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Bone Cancer Treatment
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Bone cancer or bone marrow cancer has many types and develops in various
ages of life. We have provided an elaborate guide about bone cancer treatment,
Symptoms, causes, hospitals.
Bone Cancer is a painful and deadly disease. But this can be cured in early stages
easily. So this article provides you information related to bone cancer, Sigs or
symptoms of bone cancer, what may be the causes of bone cancer, How often does
it occur, what treatment option do patients have, what are the best hospitals for the
bone cancer treatment.
What is bone cancer?
Bone cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of the bone that destroys normal
bone tissue. All bone tumors are not malignant. Benign (non-cancerous) bone
tumors are more common than malignant tumors. Malignant and benign bone
tumors can develop and compress surrounding bone tissues, but when compared
to maligant tumors benign tumors do not spread, do not destroy bone tissue, and
rarely pose a threat to life.
Malignant tumors that start in the bone tissue are called primary cancer of the
bones. Cancer that spreads to the bones of other parts of the body, such as the
prostate, breast or lung, is called metastatic cancer and is named after the organ or
tissue in which it began. Primary bone cancer is much less common than cancer
that spreads to the bones.
How many types of bone cancer exist?
The bone cancer has different types, In this article we have covered most common
ones and listed below.
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Osteosarcoma most
commonly occurs in ages from 10 to 19, and is more common in men. In young
people, osteosarcoma tends to develop at the ends of long bones in areas where
bone grows actively, often around the knee, either at the end of the femur (femur)
or at the level of the tibia (tibia) near knee. The next most common location for
bone cancer is in the arm bone. Even though, it is possible that osteosarcoma
develops in any bone. Depending on the appearance of the tumor cells under the
microscope, there are also many other subtypes of osteosarcoma.
Chondrosarcoma is the second most common bone cancer. It comes from
cartilage cells attached to or covering the bone. It is more common in people over
40, and less than 5% of these cancers occur in people under 20 years of age. It can
grow quickly and aggressively or develop slowly. Chondrosarcoma is most
commonly found in the bones of the hips and pelvis.
Ewing's sarcoma, sometimes called the ESFT, is an aggressive form of bone
cancer that is most common in children aged 4 to 15 years. It can occur in bones
or soft tissues and is thought to originate in primary nervous tissue. These are more
common among men than women. The most common place for Ewing's sarcoma is
the middle part of the long bones of the arms and legs.
Pleomorphous Sarcoma (Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma) Of Bone
Pleomorphic sarcoma is a cancer formerly called malignant fibrous
histiocytoma or MFH. Pleomorphic sarcomas are usually not bone cancers but
soft tissues. However, they can occur in the bone up to 5% of cases. Pleomorphic
sarcomas usually occur in adults and can be found anywhere in the body.
Fibrosarcoma is a rare type of bone cancer. It is most often found behind the knee
Chordoma is a very rare cancer usually seen in people over 30 years old. It is most
often located in the lower or upper ends of the spine.
Signs Of Bone Cancer
We have listed common symptoms or signs of bone cancer. Sometimes people
with bone cancer do not have any of these changes Or In some cases the cause of a
symptom may be a different medical condition that is not cancer.
When a bone tumor develops, it presses on healthy bone tissue and can destroy it,
causing the following symptoms:
Bone Pain.: The first symptoms of bone cancer are pain and swelling where the
tumor is located. The pain can come and go at the beginning. Then it can become
more severe and more stable later. The pain may worsen with movement, and there
may be swelling in the surrounding soft tissues.
Swelling And Stiffness Of The Joints: A tumor that occurs near or in a joint can
cause swelling of the joint and become tender or rigid. This means that a person
can have limited and painful range of motion.
Claudication: If a bone with a tumor breaks in one leg, it can lead to pronounced
lameness. Goiter is usually a symptom of advanced bone cancer.
Some other symptoms can be seen rarely like weight loss, fever, general malaise,
and anemia, which is a low red blood cell count.
If you are concerned about the changes it is advised to talk with your doctor. Your
doctor will ask you how long and how often you have experienced the symptom, in
addition to other questions. This is to help them in diagnosis.
