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HISTORY

GREENE

OF

COUNTY,

NEW

YORK ,



WITH

BIOGRAPHICALSKETCHES OF ITS PROMINENT MEN.

NEW

YORK:

] . B. BEERS & CO.,
36

-.


VESEY

STREET

1884.

.

.

PRINTED

BY GEORGE

MACNAMARA,

36 Vesey Street, N. Y.

PREFACE.

In the preparation
of in formation

of this work every available source

has been

State Department

uti lized.

at Albany,

The records

in the

in the office of the county

clerk, in the custody of the clerks of the different

towns

A lexander

Reynolds,

for the assistance

dered in the examination

which they ren-

of records in the clerk's office;

to the officials of the different
their offices; to the editors

towns for similar aid in

of the various

journals

for

in the county, and those of churc h es, societies, and cor-

the free u se of their files; to the clergy and prominent

porations,

members of the churches

family

have been searched;

registers,

old deeds, papers, letters,

etc ., in the possession

have been exam in ed; books, pamphlets,
in public and private libraries
files of newspapers

ot individuals,
and manuscript,

have been consulted;

have been in vest igated;

tions of old inhabitants,

a nd traditi,)ns

back than those recollections,
nothing has been neglected

the

the recollec-

running

farther

have been utilized;

and

that would tend to make the

work in all respects complete.
Acknowledgements

to the secretaries

corporations

of the many societies

a nd

in the county for nece ssary information

co n-

cern in g their organizations;

Frank

clerk, John

H. Burro ugh s and

and finally to the many indi-

viduals who have given efficient aid in various ways.
It is confidently

hoped that with the patient care which

h as been exercised,
been secured;

a reasonable

and

for these

asked.

degree

of accuracy

as in all similar cases, however,

rors have probably eluded

are due to the county

Avery, and to hi s deputies

societies;

for data in the hi stories of their

the

has

minor er-

the scrut iny of the compilers,

indulgent

charity

of

the critic

is

TABLE

OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

OUTLINE HISTORY OF NEW YORK,

of the Pat .

Origina l Land Titlos--Synopsis
ents .... .. .................................

CHAPTER

The Revolution

III.

Tho Co urt s ................

of
10

IV .

..

CHAPTER

11

..

. .. ..
IX.
. . ....

. ... .. . .

V.

CHAPTE L{X .

The War of 1812 l3etwec n the United States
and Great Brita in . . .... ... ... . . .

12 T ur np ikes and Stage Lines ......

VI.

CHAPTER

Internal
Improv e ments - Constit u tiona l
Ame n dments - Schools-Statistics
.... ... .

The Ra ilro ads ........

..

I.

CHAPTER
17 Public Education

............

II .

CHAPTER

H istory and Legends ..
III.

..... .. ......

. . ..

19

. ........

22 Indu str ial Interests

.

XIV .

. .. ..... .. .... ..
XV .

Ecclesiastica l History .. .. ... . . .. . .......
CHAPTER

. .... .

32

MISCELLANEOUS,

. ... .. ..
36 The Catskill Mountains ..............
APPENDIX.-First
Christian church of New
Baltimore. - Ice
business
of
Wm. Sa li sAthens. - Gen
37
bury. - The W itb eck family .Extended Genealogies. Boarding Houses. - The Livingston House. - Personal ....
42

415

48

.... .

XVI.

.........................

51

Ash land . ... ..........

.. ........

.......

. . ... ... .

Athens .. .. . . ... ... . ..... .. ... . .. .. . .... . .... . .
Cairo . ... ... ... ..... . . . .... . .. . ...............
.

XIII.

Voice of the l3allot Box ...........

Gene ral Desc ripti on-Geography,
Topography-Soil - Waters-Geology
...........
.

Discovery a nd Se ttlement

XIX .

TOWN HISTORIES.

and Executive Of . ....... . ... ..

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

63

. ........

30

XII.

HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY,

CHAPTER

.

XVIII.

RECORDof the Civ il War .................

