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K. Tamaki, A.J. Jeffreys / Legal Medicine 7 (2005) 244–250

stutter bands often observed at dinucleotide repeat loci can
make interpretation difficult; for this reason, current typing
systems use microsatellites with repeat units 4 bp long, to
reduce the incidence of stuttering. The STR approach allows
very high throughput via multiplex PCR (single-tube PCR
reactions that amplify multiple loci) and fluorescent detection
systems have been developed to allow substantial automation
of gel electrophoresis and DNA profile interpretation [52].
STR analysis is more sensitive than other methods and can
recover information even at the level of a single cell. The
unambiguous assignment of alleles makes the method suitable
for the development of databases. In the United Kingdom, 10
autosomal STR loci plus the amelogenin sex test, typed using
the ‘second-generation multiplex’ (SGM) Plus system, are
used in forensic practice (Table 1). The SGM Plus loci
generate random match probabilities of typically 10K11
between unrelated two individuals in the three UK racial
groups (Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean, and Asian) [53]. The US
FBI CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) uses 13 STRs
plus amelogenin. These loci produce extremely low random
match probabilities. For example, around 60% of Japanese
individuals show match probabilities of 10K14–10K17 (estimated from [54,55]). The Japanese Police Agency introduced
in 2003 a 9 STR locus system, which uses some of the CODIS
loci (the AmpFlSTRw Profilerw kit), for analysing forensic
specimens. From allele frequencies at these loci [54], around
60% of Japanese individuals have match probabilities of
10K9–10K11. This system also detects the XY-homologous
amelogenin genes to reveal the sex of a sample. Recently, new
multiplexes that amplify 16 loci in a single reaction, including
amelogenin, have been commercially developed
(AmpFLSTRw Identifilerw PCR Amplification Kit, PowerPlexw 16 System). This system produces even lower match
probabilities without losing sensitivity, and it is likely that
such systems will remain standard for analysing forensic
specimens and in paternity testing. Detailed information of
forensic STR can be obtained at STRBase [56].
In the future, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
might provide an alternative typing platform; while large
numbers of loci (w100) would need to be typed to obtain
the discrimination power of current STR systems, they do
offer the potential for DNA typing without electrophoresis,
conceivably using miniaturised devices (‘lab on a chip’) that
could greatly accelerate typing and offer the potential for
DNA analysis at the scene of crime.

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