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Physics project moving coil galvanometer .pdf



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Physics Project
Name:- Dabhi Mihir
Roll No:- 3
th

Class:- 12 (Science-PCB)
Topic:-

Moving coil galvanometer

Moving Coil Galvanometer-Physics Project

Page 1

Certificate:This is to certify that Mihir Dabhi, a student of Class
12th (Science-PCB) has successfully completed the
project on the above mentioned topic under the
guidance of Mr. Rana Sir (Subject Teacher) during
the year 2017-2018 in partial fulfillment of Physics
Practical Examination conducted by CBSE, New
Delhi.

Signature of the Examiner

Signature of subject teacher

Moving Coil Galvanometer-Physics Project

Page 2

Acknowledgement:The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of
guidance and assistance from many people. I am extremely
privileged to thanks Mr. Rana Sir (Subject Teacher) for
providing me an opportunity to do the project work and giving
me all support and guidance which made me complete the
project appropriately. He was always supportive and
inspirational for completing this project. I am also extremely
thankful to all my friends for providing me all the necessary
support and guidance.

Mihir Dabhi
Class 12th – Science-PCB
Moving Coil Galvanometer-Physics Project

Page 3

Objective: To study the basic schematic
structure of a moving coil galvanometer and
the basic process underlying the conversion
of a moving coil galvanometer into an
ammeter and a voltmeter.

References: NCERT Class 12 Physics Textbook
 http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html
 http://www.brainkart.com/article/Moving-coil-galvanometer

Moving Coil Galvanometer-Physics Project

Page 4

Contents: Basics about magnetic effects of current and magnetism
 Torque on a current carrying coil placed in a magnetic field
 Brief introduction into the different types of Galvanometers along
with brief description
 General structure of a moving coil galvanometer
 Conversion of a Galvanometer into an Ammeter
 Conversion of a Galvanometer into a Voltmeter

Moving Coil Galvanometer-Physics Project

Page 5

Basics about Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism: Introduction:Electromagnetism: The branch of physics which deals with interaction of electric current or
fields and magnetic fields.
Magnetic field: A region of space near a magnet, electric current or moving charged particle in
which magnetic effects are exerted on any other magnet, electric current, or moving charged
particle. It is also known as magnetic flux density or magnetic induction or magnetic field.
Unit: Weber/m2 or Tesla

Dimensions: [MT-2A-1]

 Oersted’s Discovery:The relation between electricity and magnetism was discovered
by Oersted in 1820. Oested showed that the electric current
through the conducting wire deflects the magnetic needle held
near the wire. On increasing the current in conductor or bringing
the needle closer to the conductor, the deflection of magnetic
needle increases.
Oersted discovered a magnetic field around a conductor carrying
current.
A magnet at rest produces a magnetic field around it while
electric charge at rest produces an electric field around
A current carrying conductor has a magnetic field and not
electric field around it. On the other hand, a charge moving with uniform velocity has
electric as well as a magnetic field around it.

The
magnetic
field
(marked B,
indicated by field lines) around wire
carrying an electric current (marked I).

Moving Coil Galvanometer-Physics Project

Page 6

an
it.
an
an

 Biot-Savart’s Law:With the help of experimental results, Biot and Savart arrived at a mathematical expression
that gives the magnetic field at some point in terms of the current that produces the field.

 Magnetic Field Lines: In order to visualize a magnetic field graphically, Michael Faraday
introduced the concept of field lines. Field lines of magnetic field are imaginary lines
which represents direction of magnetic field continuously.
o Magnetic field lines emanate from or enter in the surface of a magnetic material
at any angle.
o Magnetic field lines exist inside every magnetized material.
o Magnetic field lines can be mapped by using iron dust or using compass needle.
o They are closed curves.
o Tangent drawn on any point on field lines represents direction of the field at that
point.
o Field lines never intersect each other.

Quick Fact: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines generate a field 60,000 times as intense
as the earth’s to vibrate the hydrogen atoms in our body; in response, the atoms emit radio waves
that are analyzed to produce a map of our insides.

Moving Coil Galvanometer-Physics Project

Page 7

 Magnetic Force:-

The implications of this expression include:
1. The force is perpendicular to both the velocity v of the charge q and the magnetic field B.
2. The magnitude of the force is F = qvB sinθ where θ is the angle <180 degrees between the
velocity and the magnetic field. This implies that the magnetic force on a stationary charge or
a charge moving parallel or antiparaller to the magnetic field is zero.
3. The direction of the force is given by the left hand rule. The force relationship above is in
the form of a vector product.
When current flows through a conducting wire, and an
external magnetic field is applied across that flow, the
conducting wire experiences a force perpendicular both to
that field and to the direction of the current flow (i.e they
are mutually perpendicular) .
 The Thumb represents the direction of Motion
resulting from the force on the conductor
 The First finger represents the direction of the
magnetic Field
 The Second finger represents the direction of
the Current.
Fleming’s Left Hand Rule to find the direction of force (movement) on
a moving charged particle (or current carrying conductor) placed in
Magnetic Field.

This diagram illustrates how to find out
the direction of force on a charged
particle moving in a region of magnetic
field. This method is based on the
vector product of two vectors where
the resultant vector is perpendicular to
the plane containing both vectors.

Moving Coil Galvanometer-Physics Project

Page 8

 Lorentz Force:When a charge is moving in a region, where both electric field and magnetic
field having magnitudes E and B respectively exist, then electric and magnetic
forces are acting on it. The resultant of these forces is called electromagnetic
force or Lorentz force on charge.

 Magnetic Moment:Magnetic moment of a bar magnet is defined as a vector quantity having magnitude equal to
the product of pole strength (m) with effective length (l) and directed along the axis of the
magnet from South to North pole.
𝑀 = 𝑚. 𝑙
Magnetic Moment of a current carrying coil (loop): A current carrying coil behaves like a
magnetic dipole. The face of coil in which current appears to flow anticlockwise acts as North
Pole while face of coil in which current appears to flow clock wise acts as South Pole.

Moving Coil Galvanometer-Physics Project

Page 9


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