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Single Phase Active Power Harmonics Filter by Op Amp Circuits and Power Electronics Devices .pdf


Original filename: Single-Phase Active Power Harmonics Filter by Op-Amp Circuits and Power Electronics Devices.pdf
Title: Single-Phase Active Power Harmonics Filter by Op-Amp Circuits and Power Electronics Devices
Author: Emad Samadaei, Mina Iranian, Mohammad Reazanejad, Radu Godina and Edris Pouresmaeil

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sustainability
Article

Single-Phase Active Power Harmonics Filter by
Op-Amp Circuits and Power Electronics Devices
Emad Samadaei 1 , Mina Iranian 2 , Mohammad Reazanejad 3 , Radu Godina 4, *
Edris Pouresmaeil 5, *
1
2
3
4
5

*

and

Department of Electronics Design (EKS), Mid Sweden University, Holmgatan 10, 85170 Sundsvall, Sweden;
emad.samadaei@miun.se
Department of Engineering, Atlas Danesh Co, Ghaemshahr 47658-37449, Iran; Iranian_mina@yahoo.com
Engineering Faculty, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 47416-13534, Iran; m.rezanejad@umz.ac.ir
C-MAST, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
Correspondence: rd@ubi.pt (R.G.); edris.pouresmaeil@aalto.fi (E.P.)

Received: 2 November 2018; Accepted: 23 November 2018; Published: 26 November 2018




Abstract: This paper introduces a new structure for single-phase Active Power Harmonics Filter
(APHF) with the simple and low-cost controller to eliminate harmonics and its side effects on
low voltage grid. The proposed APHF includes an accurate harmonic detector circuit, amplifier
circuit to trap tiny harmonics, switching driver circuit for precise synchronization, and inverter to
create injection current waveform, which is extracted from reference signal. The control circuits
are based on electrostatic devices consist of Op-Amp circuits. Fast dynamic, simplicity, low cost,
and small size are the main features of Op-Amp circuits that are used in the proposed topology.
The aim is removing the all grid harmonic orders in which the proposed APF injects an appropriate
current into the grid in parallel way. The proposed control system is smart enough to compensate
all range of current harmonics. A prototype is implemented in the power electronics laboratory
and it is installed as parallel on a distorted grid by the non-linear load (15 APeak-Peak ) to verify the
compensating of harmonics. The harmonics are compensated from THD% = 24.48 to THD% = 2.86
and the non-sinusoidal waveform is renovated to sinusoidal waveform by the proposed APHF.
The experimental results show a good accurate and high-quality performance.
Keywords: active power harmonics filter; electrostatic devices; hysteresis switching; op-amp;
power electronics

