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T E A C H ER S E DI T ION
PRENTICE HALL

William A. McClenaghan

Boston, Massachusetts

Chandler, Arizona

Professor Emeritus, Oregon State University

Glenview, Illinois

Upper Saddle River, New Jersery

Tis work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of teachers and administrators in
teaching courses and assessing student learning in their classes and schools. Dissemination or sale o any part o this work
(including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity o the work and is not permitted.
Acknowledgments appear on pages 861 864, which constitute an extension o this copyright page.
Copyright 2009 by Mary Magruder Smith. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States o America. Tis publication is
protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained rom the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in
a retrieval system, or transmission in any orm or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise.
For in ormation regarding permission(s), write to Pearson Curriculum Rights and Permissions Department, One Lake Street,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.
Pearson is a trademark, in the U.S. and/or in other countries, o Pearson plc or its afliates.
Prentice Hall is a trademark, in the U.S. and/or in other countries, o Pearson Education, Inc., or its afliates.
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-365632-9
ISBN 10:
0-13-365632-2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13 12 11 10 09

Revised yearly by William A. McClenaghan,
Professor Emeritus, Oregon State University
Magruder s American Government, frst published in 1917 and
revised annually, is an enduring symbol o the author s aith in
American ideals and American institutions. Te li e o Frank Abbott
Magruder (1882 1949) was an outstanding example o Americanism
at its very best. His career as a teacher, author, and tireless worker in
civic and religious undertakings remains an inspiring memory to all
who knew him.

Grant Wiggins, Program Consultant
Grant Wiggins is the President o Authentic Education in Hopewell, New Jersey. He earned his Ed.D.
rom Harvard University and his B.A. rom St. Johns College in Annapolis. Grant consults with
schools, districts, and state education departments on a variety o re orm matters; organizes con erences and workshops; and develops print materials and Web resources on curricular change. He
is the co-author, with Jay Mc ighe, o Understanding By Design and Te Understanding By Design
Handbook, the award-winning and highly success ul materials on curriculum published by ASCD.
His work has been supported by the Pew Charitable rusts, the Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, and
the National Science Foundation.
Over the past twenty years, Wiggins has worked on some o the most in uential re orm initiatives in the country, including Vermont s port olio system and ed Sizer s Coalition o Essential
Schools. He has established statewide Consortia devoted to assessment re orm or the states o North
Carolina and New Jersey. Grant is the author o Educative Assessment and Assessing Student Performance, both published by Jossey-Bass. His many articles have appeared in such journals as Educational Leadership and Phi Delta Kappan.

iii

Academic Consultants

Teacher Reviewers

George C. Edwards, II
Department of Political Science
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas

C. Patrick Collins
Belen Jesuit Preparatory School
Miami, Florida

Peter Woll
Department of Politics
Brandeis University
Waltham, Massachusetts
Daniel M. Shea
Department of Political Science
Allegheny College
Meadville, Pennsylvania
Michele Swers
Department of Government
Georgetown University
Washington, D.C.

Susan W. Constantinides
York High School
Yorktown, Virginia
Kathy DeForge
Marcellus Central Schools
Marcellus, New York
Gary Ford
Mt. Lebanon High School
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Todd Gibson
Muncie Central High School
Muncie, Indiana
Judy Givens
Smoky Hill High School
Denver, Colorado
Van Hadley
Roy High School
Roy, Utah

iv

Cathy McCaffrey
Bolingbrook High School
Bolingbrook, Illinois
Juan Price
West Seattle High School
Seattle, Washington
Melissa Richards
Hobbs Municipal Schools
Hobbs, New Mexico
Greg Snoad
Mauldin High School
Mauldin, South Carolina

ELL/ESL Consultant
Joe Berkowitz
John Ferguson High School
Miami, Florida

Program Advisor
Michal Howden
Social Studies Consultant
Zionsville, Indiana

Unit 1

1

Foundations of American Government
Essential Question What should be the goals of government?

Go online with Unit 1

1

Professional Development
Constitution of the United States
Skills Handbook

Chapter

Principles of Government

Is government
necessary?

1 Government and the State
2 Forms of Government

T1
C1
SH1

2

Quick Study Guide and Assessment

4
18
19
20
25

Origins of American Government

28

1 Our Political Beginnings
Issues of Our Time: Adopting a Constitution
2 The Coming of Independence
Declaration of Independence
3 The Critical Period
4 Creating the Constitution
5 Ratifying the Constitution
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

30
35
36
43
48
52
59
63

Chapter

The Constitution

66

How has the Constitution
lasted through changing
times?

