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INOVATIVE STUDY OF NATURAL SURFACTANT SOURCE IN LIQUID DETERGENT PRODUCT
USING SAPONIN EXTRACT FROM MANIHOT ESCULENTA LEAVES
Kathleen Zanetta, Michael Himawan
Maria Goretti Apriyani, M.Si., Apt.
SMA Santa Laurensia Alam Sutera, Serpong/Indonesia
Kate.zanetta@gmail.com, michaelhimawan21@gmail.com
1.

Introduction
Liquid detergents that are commonly used as house
hold cleaner actually Is not as safe as we thought. Liquid
detergent contains harmful chemical substances such as
Surfactant, Builders, and oxalic acid. Harmful chemical
substances can cause environmental damage and material
that are wash. Base on this problem, this study was
conducted with aims to innovate natural liquid detergent
using saponin extract from Manihot esculenta.

Product Test
Natural liquid detergent will be tested by washing
fabric with oil stains.

5. Result and Analysis
Manihot esculenta leaves powder had a very
light and smooth texture. Dissolved Manihot
esculenta extract will have a foam after shaked.
Table 1 shows the identification result of saponin in
Manihot esculenta extract.

2. Problem Statement
Liquid detergent becomes a problem these days
because it can lead to environment damage, therefore
solutions to overcome this problem is by using saponin
extract from Manihot esculenta leaves as alternative
source detergent.

Kontrol positif
(sari lerak)

Ekstrak

Kontrol negatif
(aquadest)

A lot of foam
(+ + +)

Little foam
(+)

No foam
(-)

Picture

3. Purpose of the Study
This study aims at innovate alternative source of
liquid detergent using saponin extract of Manihot
esculenta leaves, which will allow a safer liquid detergent
for the environment.

4. Research Method
Extraction and identification
Dried Manihot esculenta leaves were crushed and
sieved into powder and stored in a dry container. Then,
the powder was extracted through maceration method
with 96% ethanol as solvent. The presence of saponin was
identified qualitatively by shaking dissolved saponin and
compared it with shacked Sapindus rarak as control
positive and shacked water as control negative.
Emulsification test
Emulsification test is done by emulsifying water and
vegetable oil. If homogeneous mixture was formed, than
the extract is proven to have the ability as a surfactant.
The result of the extract will be compare with Sapindus
rarak as a positive control and without treatment as a
negative control.
Detergent Formulation
The detergent formulate by mixing Manihot
esculenta, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), dan STPP (sodium
tripolyphosphate).
Physical and chemical test
The physical and chemical properties of the extract
are tested using pH test, Viscosity test, water solubility
test, Organoleptic test, foam power test, foam stability
test,

Descripti
on

Table 1. Saponin identification result
Table 2 shows the emulsification result of the extract
compared with Sapindus rarak (Positive control) and Negative
control.
Gambar
Side View
Top View
Sapinus
rarak
(Positive
Control)

Extract

Water
(Negative
Control)

Keterangan

Emulsified
(++++)

Emulsified
(++++)

Not emulsified
(-)

Table 2. Emulsification test result

6. Conclusion
Saponin extract of Mahinot esculenta can
emulsify oil and water so it can be an alternative
source of natural detergent.
7. Reference


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