1. Introduction
The growth of applying for semiconductor devices and nonlinear loads in industrial, residential,
and commercial areas has led to the destruction of power grid voltage and current waveforms in which
they cause harmonic distortion in the electrical system [1,2]. Harmonics in the electricity network
make harmful damages, such as power losses, the overload in transmission lines, the reduction of the
power quality, lower efficiency in equipment, and disturbance in the performance of devices [3–6].
Therefore, the detection of harmonics and finding a strategy are essential to eliminate and reduce
them down to standard allowed. During many years, passive filters have been the conventional
solution to minimize harmonics pollution [7–11]. There are many power factor correctors (PFC)
converters with the ability to reduce harmonics as well. Family of single-phase and hybrid PFC
buck-boost converters are introduced in [12,13]. In [14], three-level unidirectional single-phase PFC
rectifier topologies are presented. Some other topologies discussed the range of output to develop PFC
converters [15].
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The PFC converter usually has low power factor (PF) and poor harmonic performance due to the
inherent dead angle of the input current, especially at low input/output ranges [13]. Active power
harmonic filters (APHFs) have been proposed as a power electronics solution, since passive filters
have quite a few disadvantages [16–19]. The smart control ability of the active harmonic filters is a
very prominent advantage [20]. As a best harmonic detective device, it can be installed at various
scales along with harmonic loads to prevent the spread of harmonics into the grid, so that the network
remains in its sinusoidal waveform [21–24]. The vast applications of this device are effective to increase
network power quality [25–30]. The active filters produce the same amount (but opposite) of harmonic
by monitoring the harmonics of electrical load current that forbid the current harmonics to flow
through the power line [31,32].
The active power harmonic filter as compensator is divided into two parts: (1) power circuit;
and, (2) control circuit (Harmonic Detector Algorithm for control of switching). The defect in each
section and unsuitable connection not only lead to compensative performance but also increase
the harmonic components that reduce the power quality [33]. The accurate algorithm of the
harmonic detector and switching pattern can lead to a reduction in the cost of the power part
structure. Hence, there are many articles in the control, harmonic detection, and switching pattern.
Most articles discuss the control circuits based on programming, especially the transfer function
and DQ-axis (direct-quadrature) transformations [34–38]. Search algorithms have been used as
well [39,40]. The authors in [41] investigate the prediction on the harmonic load for control of the
power quality. Although microprocessors will reduce the complexity of control circuits, but the
decrease in quality of sampling signals due to the analog/digital converting, some inefficient coding
algorithm, slower response to non-complex calculations, and expensive cost than electrostatic circuits
should be considered [42–44]. On the other hand, fast response in electrostatic circuits for non-complex
calculations and low-cost than microprocessors can increase the performance of the control circuit.
In addition, the removing of microprocessors makes a simpler circuit in which the decreasing in the
total cost of the implementation would be expected [45–48]. Another important challenge in APHF is
switching and synchronizing with the current grid. More damages in the network are expected without
the accurate synchronization of the reference signal. Fast switching and accurate synchronization
are some features of the hysteresis switching technique that are used in the high-speed electrostatic
circuit [49,50].
In this paper, the control strategy of active harmonics filter is presented by electrostatic devices and
Op-Amp circuits that cause the removal of microprocessors and programming devices. The removing
of microprocessors declines the complication of programming and analog/digital converting and
its quality distortion in sampled signals for APHF. The voltage sensor (sampling) is also removed
in the proposed control strategy due to hysteresis switching with a precise synchronization. Thus,
the cost of implementation can be reduced, although the performance quality is increased by the fast
dynamic response and accurate harmonics elimination. Proposed topology can be used by residential,
commercial, and small industries electricity consumers. The operation of the proposed controller
follows as: the load current is being sensed by a current sensor that is infected by harmonics. Then,
harmonics are extracted by proposed Op-Amp circuits with a fast dynamic response. The extracted
signals are boosted in amplifier circuit since the tiny high-order harmonics can be considered in
switching pattern. It significantly increases the quality of the APHF compensation. Section 2 illustrates
these issues. Hysteresis and synchronization are described in Section 3. Experimental results are
shown in Section 4 to verify the high performance of different parts of the proposed controller circuit
and the compensation of APHF.
2. The Strategy of Harmonics Detection
Some properties in control circuit should be considered, such as the smart extraction of harmonics,
the pitch adjustment in magnitude and phase for the reference signal, the remaining quality in

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REVIEW
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fundamental
harmonic
after APFH operation, and simple structure. The perfect performance
of each these properties lead to proper overall results in APHF.
Figure 11 presents
presents aa simple
simple and
and high
high quality
quality schematic
schematic for
for aa high-pass
high-pass filter
filter with
with the
the exact
exact pitch
pitch
Figure
adjustment
to
extract
grid
harmonics.
The
sampled
signal
(from
the
grid
by
the
current
sensor)
has
adjustment to extract grid harmonics. The sampled signal (from the grid by the current sensor) has
been sent
sent to
to the
the proposed
proposed circuit
circuit through
through V
Vin and
the circuit acts as a high-pass filter that is based on
been
in and the circuit acts as a high-pass filter that is based on
the
values
of
the
capacitor
and
resistors.
Consequently,
it separates
the harmonics
are
the values of the capacitor and resistors. Consequently, it separates
all ofall
theofharmonics
that arethat
higher
higher
than
the
cutoff
frequency
and
the
circuit
reveals
them
in
output
(V
out). The output signal will
than the cutoff frequency and the circuit reveals them in output (Vout ). The output signal will be used
be aused
as a reference
for switching
part.
as
reference
signal forsignal
switching
part.