13

Civil List - Legislative
fices ..........................

The Indians-Their

CHAPTER

59

XI.

. ... . . . ... ..... . .. . .... .

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

Items ................

... .

VIII.

. ........

Census of 1810 .. .... . . . .........

CHAPTER

28

.................

CHAPTER
The Militia .......

Revo luti onary Events in New York-The
State Goven1ment Established ...........
.
CHAPTER

Promiscuous

CHAPTER

............

CHAPTEL{ VII.

War with France and Commencement
the Hevolution ... . ..... . . . ... . . . . .
CH A PTER

and the War of 1812.

CHAPTER VI.
Po litical Divisions - Tho County and its
Towns - Formation
and A lt eration . . . .. . .

II.

New York uncler the Dutch - Eng lish Governors to 1765 . .... .......
.......
. .... .... ..
CHAPTER

Organizations

25

CH A PTER V.

XVII.

Miscellaneous

I.

Discovery of New York - The Indians of the
Five Nations .... .. ..... . . . .. . ....... ... . .. .
CHAPTER

CHAPTER

IV.

.

Catski ll [Old] ..... ... .. .. ... ................

..

53 Cat ski ll [Modern] . . .. .. , · · ... · - .. · · ·, · · · · · · · ·

Coxsackie .. ....... . .... .. . . .. ..... ... ... . . . , ..
Durham .............
.. ...... .... . . ... ... ... .
54 Greenv ill e ...............
. .. .. . .... ....... . .. .
Ha lcott .... ..... . . . . . . . . . ..... . .. .. .. .... , . . . .
Hunter . . ..... . .. .. . ...........
. ... . ....... ..
. ..... .. .
57 Jewett .. .. ... .... . . . ... . .. . . . . ......
Lex in g·ton .. .. .. . .... . .. .. . .. . . . . ... ... . . . . _..
New Baltimore ..... .... ..... .. ... . .
Prattsville ..... .. . .. .. .. .. ..... . .. ... . ..... . .
57 Windh am .... ..... . .. . .. . .... .. ..........
..... .

196
151
203
86
118

229
256
287
318
322
345

350
366

380
393


T A BLE O F CONTENTS.

6

White, James .............
. ..................
Wynkoop, Mynders . .. ...... .. . . ...........
Wynkoop, Mr s . Mary E .....................

PORTRAITS.
A ve ry, John . . . . .. ...
Be nham, C . k .. ......
.... .....
Bentley, Alexander
N . ... . ..
Butt s, Barne y . . .. .... .. . ... ..
Cla rk, Edward ... .. . .......

.. . . ... • . .. . . ...
. ... . .......

. . ........
.. .. .....

. .. .

... . . .
.. . ... .

. . .. .... ... . ......

.

Clark Nat han . ... . ..... . . . .... . ... .. .... . .. . .
Cole, E dward M ............
.. . ..........
. ... .
Co on ley F re d erick ... .. .. ...... . .. ..... ... . .
Corn e ll, D r . Theodore F .. . .... . . .. ..... . . .. .
Dutch el", Se th ... ... . .. .. .. . . . ... . ....... .
Earl Rufus . . . .. ... ·.... . . . . . .. .. .. ........
_..
Earl Samuel. ..... . .. .... . . . ... . . . . .... . ... .
E rk so n, J o hn A .. .... ... .......
. ... . . . . .. .. .
Evo ry , Pe t er S ... .... . . . . . ... . ... . . ........
._
Fe rri e r, T ho nuts E .......
. . .. .. . . . .. . .... . .
Fullagar

R N .. .........

• .... . . •• . ... . . . • . ...

G antl ey , D aniel \V .. . . ...... .. . . . .. . . .......
.
Goetchius
P. M....
. ... . .. .. ........
.. . ..
Goetchius
l\lrs. P . M . ..... ... ... . . .. . . .. . .
Ha lle n beck, Caspar I . . ... . ......
. ... .... . . .
. .. . . .. . ..... .
Hall e nb ec k. P ren ti ss IV .......
Hill , A u g u st u s . . .............
....... .
Houghtaling
George ... .
H ull. A . P ...... .
Jen ni ngs , J ar uc s .. . . .. . .... . .... ...... .. . ... .
King Levi .. . . . .. . .. . .
King Pe rk in s .. ... . .. .. . .
. .....
... . .

