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6
Extending X'-theory
Dr. Waleed A. Alrowsa

WAALROWSA@imamu.edu.sa

Pop Quiz II
1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 

What are the goals of syntax?
Is syntax a science? How so?
What is Prescriptive/Descriptive syntax?
What is innateness? Recursion?
What is the difference between Linear &
hierarchical structure?

11/13/17

2

Introduction
n 

Two types of Categories:
q 

q 

We looked at: Phrasal categories: NP, VP, PP, AdjP,
AdvP.
Functional Categories C T Q D
n 
n 
n 

11/13/17

Specifier
Adjunct
Complement

XP
X’
X’

(YP) X’
X’ (ZP) or Vice versa
X (WP)or Vice versa

3

Introduction
n 

Challenge:
q 

According to specifier rule, it requires it to be a phrase XP
level, however, specifiers we have are only determiners
and not phrases
n 
n 

*The they are good.
*A an apple is good

Remember the rule:
All non-head materials must be phrasal.

11/13/17

4

Introduction
n 

We are going to add three points:
q 

CP, TP, DP
n 

n 

We want the tree to capture other properties of
hierarchical structure found in the constituents.

We want to propose a determiner phrase
(DP)
q 
q 

11/13/17

Determiners (the,a) are not specifiers, or phrasal.
Specifier is subject place holder

5

DP
n 

Determiners:
q 

q 

n 
n 

The, a, that, this, those, these occupies the specifier of NP
§  I want to show you that the apostrophe ‘s is also Det.
Determiners are heads, and cant be phrasal: only one is
allowed in an NP
§  *The that is a dog

Suggested solution:
Det are not part of the NP but NP is the complement to the
determiner head.

11/13/17

6

n 

DP

Challenge II:
q 

IN CP an TP rules, the only required element is the
head. At the same time, this head is optional
n 
n 

CP
TP
q 

->
->

(C)
TP
NP (T) VP

This calls for an evidence

Old

11/13/17

New

7

DP: free generative and construct
n 

There are two types of genitives or possessive NP in
English:
q 

Construct and Free genitive
n 

n 

11/13/17

Free genitive (of-) uses the preposition of to mark the possessive
relation between two NPs
‘s The appears after the whole possessor NP [the man]

8

DP: free generative and construct
n 

There are two types of genitives or possessive NP in
English:
q 

Construct and Free genitive
n 

Construct(‘s-) the apostrophe appears after the full possessor NP
q 

11/13/17

Apostrophe is in complementary distribution with determiners.
§  *The man’s the coat

9


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