R1
Vin

C2

X

C1

Vout

+
R2

Figure 1.
1. Proposed
Proposed high
high pass
pass filter
filter with
with op-amp.
op-amp.
Figure

This
This proposed
proposed circuit
circuit involves
involves op-amp
op-amp devices.
devices. Other
Other electronic
electronic devices
devices (resistors,
(resistors, capacitors,
capacitors,
diode,
can be
diode, etc.)
etc.) with
with different
different arrangements
arrangements can
be joint
joint to
to op-amp,
op-amp, in
in order
order to
to use
use in
in various
various operation
operation
and
applications.
This
high
pass
filter
is
designed
based
on
op-amp
devices
and
cutoff
frequency
and applications. This high pass filter is designed based on op-amp devices and cutoff frequency is
is
separatefrequencies
frequencieshigher
higherthan
thanfundamental
fundamentalcomponent.
component.This
Thiscircuit
circuit has
has aa very
setset
totoseparate
very accurate
accurate
operation
operation in
in the
the category
category of
of electrostatic
electrostatic filters
filters in
in which
which it
it reveals
reveals all
all the
the harmonics
harmonics higher
higher than
than the
the
cutoff
cutoff frequency
frequency with
with high
high quality.
quality. Also,
Also, another
another prominent
prominent property
property is
is the
the adjustment
adjustment of
of the
the phase
phase
between
between input
input and
and output
output signal
signal by
by correct
correct design.
design. This
This feature
feature is
is used
used to
to synchronize
synchronize the
the reference
reference
signal
signal with
with the
the network
network current.
current.
Equations
the
proposed
filter
forfor
Figure
1, follows
as:
Equations are
areextracted
extractedtotodrive
drivethe
thetransfer
transferfunction
functionofof
the
proposed
filter
Figure
1, follows
as: The KCL in node X can be written as:
The KCL in node X can be written as:
Iin = IR1 + IC1
(1)
Iin  I R1  IC 1
(1)
That Iin , IR1 , and IC1 are the input current, the current passing through the resistance R1 and the
That 𝐼 , 𝐼 , and 𝐼 are the input current, the current passing through the resistance R1 and the
current passing through the capacitor C1 , respectively.
current passing through the capacitor C1, respectively.
The currents in the op-amp legs are zero, thus:
The currents in the op-amp legs are zero, thus:
IR2
I R2= IIC1
C1

(2)
(2)

When considering the voltage
voltage of
of point
point X
X (V
(Vx), the above equation can be rewritten:

𝑉Vx ==

11+
+𝑅R2𝐶C1𝑠s
𝑉out
V
𝑅R2𝐶C1𝑠s

(3)
(3)

It is
is also
also possible
possible to
to write
write the
the current
current of
of branches
branches according
according to
to the
the voltage
voltage of
ofpoint
pointX:
X:
It

Vin −
 VVx
V
x
IinI in= in 11
sC2

sC2
IC 1 

VOut
R2

(4)
(4)

(5)

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V
IC1 = Out
(5)
Vx R
2VOut
(6)
I R1 
1
Vx −RV
Out
(6)
IR1 =
R1 of the equations in the Laplace domain, the
By putting above equations in (1) and solving
transfer
function
of the
circuit can
be and
calculated,
By putting
above
equations
in (1)
solvingas
of follows:
the equations in the Laplace domain, the transfer
function of the circuit can be calculated, as follows:
VOut
s2

C1  C 2s2
Vin
1
(7)
VOut
2
(7)
= s  C +C 
1C C
1 C2
2
R
C
R
R
Vin
s + R2 2 C1 C22 + R1 R22 C 1C22
1

