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Types of Software Testing
1. Manual Testing:
Manual Testing is a method of searching bugs or defects in the software program manually.
There is no use of the automated tool or script. Every test case is manually verified. The
process of manual testing includes requirement analysis, test plan creation, the test case
creation, the test case execution, defect logging and defect fix and re-verification. The tester
needs to prepare the test plan document. This document gives the details and approaches
to be carried out for doing the test. It is a time-consuming test as it is done manually. The
differences between real and stated results found are defects. The defects are to be fixed by
the developer. The purpose of this testing is to make the application bugs free by searching
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2. Automation Testing:
In automation testing, tester writes the script and uses other software to verify the
application. This testing is used for performing repetitive process. It is also done to test
application for the load, stress and performance issues. The benefits of this testing is there
is an increase in accuracy and wide test coverage. This testing is done for critical projects
which require testing of repetitive areas frequently. The process used for automation
includes identifying areas in software for automation, selecting appropriate tool for
automation, writing test scripts, developing test suits, executing scripts, generating reports
of the results and identifying any potential bug or performance issues.
3. Ad hoc Testing:
This testing technique is also known as Monkey Testing or Random Testing. In this testing
there is no planning and documentation. The tests are done randomly without any formal
results. The tester experiments with the script. In this testing tester optimises the scripts
and executes them arbitrarily. The defects found during these tests are not reproducing as
there is no documentation available. However, sometime crucial defects have been
detected in this testing which would not have found if there is strict documentation for
testing to be followed. The success of this test depends upon the creative skills and
openness of the tester.
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4. Functional Testing:
The functional testing is to ensure that software meets all the specific requirements of the
customer. The main aim of this testing is to ensure that software is functioning as per the
business requirements. It is conducted on a fully integrated system to meet the need of the
businesses. There are various steps involved in completing this testing. The initial one is to
decide the intended function of the application. Then there is a creation of test data as per
the specifications of the application. After that there is an evaluation of test data and
development of various test scenarios and execution of these tests and finally, there is a
comparison of real and expected results as per executed cases.
5. Smoke Testing:
The smoke testing is also known as Build Verification Testing. The smoke testing is done
after the build to ensure that the critical function of the program is working in stable
condition. It simply means that the software is performing consistently. The term smoke
testing is inspired from hardware testing where initial testing is done to check that it did not
catch fire in the initial run. These tests are executed before the actual testing is done to
assess whether critical function are functioning correctly or not. This testing is performed in
Integration Testing, System Testing and Acceptance Testing levels.
6. Sanity Testing:
Sanity Testing is done after receiving the software builds with little changes in code, or
functionality to ensure that bugs are fixed and no further issues arises due to these minor
changes. The purpose behind this testing is to ensure that proposed function is working
well. If the sanity test, fails the build is rejected. This saves the cost and time involved in the
further tests. The purpose of this test is not to verify the whole function but to ensure that it
is performing the basics function correctly. The word sanity means reasonable and rational
behaviour i.e. developer has used some rationality while developing the software. For
example, if a scientific calculator gives the result 5+7=18 then there is no sanity in testing
other advance function.
7. End to End Testing:
The End to End testing is also known as Chain Testing. The purpose of this testing is to check
that the designed is functioning from start to finish. This test is carried out for verifying that
information is passed between various components and systems. The objective of this test
is also to assess that the components integrated in the application are functioning well. The
end to end testing is executed after system testing. It consists of three parts build user
functions, build condition and build the test case.
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8. Reliability Testing:
Reliability testing is done to check the ability of software to functions under given
circumstances consistently. It purposes are to find fault in software designs if it worked for a
prolonged period. Reliability is classified into three segments. They are modelling,
measurement and improvement. The dependent parameters for reliability testing are
probability of failure free operation, length of failure free operation and the environment in
which it is executed. The objectives of reliability testing are to find the total number of
failures occurring in a given amount of time, average life period of the software and reasons
behind the failure.
9. Stress Testing:
It is also known as endurance testing. It is about how efficiently an application can perform
in peak load conditions. The goal is to ensure that software doesn’t crash in extreme
conditions. The objective behind this testing is to find the limit at which software or
application could break.
10. Security Testing:
The goal of security testing is to ensure that systems and applications used in the
organization do not have any security breaches which may lead to data loss and
compromise the integrity. The six key principles behind security testing are confidentiality,
integrity, authorization, authentication, availability and non-repudiation. The various
security testing ways are broken authentication and session management, insecure directobject references, injection, security misconfiguration, cross site scripting, etc.
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