Maben William ... .. .. . . . ..........
. .. . .. . . .
Mc Ca be, B. S . . ... .. .. . ...... . . . . . .......
.. .
Mill e r , Henry P ............
.....
..... . .... .
Miller M . Sila s . .. ..... . , . . .. . ..... . ....• ..
Miller Mrs. Mar y E .. . ....... . ... . .. .. . . . . .. .
Morss Burton G . ..... . . . . ... ... . . . . .. . . .. .. . ·
New kirk, A. H ...... . . .... . ... . ... . .. .
Ne wt on, Orlan do L ............
.. . . .

130
390
309
28

.
.
.

ILLUSTRATIONS,

186

185

Temperance
Star House,
413 Bailey, Luther,
Jewet t ..... .. .. ...... ...... . ... ...........
.
Brockett
Edwin, Residence . ..... \Vindham
Coe, 0. R., Windham Hote l ....... Windham
Ferrier. Thom as E, Residence .. ... . .
Frontispiece,
Court House .......
. ........
.
Goetchius
P. M . .. . .... Summit H ill Ho use
Catskill . . .....
.. . ..................
. .. . ... .
Hough taling George Residence .... . .. Cox sackie . . .. ..•..

. ..............

.. . . ... .•...

Lamo reau , A .. Summit H House
Windham
Lampman
Mrs. A . B .. .. Bron k Homestead
Map of G reene Co unt y ..... . ............
..
Map of Towns of Athens and Coxsackie . .. .
Miller M Silas. Residence . . New Baltimore
O' Hara, B O'Hara House .. ... . Lexington
Osborn

M ( '., Residence

.. Windham

Seal........
. . Luttheran Church
. .. Windham
Sopen John Soper Place
Robertson
Goerge
Residence ... Windham
Van Loon Matthias
Residence . .. Athens

206 Finch Family ................
. . . .. . . .........
.
150 Fullagar, Robert N .........
.. ..............
.
150 Gantley, Daniel w ·............. .. ......... .. .
Goetchius, Peter M .. ....... . .........
. . .. . . .
f-lnllcnbeck Family ....... . ... . . ..........
..
Hastings, George H ..................•......
:
H ill. Augustis
....... . .. . . .. .
Houghtaling
Family ..••.•.. .•:·::~ : ::::::~~~:
Howell,Jotm
. . .. . . .............
.. ...........
.
345 H ull,AnsonP
........
. .... . .. .... .. ........
..
417 Jennings
James ... .. . ... , . ... .. . ...... . . ... .
4 10 King Levi . .....•..
...... . . •• •••.. . •..........
143 Maber Fam il y . ... . .... .... . ... ... . ... .
McCabe Bradley s ..... . ..... . ....... ...... .
Miller

192

149

187
365

216
254
226
285
315

220
363
310
377

377
378

O' Hara Family .........•
.. .............
• •.. ..
.. ... .. . .. ..........
..
365 Olney, James B .........
Henry . .. ... ... . .........
. . ... .. . . . .
403 Osborn

312

Parker
Albert ...... ..... .. .. ..... .... ... ... .
411 Peck Harvey h.. . .. ..... . . ... .. ..... ..... .. . .
411 Pinc, John jr. .. .... ..... ... ....... .. .. . ... ... .
Zadock ...........
........
.........
...
194 Pratt

255

George

.....

. . . .. . ...........

.. . .

Roe, Lucke .... . . ...... ... . .. . ... ... . . ..... . . .
Rouse Family ...... . ... .. ..... . ... . . . . . ..... .
Rundle Hardy ....... .. .. • . ..... . . . ..... . . . ..