1

1

Accordingto
tothe
the(7),
(7),the
thetransfer
transferfunction
functionof
ofthe
thecircuit
circuitisissecond-order
second-orderthat
thatincreases
increasesthe
theslop
slopof
of
According
cutoff
frequency
and
the
quality
of
the
output
signal
as
well.
cutoff frequency and the quality of the output signal as well.
Insome
someharmonic
harmonicorders,
orders,
magnitude
of the
detected
harmonic
is (especially
low (especially
higherIn
thethe
magnitude
of the
detected
harmonic
is low
higher-order
order
harmonics),
so
that
it
cannot
trigger
the
switching
system
to
remove
harmonics
by
power
part.
harmonics), so that it cannot trigger the switching system to remove harmonics by power part. Then,
Then,
it
is
necessary
to
amplify
the
harmonic
orders
to
increase
the
accuracy
of
reference
signal.
The
it is necessary to amplify the harmonic orders to increase the accuracy of reference signal. The circuit
circuitiswhich
in2Figure
is used
as the amplifier
circuit [51].
which
depictisindepict
Figure
is used2 as
the amplifier
circuit [51].

Vin

+

Vout

-

R1

R2

Figure2.2.The
Theamplifier
amplifiercircuit
circuitwith
withop-amp.
op-amp.
Figure

Hysteresis
HysteresisSwitching
SwitchingTechnique
Technique(HYS)
(HYS)
The
Thehysteresis
hysteresisswitching
switchingtechnique
techniqueisismore
moreinteresting
interestingdue
dueto
tosome
somefutures
futuressuch
such as
as fast
fast response,
response,
less
complexity
and
independence
from
an
additional
reference
signal
(for
example
triangular
less complexity and independence from an additional reference signal (for example triangularwave
wave
in
inPWM
PWMTechnique)
Technique)[52].
[52].Grid
Gridconnection
connectionwith
witheasy
easysynchronization
synchronizationmood
moodisisan
anoutstanding
outstandingof
ofthis
this
Technique.
Figure
3
shows
the
block
diagram
operation
of
hysteresis
pulse
generation.
As
shown
Technique. Figure 3 shows the block diagram operation of hysteresis pulse generation. As shownin
in
Figure 3, the reference current which obtained by the detector algorithm (i∗*c ) is compared with the
Figure current
3, the reference
current
obtained
detector
( i c ) between
is compared
the
output
of the active
filterwhich
brunch
(ic ) andby
thethe
error
due toalgorithm
the difference
thesewith
is sent
i c ) group
to
the fixed
hysteresis
are two (pair
switches
for to
switching,
since the
activethese
poweris
output
current
of the band.
activeThere
filter brunch
and the
error due
the difference
between
filter
H-bridge
circuit. The
group
switches
work
a cross-pair
infor
theswitching,
H-bridge. since
The hysteresis
sent use
to the
fixed hysteresis
band.
There
are two
pairas
group
switches
the active
technique
is used
both group
switches
for positive
and
negative
also
a dead time
power filter
use for
H-bridge
circuit.
The group
switches
work
as a currents.
cross-pairIt in
thehas
H-bridge.
The
between
thetechnique
switching.
hysteresis
is used for both group switches for positive and negative currents. It also has a
constant
bandwidth
is surrounding the reference signal. If the error value (∆ic ) is higher than
deadAtime
between
the switching.
the upper band the switch will be off, and if the error value is lower than the lower band, then the
switch will be turned on. The operation of the switch between the upper and lower bands for the
sinusoidal reference signal is shown in Figure 4.

