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12/09/2017

Electronics 1

• This course is in two parts

• A. Circuit theory – Keith Ryden

– This part will cover the fundamentals of electronic

circuits and their analysis

• B. Analogue electronics – Philip Evans

– This part will cover practical analogue electronics

and their design and analysis

1

Analogue electronics: Course Syllabus

• Fundamentals

Resistive networks, voltage and current sources, Thevenin and Norton

equivalent circuits, current and voltage division, input resistance, output

resistance, coupling and decoupling capacitors, maximum power transfer, RMS

and power dissipation, current limiting and over voltage protection

• Components and active devices

Components vs elements and circuit modelling, real and ideal elements.

Introduction to sensors and actuators, self-generating vs modulating type

sensors, simple circuit interfacing

• Diodes and diode circuits

Diode characteristics and equations, ideal vs real. Signal conditioning clamping

and clipping, rectification and peak detection, photodiodes, LEDs, Zener

diodes, voltage stabilisation, voltage reference, power supplies

2

1

12/09/2017

Level 1 Module

Electronics 1

Analogue Electronics

Phil Evans

Lecture 1 – Resistive networks

3

Fundamental properties

• Begin with a look at the fundamental

properties of circuits

– Resistance

– Current

– Voltage

4

2

12/09/2017

Resistance

• Resistance is the property of a circuit that opposes the flow of

current in response to a voltage.

• Measured in Ohms = volts/ampere

– i.e. a voltage is required to generate current flow

• Ohms law describes this relationship:

V = IR I = V / R R = V / I

• This is a linear relationship where R is (approximately)

constant passing through the origin

I

V

Slope of the line ∂I/ ∂V = 1/R = conductance (measured in Siemans = Ω-1)

5

Current

• Absolute quantity

– Measurement of number of electrons passing a point per

second

– e = 1.6 x 10-19 C

– 1A ≈ 0.6 x 1019 electrons/second

– 1pA ≈ 6 million electrons/second

6

3

12/09/2017

Voltage

• Relative measurement

– Always need a reference point → potential difference

between 2 points

– Ohm’s law relates resistance, current and the voltage drop

across the resistor → V1 – V2 = IR

•

•

•

•

Power at any moment = V(t) x i(t) 2

Power dissipated in a resistor = V (t ) = i 2 (t ) R

R

For an AC supply V(t) = Vmax sin (ωt)

Instantaneous current = V (t )

V sin(ωt )

R

= I (t ) =

max

R

= I max sin(ωt )

Note that current and voltage are in phase

7

Resistors

• Two terminal devices with a specified value of resistance

• Values measured in ohms, kΩ, MΩ etc.

• Available in preferred values in ranges E6, E12, E24, E48, E96

– Divides ranges into 6,12,24,48,96 values

• Colour codes

–

–

–

–

1st band – 1st digit

2nd band – 2nd digit

3rd band – multiplier

4th band – tolerance

Must also specify resistor power handling capacity

8

4

12/09/2017

Resistor colour code

www.electronicshub.org

9

Resistor Preferred Value Range

E6

10

E12

10

E24

10

11

12

12

13

15

15

15

16

18

18

20

E96

10.0

10.2

10.5

10.7

11.0

11.3

11.5

11.8

12.1

12.4

12.7

13.0

13.3

13.7

14.0

14.3

14.7

15.0

15.4

15.8

16.2

16.5

16.9

17.4

17.8

18.2

18.7

19.1

19.6

20.0

20.5

21.0

E6

E12

E24

22

22

22

24

27

27

30

33

33

33

36

39

39

43

E96

21.5

22.1

22.6

23.2

23.7

24.3

24.9

25.5

26.1

26.7

27.4

28.0

28.7

29.4

30.1

30.9

31.6

32.4

33.2

34.0

34.8

35.7

36.5

37.4

38.3

39.2

40.2

41.2

42.2

43.2

44.2

45.3

E6

E12

E24

47

47

47

51

56

56

62

68

68

68

75

82

82

91

E96

46.4

47.5

48.7

49.9

51.1

52.3

53.6

54.9

56.2

57.6

59.0

60.4

61.9

63.4

64.9

66.5

68.1

69.8

71.5

73.2

75.0

76.8

78.7

80.6

82.5

84.5

86.6

88.7

90.9

93.1

95.3

97.6

10

5

12/09/2017

Web Resources

• Various web resources to practice resistor identification:

– http://www.funtrivia.com/playquiz/quiz2664721e821c8.html

– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_electronic_color_code_mnemon

ics - Bad Booze Rots Our Young Guts But Vodka Goes Well

11

Temperature stability

• Typically 0.019%/°C – 0.05%/°C

• Time stability 50 ppm/month (0.005%)/month

• Voltage limits also apply e.g. 0.25W – 350Vmax typically

12

6

12/09/2017

Combinations of Resistors:

Resistive networks

• In series

– RT = R1 + R2 + R3

– Beware of tolerances – 100 kΩ (5%) + 1 kΩ (5%) ≠ 101 kΩ

Due to the tolerance

• In parallel

– 2 resistors

– 3 resistors

1

1

1

R1R 2

=

+

⇒ RT =

RT

R1

R2

R1 + R 2

RT =

R1R2 R3

R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R1R3

1 power less in denominator

13

Combinations of Resistors

• Short cuts for mental arithmetic

5kΩ ≡ 2 x 10k in parallel or 10k//10k=5k

So 10k//5k ≡ 3 x 10k = 10k/3 = 3k33

R1//R2: if R1 = nR2 then RT = R1/(n+1)

Or if mR1 = nR2 = R then RT = R/(n+m)

e.g. 22k/33k ≡ (3x66k)//(2x66k)

(m)

(n)

= 5x666k in parallel = 66k/(3+2) = 66k/5 = 13k2

14

7

12/09/2017

Class examples

Find the resistance between A and B

A

5Ω

30 Ω

30 Ω

B

15

Class examples

Find the resistance between A and B

A

30 Ω

30 Ω

30 Ω

50 Ω

B

16

8

12/09/2017

Class examples

Find the resistance between A and B

A

2 kΩ

4.5 kΩ

1.4 kΩ

2.7 kΩ

B

17

Class examples

Find the resistance between A and B

A

320 kΩ

200 kΩ

160 kΩ

150 kΩ

B

18

9

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