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Sustainable Renewable Energy by Means of Using Residual Forest Biomass.pdf


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Energies 2019, 12, 13

3 of 16

2. Methodology
2.1. Study Area
The study area is located in Biscay, a Spanish province situated in the north part of Spain
N, 0300 450 –0200 400 W) (Figure 1). Most of the courses of rivers in Biscay belong to the
Atlantic slope and their gradient is very marked. As a result of this, erosion in these stretches is
considerable. The average annual temperature is 12–14 ◦ C. In Biscay, forests cover approximately
132,000 ha [16] and represent 60% of its surface (221,232 ha). The main tree species of Biscay are
Pinus radiata D. Don which covers 74,720 ha and Eucalyptus globulus Labill with coverage of 10,123 ha
according to the Fourth National Forest Inventory [16]. The majority of these plantations are on slopes
of more than 7% gradient; thus, almost 50% of the plantations are covered with slopes between 30%
and 50%. In this research, we considered these two species because 93% of the annual loggings in
Biscay are of P. radiata, 5% are E. globulus, and the rest are native species (Table 1). In this research,
we did not consider the thicket areas, because apart from covering a very discreet surface in the area
(8.6%), its low productivity and broad spread as well as the logistic problems involved in its collection,
suggest that it should not be considered.
(4300 460 –4200 920

Table 1. Loggings carried out in the forests of Biscay between 2011 and 2016 (Basque government).
Vob —wood volume over bark (m3 ).

Year Cuttings

2011
Vob

2012
Vob

2013
Vob

2014
Vob

2015
Vob

2016
Vob

Total

2533
26,658

35
1258
30,248
607,602
370
19,003

64
970
24,125
30
705,940
226
33,116

99
42,687
111,286
30
3,137,051
2703
132,091

764,472

3,425,946

1
10
30
7
213
1
3

Pinus sylvestris
Pinus laricius
Pinus pinaster
Pinus halapensis
Pinus radiata
Spruce
Other Conifers

16,124
11,723

21,802
18,532

72,463
450
16,175

573,586
1567
9400

536,071
42,984

641,389
90
11,413

Total Conifers

116,935

624,887

579,055

682,083

658,514

2
35
7

329

1798
49

32
204

141,180

107
302
173,155
11
1202

39
563
66,890
31
1514

566
204,292
62
1780

3
374
37
7
2043
254
3
505
5358
878,712
104
14,982

Walnut
Poplar
Birch
Alder
Beech
Chestnut
Quercus petraea
Quercus robur
Other Quercus
Eucalyptus globulus
Elm
Other Broadleaves

2106
129,157

359
1821
164,038

9216

1270

Total Broadleaves

140,479

167,488

141,180

176,668

69,601

206,965

902,381

TOTAL

257,414

792,375

720,235

858,751

728,115

971,437

4,328,327