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ic*
ic
ic*

∆ic

»

∆ic

5 of 13

Hysteresis band

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Switching pulse
Hysteresis band
Switching pulse

Figure 3. The block diagram operation of hysteresis pulse generation.
»

A constant bandwidth is surrounding the reference signal. If the error value (∆ i c ) is higher than
ic
the upper band the switch will be off, and if the error value is lower than the lower band, then the
switch will be turned
on. The
operation
of theoperation
switch between
thepulse
upper
and lower bands for the
Figure
3.3.The
block
ofofhysteresis
generation.
Figure
The
blockdiagram
diagram
operation
hysteresis
pulse
generation.
sinusoidal reference signal is shown in Figure 4.
A constant bandwidth is surrounding the reference signal. If the error value (∆ i c ) is higher than
the upper band the switch will be off, and if the error value is lower than the lower band, then the
switch will be turned on. The operation of the switch between the upper and lower bands for the
sinusoidal reference signal is shown in Figure 4.

iref
Upper Band

iref
Upper Band
Lower Band
SW.

1
0 Band
Lower

Figure
The
operation
hysteresis
controller
generate
switchingpulse.
pulse.
Figure
4. 4.
The
operation
ofof
hysteresis
controller
toto
generate
switching

1
0 filter is designed in the laboratory to verify the compensative
A prototype of active power
SW.

3. Experimental Results

operation of APHF in order to eliminate the grid harmonics. Figure 5 illustrates the configuration of
Figure 4. The operation of hysteresis controller to generate switching pulse.
the study system and the properties and the values of the elements are presented in Table 1.

3. Experimental Results
A prototype of active power filter is designed in the laboratory to verify the compensative
operation of APHF in order to eliminate the grid harmonics. Figure 5 illustrates the configuration of
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the study system and the properties and the values of the elements are presented in Table 1.

Rgrid Lgrid

D1

D3

R

Vgrid
D2

LAPF

S1

D4

Non- linear
load

S3
CAPF

IL

Hys. Sw.
S2

L

S4

S1 ,S4
S2 ,S3

∆I
IAPF

`

+
-

ILh

Filter and Amplifier

Figure 5.
5. The
The configuration
configuration of
of study
study system.
system.
Figure
Table 1. The properties and values of the study systems’ elements.
Table 1. The properties and values of the study systems’ elements.
Parameters

Parameters

Magnitude

Magnitude
3 kW 3 kW
Vgrid Vgrid
220 v 220 v
Rgrid Rgrid
1Ω 1Ω
Lgrid
600 µH
Lgrid
600 μH
Rload
1Ω
1 Ω 10 mH
Lload Rload
10 mH680 µF
CAPF Lload
LAPF CAPF
680 μF300 mH
VDC Link
LAPF
300 mH310 v
VDC Link
310 v
As shown in Figure 5, a diode-bridge connected with induction and resistor are considered as a
As shown
Figure
5, asupplied
diode-bridge
connected
induction
and resistor
are considered
a
non-linear
load in
and
they are
through
the grid.with
Inductance
is used
in this system
to protectas
the
non-linear
load
and they
supplied
the grid.since
Inductance
used in
this system
to current
protect
short circuit
between
APFare
and
grid as through
current damper
the APFisworks
according
to the
the
short circuit
between APF
and grid
as current
damper
sinceasthe
APF works
to the
injection.
The diode-bridge
generates
harmonics
since
it is used
a rectifier,
and according
these harmonics
current
injection.
The
diode-bridge
generates
harmonics
since
is used
as a rectifier,
and these
should be
supplied
through
the grid.
The APHF
is applied
in it
load
in parallel
to compensate
the
harmonics
should
be the
supplied
through
grid.
APHF
applied
in load
in parallel
to
harmonic and
prevent
penetration
of it the
in the
grid.The
IGBT
12n60isand
RHR 15120
are used
as power
compensate
the harmonic
and prevent
the penetration
electronics switches
and diodes
in the prototype
setup. of it in the grid. IGBT 12n60 and RHR 15120
are used
power electronics
switches and
diodes in
thesynchronization
prototype setup.switching are investigated.
The as
qualification
of the extracted
harmonics
and
The sample
qualification
of the extracted
harmonics
anddepicted
synchronization
switching
arethe
investigated.
The two
experimental
signals (red
colored) are
in Figure 6.
In order to
accuracy of
The
two sample
experimental
signals
(red
colored)
depicted
in Figure
6. In of
order
to the accuracy
harmonics
extraction
of detector
circuit
(Figure
1). are
Figure
6a shows
the input
semi-square
signal
of
harmonics
of detector circuit
1). Figure
6a shows
the input
of semi-square
signal
and
Figure 6bextraction
shows semi-triangle
ones. (Figure
Harmonics
are exactly
extracted
from
both input signals
and
shows semi-triangle
are exactly
extracted from
both input
signals
that
thatFigure
reveal 6b
harmonic
components ones.
(blue Harmonics
colored), except
the fundamental
frequency
of 50
Hz. High
reveal
harmonic
components
(blue
colored),
except
the
fundamental
frequency
of
50
Hz.
High
operation quality of control circuit and accurate extraction of harmonics is obvious in figures.
operation
quality ofcircuit
control
circuit2)and
accurate
extraction
of Figure
harmonics
is obvious
in figures.
The amplifier
(Figure
works
properly
in which
7 shows
the amplified
waveform
The amplifier
circuit (Figure
2) APF
works
properly
in which
Figure 7 shows
amplified
waveform
of Figure
6. It is noticeable
that the
injects
current
to compensate
higherthe
harmonics
currents
too.
of
Figure
6. It is noticeable
that the APF
injects current
higher7a.
harmonics currents too.
Thus,
controller
holds the amplifier
in saturated
mood,toascompensate
shown in Figure
Thus, controller holds the amplifier in saturated mood, as shown in Figure 7a.
PowerPower