If cancer is diagnosed, symptom relief remains an important part of cancer care
and treatment. It can also be called supportive care, symptom management or
palliative care. Be sure to talk to your health care team about any symptoms you
may have, including any new symptoms or changes in symptoms
What Causes Bone Cancer:
There are many factors can often influence cancer development, but most of them
do not directly cause cancer. Some people with multiple risk factors never develop
cancer, while others have no known risk factors for developing cancer.
We have listed below some of the factors that may increase the chance of
developing bone cancer:
Genetic: Osteosarcoma may develop in Children with familial retinoblastoma
(type of eye cancer). People from families with a history of sarcomas are observed
with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which can lead them to osteosarcomas. Researchers
are discovering genes passed down from generation to generation that increase the
risk of developing osteosarcoma compared to the general population. All these
conditions are rare.
Previous Radiotherapy Therapy: People who have had radiation treatment for
other conditions have a higher risk of developing bone cancer at the site of
radiation therapy. The majority of sarcomas caused by radiotherapy include
angiosarcoma and soft tissue of the ASI or osteosarcoma.
Chemotherapy: Certain drugs, including anthracyclines and alkylating agents,
which are used in cancer treatment may lead to developing a secondary cancer like
Benign Tumors Or Other Bone Conditions: Paget's disease of bone can lead to
osteosarcoma. Other non-cancerous bone diseases may also increase the risk of
How often does bone cancer occur?
Primary bone cancer is rare. It accounts for much less than 1 percent of all
cancers. Different types of bone cancer are more likely to occur in certain
Osteosarcoma most often occurs between 10 and 19 years of age. However,
people over 40 who have other conditions, such as Paget's disease (a benign
disease characterized by abnormal development of new bone cells), have an
increased risk of developing this cancer.
Chondrosarcoma occurs mainly in the elderly (over 40 years). The risk increases
with age. This disease rarely occurs in children and adolescents.
FHTs occur most often in children and adolescents under 19 years of age. Boys are
more often affected than girls. These tumors are extremely rare among AfricanAmerican children.
Can Bone Cancer Be Cured?
Yes. Bone cancer is a curable disease in its early stages. Just like other types of
cancer this can be cured in early stages easily. So please be aware of symptoms of
bone cancer and consult your doctor.
Bone Cancer Diagnosis
In the process of diagnosis the doctor may enquire about medical history of patient
and also family members. The doctor conducts physical examination and can order
laboratory tests and other diagnostic tests. Some of the tests are listed below:
X-rays, which can show the shape, location and size of a bone tumor. If X-rays
suggest that an abnormal area may be cancerous, the doctor will probably ask for
some other imaging tests. The X-rays suggest that an abnormal area is benign, but
the doctor may want to do other tests, especially if the patient experiences unusual
or persistent pain.
Bone scintigraphy, a test in which a small amount of radioactive material is
injected into a blood vessel and passes through the bloodstream; it then collects in
the bones and is detected by a scanner.
A scanner (CT or CAT), which is a series of detailed images of areas inside the
body, taken from different angles, that are created by a computer connected to an
A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure, which useful in creating
images of a particular area inside the body without using X-rays. This test gives
detailed information that particular area. This test uses a powerful magnet
connected to a computer to create detailed images.
A positron emission tomography (PET), In this test a little amount of
radioactive glucose is injected into vein. Then computerized images were
collected by scanner which shows the usage of glucose by cells in the tissue. If
there is any abnormal usage in the glucose indicates the tumour.
An angiogram (X-ray of the blood vessels)
Biopsy (taking a sample of tissue from the bone tumor) to determine if the cancer
is present. The surgeon can perform an incisional biopsy or a needle biopsy.
During a needle biopsy, the surgeon makes a small hole in the bone and removes a
tissue sample from the tumor with a needle-shaped instrument. In an incisional
biopsy, the surgeon cuts into the tumor and removes a part of tissue. Biopsies
should be performed by an orthopedic oncologist (a doctor experienced in the
treatment of bone cancer). A pathologist (a doctor who identifies a disease by
studying cells and tissues under a microscope) examines the tissue to determine if
it is cancerous.