BIOGRAPHIES,
John . ... . ...........
. . . .....
. . ... .. • •
James
. ...•• .. ... •. . . •..... . .. . ....
364 Ben ham . C. K M. D . . ... .. • . . . .. .. .. • .....
Alexsander :'<'.... . ... . . .. ...... .
193 Bentley
A mo s ..... . .... , . .. . .. ..... .
148 Botsford

129
205
219
309
311

Edwin . .... . .. .. . .. .. . .. ...... .. . .
414 Brockett
.
Osbor n , He n r y ..... . .. . . .. . .. . . . ...........
P arker, .A . . .. . . u.... . ...... . .... ....... .. ... .
255 Br on k Leonard .. . .. . . .. .. . .. .. ... ..... . .
P in e , .Jo hn j r.. .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. ..... . ..
221 Burhans
Orman ..... . .. .. . . . .. . . ... . . . . .
R o b ert so n , Ge o . .. . .. ... . .. ... .. . .. . . ... . .. ...
412 Butts
Barne ... .. ..... . . .... .. .. . ... .
412 Clark, Ellward .......
. ... . . .... . .. .
Robertson
Mr s. E . D . M... .. . . . . . .
Robertson
Mrs. Maria.......
.
412 Clark Nathan . . . .
Hou se.J ohu.. . ... . .... . ...........
. . . . . .... . .
227 Clow, Richard
... ..... . ....... .. . . . .... ... .. . .
R undl e, Hardy . . . .
. . . . .. • . .. . ... . . .
316 Coffin11, Ab aham . ......•....
. .• .. . . . .. . ......
190 Cole, Ed ward M ......... . ...... . .... . . ..... . .
Sager Ga rret \V............
. ... ... . .. • . . . . . .
Salisbury Wi lli am ........
. . . ... . . .. . . .. . . Appendi x Coon ley, Frederick .. . .... .... . ..... .
Showers
Is aac.... . .. . .. ... . . .. ... . . . .. .. .. . .
344 Cornell, Theodore F ., _M. d . ... .. . . . .. .. .. . .
S te ve ns. 0 . C . .. .. ... . ... . :--. .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .
314 Decker. F r a n k S .... .. ..............
.. . ..... .
Teale T h eo d o r e c. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. ... . .. . .
147 Dernell, Herman
F . ... ... .... ...... ... .. .. ..
Townsend
Russell
... . ... .. . . ... . . . .. .
315 Dutcher.
Seth . ... .. .. ... . . .... . .. .
Van Hoesen John N .... ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .
190 Ea rl , Rufus ..... . . .. .... ... .. . ......... . ... . .
379 Earl Samuel . .. .... ... ..... .
Va n Slyke E ph rai rn T .......
. . ... . .....
.. •
192 Edwards , William .... . .
Wan Woert Harmon . ........
.......
..
.John A .. . ..... . . . . . . •. ..
308 Erkson
Waldron
Truman . .•.. . •.. ...
Evory Peter S .. .. . .......
. . . ...... . .. •. ... . .
Walters
Francis G. . . ... .... ... .. . . .. ...... . .
Ferrier Thomas E....... .. ..
. ... ... .... .
W eed, Hervey ..... .. .... . ..... . ... .. . ... .. . ..

414
254

Nichols Sylvester . • ... . . . . . . . . • .• . • • . .
Ol n ey , Jn1n es B .. . . . .• . . . ... . .. . . .......
... ..

191

Mille,·, M . Silas . .. ..... . ...........
. . . ....... .
Miller, Henry Powell. . ...... .. . ............
.
Morss Burton G .... ..............
. .. ... ... . .
A . H ... . ... ... .... . .. . ..........
.. .
282 Newkirk
New ton, Orlando L . .........
. .. .. .. ..... . .. .
6 N ichols Family ..........
. . .. ........
. ....... .
Barnard . .. . . ..... .........
.. ... . ... .
152 O'Hara

Roberts

Avery
Barker

Fa tnily . .. . . . .. . . ... • • . . .. . . .•. .... ....