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(a)

(b)

(b)
Figure 6. The waveforms of two experiments in(a)
high pass filter: (a) semi-square waveform (b) semi-triangle waveform
(input: red colored, output: blue colored).

Figure 6. The waveforms of two experiments in high pass filter: (a) semi-square waveform (b) semi-triangle waveform (input: red colored, output: blue colored).
Figure 6. The waveforms of two experiments in high pass filter: (a) semi-square waveform (b) semi-triangle waveform (input: red colored, output: blue colored).

(a)

(b)

(b)
Figure 7. The waveforms of two experiments in (a)
amplifier circuit: (a) semi-square waveform (b) semi-triangle waveform
(input: red colored, output: blue colored).
Figure
7. The
waveforms
of two
experiments
amplifiercircuit:
circuit:(a)
(a)semi-square
semi-square waveform
(input:
redred
colored,
output:
blueblue
colored).
Figure
7. The
waveforms
of two
experiments
ininamplifier
waveform(b)
(b)semi-triangle
semi-trianglewaveform
waveform
(input:
colored,
output:
colored).

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Figure 82018,
shows
thePEER
bode
and

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8 of
14
phase diagrams of the proposed control circuit. The
cutoff
Figure
8 shows
the tobode
and phase
diagrams of the
proposedincontrol
circuit.
cutoff
frequency
is set
in 70 Hz
disappear
the fundamental
component
the output
of The
the detector
Figure
theto bode
and the
phase
diagrams component
of the proposed
controlof circuit.
The circuit
cutoff
frequency
is 8setshows
in 70 Hz
disappear
fundamental
in the output
the detector
circuit
for
switching.
frequency
is set in 70 Hz to disappear the fundamental component in the output of the detector circuit
for
switching.
According to the Figure 8, the amount of phase and magnitude of harmonics are higher than the
for switching.
According to the Figure 8, the amount of phase and magnitude of harmonics are higher than the
fundamental
component (3rd, 5th, 7th, · · · ) passes accurately and unchanged in phase in the proposed
According
to the Figure
the 7th,
amount
of phase
and magnitude
of harmonics
are in
higher
than the
fundamental
component
(3rd,8,5th,
⋯) passes
accurately
and unchanged
in phase
the proposed
controller. This property is very efficient to synchronize the APHF with the grid.
fundamental
component
(3rd,
5th,
7th,
⋯)
passes
accurately
and
unchanged
in
phase
in
the
proposed
controller. This property is very efficient to synchronize the APHF with the grid.
In order to increase the harmonic extraction quality, two series circuits are used to achieve fourth
controller.
This
propertythe
is very
efficient
to synchronize
theare
grid.
In order
to increase
harmonic
extraction
quality, the
twoAPHF
series with
circuits
used to achieve fourth
order high
passtofilter.
Thethe
extracted
and
amplified
harmonics
will circuits
be sent are
to the
op-amp
comparator
order
harmonic
extraction
quality,
two series
used
to achieve
fourth
orderInhigh
pass increase
filter. The
extracted
and
amplified
harmonics
will be
sent to the
op-amp
comparator
circuit
to
drive
and
trig
power
