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Novel Simulation Technique of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Ultra High Frequency Range within Power Transformers.pdf


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Sensors 2018, 18, 4236

4 of 16

In the first experiment, time-domain signals and cumulative energies of the EM waveforms
detected by the four UHF sensors were evaluated to validate the modeling of antenna, exciting signal
and
the
transformer
tank
in the EM wave simulation.
Sensors
2018,
18, xx FOR
FOR PEER
PEER
REVIEW
of 16
16
Sensors
2018,
18,
REVIEW
44 of

DN80 gate
gate valve
valve
DN80
UHF sensor
sensor
UHF

Figure 2.
2. UHF
UHF drain
drain valve
valve sensor
sensor mounted
mounted with
with aa DN80
DN80 gate
gate valve.
valve.
Figure

Figure 3.
3. An
An image
image of
of the
the UHF
UHF drain
drain valve
valve sensor
sensor [4].
[4].
Figure

2.2.
Active
Part
of
the
Transformer
2.2. Active
Active Part
Part of
of the
the Transformer
Transformer
2.2.
The
active
partof
ofaaathree-phase
three-phase630
630kVA
kVAdistribution
distributiontransformer,
transformer,which
which
mainly
composed
The active
active part
part
of
three-phase
630
kVA
distribution
transformer,
which
isis
mainly
composed
of
The
is
mainly
composed
of
of
high
and
low
voltage
windings,
an
iron
core
and
leads,
was
utilized
for
the
second
experiment.
high and
and low
low voltage
voltage windings,
windings, an
an iron
iron core
core and
and leads,
leads, was
was utilized
utilized for
for the
the second
second experiment.
experiment. Note
Note
high
Note
thattransformer
the transformer
inexperiment
the experiment
is larger
normally
used
active
part,
that the
the
transformer
tank tank
usedused
in the
the
experiment
is larger
larger
thanthan
normally
used
for for
thisthis
active
part,
in
that
tank
used
in
is
than
normally
used
for
this
active
part,
in
in
order
to
allow
the
UHF
sensors
to
be
inserted
deeply
into
the
tank,
resulting
in
improved
sensitivities.
order to
to allow
allow the
the UHF
UHF sensors
sensors to
to be
be inserted
inserted deeply
deeply into
into the
the tank,
tank, resulting
resulting in
in improved
improved sensitivities.
sensitivities.
order
There
There are
are four
four high
high voltage
voltage (HV)
(HV) and
and two
two low
low voltage
voltage (LV)
(LV) cylindrical
cylindrical windings
windings in
in one
one phase
phase
There
are
four
high
voltage
(HV)
and
two
low
voltage
(LV)
cylindrical
windings
in
one
phase
and
each
HV
and
LV
winding
consists
of
156
and
57
layers,
respectively.
However,
the
HV
winding
and
each
HV
and
LV
winding
consists
of
156
and
57
layers,
respectively.
However,
the
HV
winding
and each HV and LV winding consists of 156 and 57 layers, respectively. However, the HV winding
of
one
phase
was removed.
removed.The
Theinnermost
innermostdiameter
diameterof
the
LV
windings,
the
outermost
diameter
of one
one phase
phase was
was
removed.
The
innermost
diameter
ofof
the
LV
windings,
the
outermost
diameter
of
of
the
LV
windings,
the
outermost
diameter
of
of
HV
windings
and
their
height
areapproximately
approximately207
207mm,
mm,350
350mm
mmand
and780
780mm,
mm,respectively.
respectively.
thethe
HV
windings
and
their
height
are
approximately
207
mm,
350
mm
and
780
mm,
respectively.
the
HV
windings
and
their
height
are
Three
identical
monopole antennas
antennasof
of20
20mm
mmin
length,described
describedin
Section
2.1,
were
also
used
Three identical
identical monopole
monopole
antennas
of
20
mm
ininlength,
length,
described
inin
Section
2.1,
were
also
used
as
Three
Section
2.1,
were
also
used
as
as
EM
wave
sources
in
this
second
experiment.
These
antennas
were
set
around
the
windings
EM wave
wave sources
sources in
in this
this second
second experiment.
experiment. These
These antennas
antennas were
were set
set around
around the
the windings
windings at
at
EM
at
different
heights
and
in
different
positions
before
the
active
parts
were
installed
into
the
transformer
different
heights
and
in
different
positions
before
the
active
parts
were
installed
into
the
transformer
different heights and in different positions before the active parts were installed into the transformer
tank.
The
detailed
structure
of
this
transformer
and
the
positions
of
three
monopole
antennas
will
be
tank. The
The detailed
detailed structure
structure of
of this
this transformer
transformer and
and the
the positions
positions of
of three
three monopole
monopole antennas
antennas will
will be
be
tank.
illustrated
illustrated in
in Section
Section 3.1,
3.1, as
as aaa 3-D
3-D computational
computational model.
model.
illustrated
in
Section
3.1,
as
3-D
computational
model.
In
ofof
the
EM
waves
from
each
monopole
antenna
to the
In this
thissecond
secondexperiment,
experiment,propagation
propagationtimes
times
of
the
EM
waves
from
each
monopole
antenna
to
In
this
second
experiment,
propagation
times
the
EM
waves
from
each
monopole
antenna
to
sensors
were
also
measured
in
addition
to
signal
amplitudes
and
their
cumulative
energies.
Figure
4
the sensors
sensors were
were also
also measured
measured in
in addition
addition to
to signal
signal amplitudes
amplitudes and
and their
their cumulative
cumulative energies.
energies.
the
illustrates
the measurement
setup for propagation
times of thetimes
EM waves,
which
the output
of the
the
Figure 44 illustrates
illustrates
the measurement
measurement
setup for
for propagation
propagation
times
of the
thein
EM
waves,
in which
which
the
Figure
the
setup
of
EM
waves,
in
pulse
generator
and
the
EM
wave
signals
were
simultaneously
measured.
The
propagation
times
of
output of
of the
the pulse
pulse generator
generator and
and the
the EM
EM wave
wave signals
signals were
were simultaneously
simultaneously measured.
measured. The
The
output
the
EM
waves
were
calculated
as
the
time
difference
of
arrival
between
both
signals,
considering
the
propagation times
times of
of the
the EM
EM waves
waves were
were calculated
calculated as
as the
the time
time difference
difference of
of arrival
arrival between
between both
both
propagation
signal
propagation
time
within
the
coaxial
cables.
signals,
considering
the
signal
propagation
time
within
the
coaxial
cables.
signals, considering the signal propagation time within the coaxial cables.