309

287
186

185
189

Sager,
GarretSalisbury
W., John
~~ ~ ~
ohn~: .·..'.' .' .·: : : :

Salisbury
Will ian, .. . . .....
Sa nderson , John . . .... ....

.': .· .·.': .".' .·: .': : : : :

]88
219

Sayre Dan iel....... . .. ..... . ........ ....... ..
Schermerhorn
Frederick....
. ...... . ........
Showers. Isaaz
.. • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
Snyder Family....
. .. .... . .... . ... . .. . . .. . . .
Stannard,
Lyman . ....... . .. ... .
. .. . ... . . . ... . ...
Stevens Family..............
Tea le. Theodore C.......
. ..... .. . .... ... . . .. .
Townsend, Husscll.. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .
Van Hoese n, John N . ..... .. . . .. . .. .. . . .. . . ..
Van Loon Family................
. .......
.. ..

Walters Francis G .. ... . ... . . . . . . . ..... . . ... .
Weed, Heney...............
.. .........
. ... .
Weeks

William

• . .. . . . . . . .......

. . . . .... . .

Witbeck Family .............
.. ....... . ... Appen
White, James.......................
. .... . . .. .
\Villinmson, John G.. ...........
. . . .. .. .. .. . .
335
Woolsey F a mily.....
.. . .... ...... . . . . . . . • . . . .
391
226 Wright
A. P .•. . . . .. ..... • • . ... . . ..... .......
142 Wynkoop, Mynderse .. . . . ........
. . . .... ... . .
224

191

361

193
365
148
4 14

227
221
411
fZO
316
15

.. ...... ... ... Append ix
187
....... ...... .....

223
Van Slyke Family
..•. ..•. ... . ... . .. . • ... .
41:l
Van Woert Harmon .... ,... . .. ... .. . . . . . .• . .
312
Waldron Family.... ..... ...................
.
377
221

389

225

217
344
:317
387
313

147
315

190
194
378
192
308
222
313
224

dix
206
315

191
387
150

s.

AND ULSTER COUNTIES.
When organ-

Towns.

ized.

Catskill ........ . ....... .. .. .
Coxsackie .................
.
Durham [Freehold] ....... .
Windham ....... ... ..... ... .

March
March
March
Match

Cairo [Canton]. .....••.....

March 26, 1803.

• ) Greenfield. } •.
Greenv1 11e Freehold.
•.

March 26, 1803.
March 15, 1811.
Jan. 27, 1813.
Jan. 27, 1818.
Feb : 25, 1815.
March 8, 1833.
March 23, 1848.

.

New Baltimore ......... . .. .
Hunter [Greenland] ...... . .
Lexington [New Goshen] . .
Athens ....................
.
Prattsville .............
. .. .
Ashland .. .. ...............
.
Jewett ....................
Halcott ................

.
..

7, 1788.
7, 1788.
8, 1700.
23, 1798.

Nov. 16, 1849
Nov. 19, 1851.

Taken From
Albany Co.

Scale 3 Miles to the Inch_____________________



.
:

.-

OUTLINE

..

OF THE

j;j.


HISTORY

..

STATE OF NEW YORK
I.

CHAPTER

DISCOVERY

OF

NEW

YORK-THE
NATIONS

INDIANS

OF

THE

FIVE

.