electronic
switches.
The
proposed
controller
circuit
is
applied
in the
order high
pass and
filter.
The
extracted
and amplified
will be
sent to the
op-amp
comparator
circuit
to drive
trig
power
electronic
switches.harmonics
The proposed
controller
circuit
is applied
in the
prototype
system
(Figure
9)
and
the
results
of
evaluations
are
shown
in
Figures
10–14
with
and
without
circuit to drive
and(Figure
trig power
electronic
switches.
The proposed
controller
circuit is
applied
the
prototype
system
9) and
the results
of evaluations
are shown
in Figures
10–14
withinand
APHF
in
grid
connection.
prototype
system
(Figure
9)
and
the
results
of
evaluations
are
shown
in
Figures
10–14
with
and
without APHF in grid connection.

without APHF in grid connection.

Figure
8.8.The
proposedhigh
highpass
passfilter
filterwith
withop-amp.
op-amp.
Figure
Thebod
bodand
andphase
phasediagrams
diagrams of
of proposed
Figure 8. The bod and phase diagrams of proposed high pass filter with op-amp.

Figure 9. The experimental picture of the studied system.
Figure9.9.The
Theexperimental
experimental picture
picture of
Figure
of the
thestudied
studiedsystem.
system.

Sustainability 2018, 10, 4406

9 of 13

Figure 10 illustrates the current waveform of the grid and Figure 11 shows its harmonic spectrum
without
APHF.
Figures
12 and
13 show the current waveform of the grid and its harmonic spectrum
Sustainability 2018,
2018, 10,
10, xx FOR
FOR PEER
PEER REVIEW
REVIEW
of 14
14
Sustainability
99 of
with APHF, respectively. According to the figures, non-sinusoidal waveforms turned to sinusoidal after
applying
APHF
and the harmonics
arewaveform
reduced magnificently
THD% 11
= 24.48
to THD%
= 2.86.
Figure
10 illustrates
illustrates
the current
current
of the
the grid
grid from
and Figure
Figure
shows
its harmonic
harmonic
Figure
10
the
waveform of
and
11 shows
its
It
is
obvious
that
all
orders
are
decreased
under
5%,
which
satisfy
standard
IEEE
519.
spectrum without
without APHF.
APHF. Figures
Figures 12
12 and
and 13
13 show
show the
the current
current waveform
waveform of
of the
the grid
grid and
and its
its harmonic
harmonic
spectrum
The injection
current
of APHF isAccording
shown in Figure
14.
spectrum
with
APHF,
respectively.
to
the
figures,
non-sinusoidal
waveforms
turned
to
spectrum with APHF, respectively. According to the figures, non-sinusoidal waveforms turned to
Figure
15
also
illustrates
the
smooth
voltage
waveform
of
DC
link
(the
capacitor
of
APHF).
It
is
sinusoidal after
after applying
applying APHF
APHF and
and the
the harmonics
harmonics are
are reduced
reduced magnificently
magnificently from
from THD%
THD% == 24.48
24.48 to
to
sinusoidal
constant
at 310ItVolts.
THD%
2.86.
is obvious
obvious that
that all
all orders
orders are
are decreased
decreased under
under 5%,
5%, which
which satisfy
satisfy standard
standard IEEE
IEEE 519.
519.
THD%
== 2.86.
It is

Figure
10.
The
grid
current
waveform
without
active
power
harmonic
filters
(APHF).
Figure
Figure10.
10.The
Thegrid
gridcurrent
currentwaveform
waveformwithout
withoutactive
activepower
powerharmonic
harmonic filters
filters (APHF).
(APHF).

