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Impacts of Molecular Biotechnology .pdf


Original filename: Impacts of Molecular Biotechnology.pdf
Title: MBTE2000 2018
Author: Hon-Ming Lam

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Impacts of Molecular Biotechnology

Presented by: Prof. Hon-Ming Lam
honming@cuhk.edu.hk

1

Different Types of Cloning
¡

Processes
l
l

¡

Artificial
Natural

Levels
l
l
l

Gene
Cell
Organism

2

The Basic Steps in Gene Cloning
(Recombinant DNA)
http://www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/transformation1.html

Molecular Cloning (Gene Cloning): a DNA sequence is
amplified with the aid of genetic engineering techniques;
expressing the recombinant DNA in host cells can be
used to produce important products (e.g. insulin)
¡

Cut out the target gene

¡

Ligate (join) the target
gene into a vector (carrier)

¡

Transform (introduce the
construct into a host)

¡

Select the right clones in
host cells

¡

Propagate

Cloning of a Cell
Cell Cloning: To derive a (clonal) population of cells
from a single cell (remark: clonal selection of antibodyproducing cells is a natural process occurring in our
body)

Organism Cloning
General meaning for organism cloning: to create a
new organism with the same genetic information as a
cell from an existing one (identical). It is an asexual
method of reproduction, where fertilization or intergamete contact does not take place.
¡

¡

¡

¡

Cloning in horticulture: vegetative propagation (occur naturally
or artificially), e.g. European grapes, banana, potatoes and
grafting (all the shoots and branches coming from the graft are
genetically a clone of a single individual). Remark: plant cells are
totipotent.
Natural clones: parthenogenesis (單性生殖/孤雌生殖; virgin birth)
(i.e. the growth and development of an embryo or seed without
fertilization by a male); e.g. drones of honey bee, drones and
queens of little fire ant. When parthenogenesis is the sole mean of
reproduction, an all-female population “usually” occur; e.g. allfemale scorpion (scorpion, Ananteris coineaui L.), all-female
butterfly (Danaus chrysippus L.)
Cloning of animals: Most animal cells are not totipotent; The
modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfers from
somatic cells to denucleated ovum and the resulting ovum is then
implanted into surrogate mother.
Cloning of human is a controversial issue.

How Dolly was Made
Donor

Somatic
Cells

Recipient

Ovum
Removal
of nucleus
Cell Fusion

Pseudopregnant

Progeny
(Genotype same
as donor)

Cell implanted
into surrogate
mother
Surrogate mother
gave birth to the
progeny

Dolly and Bonnie
Source:
http://www.roslin.ac.uk
/imagelibrary/

6

Questions to Class
¡

¡

Is the genetic composition of the cells in Donor
completely identical to the cells in Progeny; if not,
what are the differences? (Hint: Are there any
genes located outside nucleus? Are there any
differences between the chromosomes in somatic
cells and reproductive cells?
What was the scientific breakthrough that allowed
the production of Dolly? (Hint: What is the major
difference between animal cells and plants cells in
term of potency?)
7

Major Applications of Genetic Engineering
¡
¡
¡
¡
¡

Forensics Science
Health
Food and Feed
Environmental Protection
Industry and Energy

8

Possible Applications of Gene Technology
¡

¡

Forensics
l

Identification of individuals

l

Parentage testing

Principles behind
l

l

Each individual carries unique DNA
sequence that is different from others
DNA polymorphism)
For each individual, half of the DNA
content from father and half from
mother

9


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