1524 John de Verazzano, a Florentine navigator in the service of Francis the First of
France,made a voyage to the North American
coast, and, as is believed from the account
which he gave, entered the harbor of New
York. No colonies were planted, and no results
followed; and the voyage was almost forgotten.
Though discoveries were made by the French, north
from this point, and colonies planted by the English
farther to the south, it is not known that New York was
again visited by Europeans till 1609, when the Dutch
East India Company sent Hendrick Hudson, an Englishman by birth, on a voyage of discovery in a vessel called
the "Half Moon." He reached the coast of Maine, sailed
thence to Cape Cod, then southwesterly to the mouth of
Chesapeake Bay then, coasting northward, he entered
Delaware Bay on the 28th of August.
From thence he
proceeded northward, and on the 3d of September, 1609,
anchored in New York Bay. On the 12th he entered
the river that bears his name, and proceeded slowly up
to a point just above the present site of the City of Hudson; thence he sent a boat's crew to explore farther up,
and they passed above Albany.
September 23d he set
sail down the river, and immediately returned to Europe.
In 1607 Samuel Champlain, a French navigator, sailed
up the St. Lawrence, explored its tributaries, and on the
4th of July in that year discovered the lake which bears
his name.
At the time of the discovery of New York by the
whites the southern and eastern portions were inhabited
by the Mahican or Mohegan Indians ; while that portion
west from the Hudson River was occupied by five confederate tribes, afterwards named by the English the

-•

2

Five Nations, and by the French the Iroquois, and by
themselves called Hodenosaunee-people
of the long
house. The long house formed by this confederacy extended east and west through the State, having at its
eastern portal the Mohawks, and at its western the Senecas ; while between them dwelt the Oneidas , Onondagas, and Cayugas ; and after 17 14 a sixth nation, the
Tuscaroras,
southeast
from Oneida Lake.
Of these
Indians Parkman says that at the comm encement of the
seventeenth century "in the region now forming the
State of N e,;v York, a power was rising to a ferocious
vitality, which, but for the presence of Europe ans, would
probably have subjected, absorbed or exterminated every
other Indian community east of the Mississippi and
north of the Ohio."
"The Iroquois was the Indian of Indians.
A tho rough
savage, yet a finished and developed savage, h e is, perhaps, an example of the highest elevation which man
can reach without emerging from his primitive condition
of the hunter.
A geographical position commanding on
the one hand the portal of the great lakes, and on the
other the sources of the streams flowing both to the
Atlantic and the Mississippi, gave the ambitious and aggressive confederates advantages which they perfectly
understood, _and by which they profited to the utmost .
Patient and politic as they were ferocious, they were not
only the conquerors of their own race, but the powerful
allies and the dreaded foes of the French and English
colonies, flattered and caressed by both, yet too sagacious
to give themselves without reserve to either.
Their organization and their history evince their intrinsic superiority.
Even their traditionary lore, amid its wild puerilities, shows at times the stamp of an energy and force in
striking contrast with the flimsy creations of Algonquin
fancy. That the Iroquois, left under their own institutions, would ever have developed a civilization of their
own, I do not believe ."
These institutions
were not only characteristic
and
curious, but almost unique.
Without sharing the almost
fanatical admiration for them of Morgan, or echoing

I


OUTLJNE

8

HISTORY

OF THE

the praises which Parkman lav1snes on tnem, it may be
truly said that their wonderful and cohesive confederation
furnished a model worthy to be copied by many ci viii zed
nations, while, so long as they were uncontaminated
by
the vices of civilization, they possessed, with all their
savagery, many noble traits of character, which would
adorn any people in their public, social, or domestic
relations.
They made themselves the dreaded masters of all
their neighbors east of the Mississippi, and carried their
victorious arms far to the north, the south, and the east.
Their dominance is thus eloquently pictured in Street's
"Frontenac":
,
"The

fierc e Adirondacs had fled from th eir wrath,

The Huron s been swep t from their merciless path;
Around, the Ottawa s , like le aves, had been strewn,
And th e lake of the Eries struck silent and lone.
will.

By the far Missi ssipp i the Ill ini shrank
When the trail of th e ToRTorsE was seen on the bank;
On th e hills of New England the Pequod turned pale
Wh en the howl of the WOLF swelled at night on the ga le;
And the Ch erokee shook in his green , smiling bowers
Wh en the foot of the BEAR stamped hi s carpet of flowers."