Figure 11.
11. The harmonic
harmonic spectrum of
of the current
current grid without
without APHF.
Figure
Figure 11.The
The harmonicspectrum
spectrum ofthe
the currentgrid
grid withoutAPHF.
APHF.

Sustainability 2018, 10, 4406
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW

Figure 12. The grid current waveform with APHF.
Figure12.
12. The
The grid
grid current
Figure
current waveform
waveformwith
withAPHF.
APHF.
Figure 12. The grid current waveform with APHF.

Figure 13. The harmonic spectrum of the current grid with APHF.
Figure 13. The harmonic spectrum of the current grid with APHF.
Figure13.
Theharmonic
harmonic
spectrum
of 14.
the
Figure
The
spectrum
of
the current
currentgrid
gridwith
withAPHF.
APHF.
The injection current
of13.
APHF
is shown
in Figure
The injection current of APHF is shown in Figure 14.

The injection current of APHF is shown in Figure 14.

Figure 14.The
The injection current
current waveform
ofofAPHF
brunch.
Figure
waveformof
APHFbrunch.
brunch.
Figure14.
14. Theinjection
injection current waveform
APHF
Figure 14. The injection current waveform of APHF brunch.

10 of 13
10 of 14
10 of 14
10 of 14

Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW

11 of 14

Sustainability
2018,1510,also
4406illustrates the smooth voltage waveform of DC link (the capacitor of APHF). 11
of 13
Figure
It is

constant at 310 Volts.

Figure 15. The voltage waveform of APHF’s DC link.
Figure 15. The voltage waveform of APHF’s DC link.

4. Conclusions
4. Conclusions
Thispaper
paper presented
presented aanew
circuit
withwith
op-amp
electrostatic
circuit for
activefor
power
This
newcontroller
controller
circuit
op-amp
electrostatic
circuit
active
harmonic
filter.
Simplicity,
synchronization,
and
accurate
operation
are
investigated
on
it.
The
power harmonic filter. Simplicity, synchronization, and accurate operation are investigated on it.
proposed
control
system
monitors
thethe
current
of of
thethe
grid
and
creates
thethe
reference
signal
and
then
The
proposed
control
system
monitors
current
grid
and
creates
reference
signal
and
then
inject appropriate current to prevent spreading of the load harmonic into the grid. Using the
inject appropriate current to prevent spreading of the load harmonic into the grid. Using the hysteresis
hysteresis switching technique with a precise synchronization made this proposed control system
switching technique with a precise synchronization made this proposed control system exhibit a
exhibit a fast response with less complexity. A prototype that uses this control circuit is implemented
fast response with less complexity. A prototype that uses this control circuit is implemented in the
in the laboratory. In study system, the APHF is applied to the non-linear load in parallel with THD%
laboratory. In study system, the APHF is applied to the non-linear load in parallel with THD% = 24.48
= 24.48 that is supplied from the grid and THD% is reduced to %2.86 in the experimental results.
that
is supplied from the grid and THD% is reduced to %2.86 in the experimental results. Also, the
Also, the non-sinusoidal waveform is renovated to sinusoidal waveform by proposed APHF. High
non-sinusoidal
waveform
is renovated
to sinusoidal
waveform
byofproposed
APHF.
Highthe
operation
operation quality
of control
circuit and
the accurate
extraction
harmonics
confirm
good
quality
of control
and thecontroller.
accurate extraction of harmonics confirm the good performance of the
performance
of circuit
the proposed
proposed controller.
Author Contributions: All authors contributed equally to this work and all authors have read and approved the
Author
Contributions: All authors contributed equally to this work and all authors have read and approved the
final manuscript.
final manuscript.
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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