1 The Six Basic Principles
Landmark Decisions: Marbury v. Madison, 1803
2 Formal Amendment
Citizenship 101: Identifying Political Roots and Attitudes
3 Constitutional Change by Other Means
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

68
76
78
84
85
89

Federalism

92

Citizenship 101: Volunteering

3 Basic Concepts of Democracy

2

Chapter
How does the Constitution
re ect the times in which it
was written?

3
4

Chapter
Is the federal system the best
way to govern the United
States?

1 Federalism: The Division of Power
2 The National Government and the 50 States

94
103
Issues of Our Time: The Environment and States Rights 110
3 Interstate Relations
111
Quick Study Guide and Assessment
115

Find these interactive
resources at
PearsonSuccessNet.com
MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
How Government Works

Checks and Balances
Amending the Constitution
Louisiana Becomes a State

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
Government on the Go

Political Dictionary
Audio Review
Downloadable
Interactivities

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
WebQuest

Explore Essential
Questions online

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
Government Online

Interactivities
In the News
Citizenship Activity
Pack
Online Self-Test
Audio Tours
Updates
Documents

Contents v

Unit 2

Political Behavior: Government By the People

119

Essential Question In what ways should people participate in public affairs?

5

Go online with Unit 2

Chapter

Political Parties

Does the two-party system
help or harm democracy?

1 The Two-Party System and What They Do
2 The Two-Party System in American History
3 The Minor Parties
Citizenship 101: Working On a Political Campaign

4 Party Organization

6

Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Chapter

Voters and Voter Behavior

Why do voters act as they
do?

1 The Right to Vote
2 Voter Qualifcations
3 Su rage and Civil Rights
Citizenship 101: Casting Your Vote

4 Voter Behavior

7

Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Chapter

The Electoral Process

How fair and effective is the
electoral process?

1 The Nominating Process
2 Elections

120
123
130
137
141
142
147

150
152
156
164
169
170
179

Issues of Our Time: Campaign Finance
3 Money and Elections
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Chapter

Mass Media and Public Opinion

212

What is the place of the
media and public opinion in a
democracy?

1 The Formation o Public Opinion
2 Measuring Public Opinion
Citizenship 101: Conducting a Poll

3 The Mass Media

9

Quick Study Guide and Assessment

214
220
227
228
237

Chapter

Interest Groups

To what extent do interest
groups advance or harm
democracy?

1 The Nature o Interest Groups
2 Types o Interest Groups

242
247

Issues of Our Time:
Lobbying in the Federal Government
3 Interest Groups at Work
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

253
254
261

vi Contents

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
How Government Works

Minor Parties in History
Five Methods of
Nomination
What Happens to a Ballot
Grass-roots Organizing

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
Government on the Go

Political Dictionary
Audio Review
Downloadable
Interactivities

182
184
193
200
201
209

8

Find these interactive
resources at
PearsonSuccessNet.com

240

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
WebQuest

Explore Essential
Questions online

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
Government Online

Interactivities
In the News
Citizenship Activity
Pack
Online Self-Test
Audio Tours
Updates
Documents

Unit 3

265

The Legislative Branch

Essential Question What makes a successful Congress?

10

Chapter
Whose views should
members of Congress
represent when voting?

11

Go online with Unit 3

Congress
1 The National Legislature
Citizenship 101: Writing a Letter to a Public O fcial
2 The House o Representatives
3 The Senate
4 The Members o Congress
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Chapter

Powers of Congress

What should be the limits on
the powers of Congress?

1 The Expressed Powers o Money and Commerce
2 The Other Expressed Powers

12

Chapter
Can and should the
lawmaking process be
improved?

Landmark Decisions: McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
3 The Implied Powers
Issues of Our Time: Congressional War Powers
4 The Nonlegislative Powers
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Congress in Action
1 Congress Organizes
2 Committees in Congress
3 How a Bill Becomes a Law: The House
Issues of Our Time: Minority Rights

4 The Bill in the Senate
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

266
268
272
273
281
285
291

294
296
305
310
312
317
318
325

328
330
338
343
350
351
357

Find these interactive
resources at
PearsonSuccessNet.com
MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
How Government Works

Gerrymandering: Choosing
Their Voters
The Impeachment Process
Congressional Checks on
the Presidential TreatyMaking Power
How a Bill Becomes a Law
MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
Government on the Go

Political Dictionary
Audio Review
Downloadable
Interactivities

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
WebQuest

Explore Essential
Questions online

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
Government Online

Interactivities
In the News
Citizenship Activity
Pack
Online Self-Test
Audio Tours
Updates
Documents

Contents vii

Unit 4

361

The Executive Branch

Essential Question What makes a good President?