It will hereafter be seen that the Iroquois acted an im portant part in the early history of the State.
Space will not permit a description of their league, or
confederation, a sketch of their tribal relations, and their
religious, social and domestic customs, or a histor y of
their warlike achievements.
Only an allusion may here be made to the many dim
and shadowy records of a pre-existing people of whom
not even a faint tradition remains.
These records consist of stone, terra cotta, or bone weapons, implements
or ornaments, that are occasional]y discovered, and of
the remains of defensive works found here and there
through the State . Many similar works have been leveled
by ihe plough, and those that remain are slowly
crumbling and passing to oblivion.
Some of them ,
though they would not be regarded as models of military
engineering at the present day, give evidence of an
adaptation to the circumstances that probably existed
when they were built, and of skill in construction, which
are not discreditable to their builders.

CHAPTER

NEW

YORK · UNDER

THE
TO

IT.

DUTCH-ENGLISH

OF NEW YORK.

expeditions, giving exclusive privileges of tr ade for four
years.
The Hud son River had been ascended by Hendrick Christiansen, and a fort and trading house erected
near the present site of Albany, which was named Fort
Orange.
In 1621 the Dutch West India Company was chartered,
and in 1623 settlers were sent th ither.
In 1626 Peter
Minuit, as director-general
or governor of the province,
arrived with ot her settlers, and purchased th e island of
Manhattan from the Indians for trinket s of the value of
abo_ut $24.
In 1629 the company offered grants to
patroons who should found settlements in the province
(which had been named New Netherlands) of fifty or
more adults, and several availed themselves of this offer.
In 1633 Minuit was recalled and Wouter Van Twil]er appointed in his place. During his administration
troversy concerning jurisdiction was commenced

The Lenape, lords once of valley and hill,
l\1ad c women, bent low at their conquerors'

STATE

GOVERNORS

1765.

N 1610 another vessel was sent from Holland
to trade with the natives and in 161 2 two
more, soon after followed by others; and a
small fort and a few rude buildings were
erected at the southern extremity of Manhattan Island, and the place was nam ed New
Amsterdam.
In 1614 th e States General of Holland granted a charter to the merchants engaged in these

the conbetween

the Dutch and the English, who claimed the country on
the ground of prior disco ve ry by Cabot and the grant of
James I. covering the territory.
In 1638 Van Twiner was succeeded in the government
of the colony by Wil]iam Kieft. By reason of hostilities
which occurred with the Indians on Long Island in
1643-44, for which Kieft was censured, he was recaUed,
and succeeded by Peter Stuyvesant in 1647.
The controversy concerning jurisdictio n co ntinued during his
administration, till, in 1664 , Charles II. of England, re~
gardless of the claims of the Dutch to New Netherlands,
granted to his brother, the Duke of York and Albany,
afterwa rds James II., the whole country from the Connecticut to th e Delaware, including the entire DLitch possessions. A fleet was sent under Colonel Richard NicoUs
by the duke to enforce his claim, and on the 3d of September, 1664, the province was surrendered
without
bloodshed, and the government of the colony passed into
the hand s of the English.
Colonel Nicolls at once assumed the functions of governor; the name New Amsterdam was changed to New
York, and Fort Orange to Albany, laws for the government of the province were presc ·ribed, and courts for the
administration of these laws established.
In 1668 Governor Nicolls resigned, and was succeeded by Colonel
Francis Lovelace.
England at about this tim e became
in vo lved in a war with Holland, and thi s gove rnment
sent a squadron to repossess its province in America.
This squadron arrived July 30th, 1673, and the fort at
New York was surrendered without resistance by Captain
John Manning, who was in command.
Captain Anthony
Colve b ecame governor; but bis reign was short, fo r on
the co nclusion of peace b etween the two powers, Feb ruary 9th , 1674, th e province reverted to th e E ngli sh . A
new patent was issued, confirming the first, and Sir Edmund Andros was commissioned gove rnor. The despotic
agent of a despotic ruler he was unpopular with the people, and became involved in difficulties with the neighboring co loni es. He was rec alled and hi s successor,
Thomas Dongan, arrived on the 22nd of August, 1683.
In the au tumn of th e same year the first co loni al asse mbly was convened 1 many needed reforms were instituted,

,.


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