle English . . . . . .
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots . . . . . .
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Southern Middle English . . . . . .
17.7.2.1.11 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisian . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2.1.12 North Frisian Lenition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconian . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch . . . . . . .
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutch . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2.2.3 Modern Dutch to Polder Dutch Vowel Shift . . . .
17.7.2.2.4 Belgian and Netherlandish Dutch Monophthongization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard German . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlaut . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low German . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Icelandic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8 Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii

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17.10Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Aryan . . . . . . . . . . .
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryan . . .
17.10.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryan . . .
17.10.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryan
17.10.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryan . . .
17.11Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.12Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italic . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsican . . . . . . . . . .
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin . . . . . . . .
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin . .
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan . . . . . . . . . . .
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French . . . . . . . . . . .
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italian . . . . . . .
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguese . . . . . . . . .
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Proven¸cal . . .
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romance .
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian . . . . . . . . .
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinian . . . . . . . . . .
17.12.1.1.10Vulgar Latin to Spanish . . . . . . .
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellian . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.12.2.1 Proto-Sibellian to Oscan . . . . . . . . . . .
17.12.2.2 Proto-Sibellian to Umbrian . . . . . . . . . .
17.13Tocharian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.13.1 Proto-Indo-European to Tocharian A . . . . . . . . . .
17.13.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tocharian B . . . . . . . . . .
18 Je-Tup´ı-Carib
18.1 Cariban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern Bakairi .
18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western Bakairi .
18.2 Ofai´e-Jˆe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2.1 Proto-Ofai´e-Jˆe to Proto-Jˆe . . .
18.2.2 Proto-Ofai´e-Jˆe to Ofai´e-Xavante
18.3 Tupar´ı . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.3.1 Proto-Tupar´ı to Makur´ap . . . .
18.3.2 Proto-Tupar´ı to Mekens . . . . .
18.3.3 Proto-Tupar´ı to Tupar´ı . . . . .
18.3.4 Proto-Tupar´ı to Wayor´o . . . . .
18.4 Tup´ı-Guaran´ı . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ix

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