13

Chapter
Does the current electoral
process result in the best
candidates for President?

14

Chapter
How much power should the
President have?

15

Go online with Unit 4

The Presidency
1 The President s Job Description
Citizenship 101: Evaluating Leadership
2 Presidential Succession and the Vice Presidency
3 Presidential Selection: The Framers Plan
4 President Nominations
5 The Election
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

The Presidency in Action
1 The Growth o Presidential Powers
Issues of Our Time: Expanding President Powers
2 The President s Executive Powers
Landmark Decisions: United States v. Nixon, 1974
3 Diplomatic and Military Powers
4 Legislative and Judicial Powers
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Chapter

Government at Work: The Bureaucracy

Is the bureaucracy essential
to good government?

1
2
3
4

16

Chapter
How should the federal
budget re ect Americans
priorities?

17

The Federal Bureaucracy
The Executive O fce o the President
The Cabinet Departments
Independent Agencies
Issues of Our Time: The Size o Government
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Financing Government
1 Taxes and Other Revenue
2 Borrowing and the Public Debt
3 Spending and the Budget
Citizenship 101: Analyzing Television News Programs
4 Fiscal and Monetary Policy
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Chapter

Foreign Policy and National Defense

How should the United States
interact with other countries?

1 Foreign A airs and National Security
2 Other Foreign and De ense Agencies
3 American Foreign Policy Overview
Issues of Our Time: America s Role in the World

4 Foreign Aide and Alliances
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

viii Contents

362
364
369
370
374
377
386
395

398
400
404
405
410
412
417
421

424
426
431
435
441
450
451

454
456
463
467
472
473
477

480
482
488
495
504
505
513

Find these interactive
resources at
PearsonSuccessNet.com
MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
How Government Works

Presidential Succession
The Race to the Presidency
Con rmation Process
The Executive Branch
The Executive Departments
Regulatory Commissions
Creating the Federal Budget
The State Department
Civilian Control of the
Military
Department of Homeland
Security
MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
Government on the Go

Political Dictionary
Audio Review
Downloadable
Interactivities
MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
WebQuest

Explore Essential
Questions online

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
Government Online

Interactivities
In the News
Citizenship Activity
Pack
Online Self-Test
Audio Tours
Updates
Documents

Unit 5

517

The Judicial Branch

Essential Question What should be the role of the judicial branch?

18

Go online with Unit 5

Chapter

The Federal Court System

Does the structure of the
federal court system allow
it to effectively administer
justice?

1 The National Judiciary

19

Issues of Our Time: Judicial Activism v. Judicial Restraint
2 The Inferior Courts
3 The Supreme Court
4 The Special Courts
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Chapter

Civil Liberties: First Amendment Freedoms

How can the judiciary
balance individual rights with
the common good?

1 The Unalienable Rights
2 Freedom of Religion
3 Freedom of Speech and Press
Citizenship 101: Participating in Public Debate

4 Freedom of Assembly and Petition

20

Chapter

To what extent has the
judiciary protected the rights
of privacy, security, and
personal freedom?

21

Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights
1 Due Process of Law
2 Freedom and Security of the Person
Issues of Our Time: Balancing Security and Liberty
3 Rights of the Accused
Landmark Decisions: Miranda v. Arizona, 1966
4 Punishment
Quick Study Guide and Assessment

Chapter

Civil Liberties: Equal Justice Under Law

Why are there ongoing
struggles for civil rights?

1 Diversity and Discrimination in American Society
2 Equality Before the Law

518
520
527
528
532
538
541

544
546
551
559
568
569
573

576
578
583
591
592
600
602
607

Find these interactive
resources at
PearsonSuccessNet.com
MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
How Government Works

The Appellate Path in the
Federal Courts
How a Case Reaches the
Supreme Court
The Lemon Test
Freedoms of Speech and
Press
Exceptions to the
Exclusionary Rule
Rights of the Accused
MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
Government on the Go

Political Dictionary
Audio Review
Downloadable
Interactivities
MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
WebQuest

Explore Essential
Questions online

610

612
618
Landmark Decisions: Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 624
3 Federal Civil Rights Laws
626
Citizenship 101: Writing a Letter to An Editor
631
4 American Citizenship
632
Quick Study Guide and Assessment
639

MAGRUDER SONLINE
GOVERNMENT
Government Online

Interactivities
In the News
Citizenship Activity
Pack
Online Self-Test
Audio Tours
Updates
Documents

Contents ix


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