Blood tests to determine the level of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase. A
huge amount of this enzyme is present in the blood when the cells that form the
bone tissue are very active - when the children grow up, when a broken bone
corrects itself or when a disease or a tumor causes the production of abnormal bone
tissue . Since elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase are normal in growing
children and adolescents, we cannot confirm bone cancer only by thid test.
What are the treatment options for bone cancer?
Treatment options depend on the stage, location, size and type of the cancer, along
with them age, general health of the person is also considered. There are four
major options available for treatment like cryosurgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy
Surgery is most common option available for treatment. The surgeon removes the
entire tumor with negative margins (no cancer cells are on the edge or edge of
tissue removed during surgery). The surgeon can also use special surgical
techniques to minimize the amount of healthy tissue removed with the tumor.
Dramatic improvements in surgical techniques and treatment of preoperative
tumors have allowed most bone cancer patients in an arm or leg to avoid radical
surgical procedures (removal of the entire limb). However, most patients who
undergo limb-saving surgery require reconstructive surgery to maximize limb
Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. A combination of
anti-cancer drugs are usually given to bone cancer patients. However,
chemotherapy is not currently used to treat chondrosarcoma.
Radiation therapy, involves the use of high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells.
Surgical procedure and radiation therapy are used combined in this treatment. It is
often used to treat chondrosarcoma. It can also be used for patients who refuse
Cryosurgery is the use of liquid nitrogen to freeze and kill cancer cells. This type
of treatment may be used instead of conventional surgery to destroy the tumor.
Which specialists treat bone cancer?
Bone cancer patients are advised to visit medical oncologists (for administration or
chemotherapy) and surgical oncologists or orthopedic oncologists (for surgical
removal of the tumor). Radiation oncologists are involved in the treatment team if
radiotherapy is needed. Palliative care physicians may be involved to manage pain
Is Bone Cancer Painful?
Yes. Bone Cancer is a painful disease. Analgesics (analgesics) treat pain caused
by bone cancer. These may be over-the-counter or prescription medications. Mild
to moderate pain is treated with drugs such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn,
Aleve, Naprelan) and ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil). However, people taking cancer
chemotherapeutic drugs may need to avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
because of an increased risk of bleeding.
Prescription drugs are used for moderate to severe cancer pain. Opioids - more
powerful narcotic analgesics - such as fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine,
oxycodone and codeine may be needed to control severe pain. Sometimes a
combination of drugs is used to treat cancer pain. Opioid medications may be
associated with side effects like constipation, nausea, and drowsiness.
Is follow-up treatment necessary? What does this imply?
Yes. Bone cancer sometimes metastasises, especially in the lungs, or can reappear
(come back), either in the same place or in other bones of the body. People who
have had bone cancer should consult their doctor regularly and report any unusual
symptoms immediately. Monitoring varies for different types and stages of bone
cancer. Generally, patients are frequently checked by their doctor and routinely
undergo X-rays and blood tests. People who have had bone cancer, especially
adolescents and children, have an increased chance of developing another type of
cancer, like leukemia, later in life. Regular follow-up care allows you to discuss
health changes and deal with problems as quickly as possible
Best Bone Cancer Hospitals In India
Best Bone Cancer Hospitals In Hyderabad
1. American Oncology Institute
The American Oncology Institute, the flagship international center of CTSI
(Cancer Treatment Services International) based in the United States, aims to
bridge the gap between standards of care in India and the United States. To do this,
they have transferred all the benefits of the latest cancer treatments from the
world's most advanced countries to the people of India. This ensures that all
patients will receive care at the level of what is available in the Western world.
Address: 1-100/1/CCH, Near aparna Sarovar, Nallagandla, Serilingampally,
Hyderabad, Telangana 530019
Phone: 040 6719 9999
2. Yashoda Cancer Institute
For two decades, the Yashoda Hospital Group has been providing quality health
care to people with diverse medical needs. People trust this hospital because of the
strong relationships they have built with their patients over the years.
Address: Old Malakpet, Nalgonda cross road, Hyderabad, Telangana 500036
Hours: Open 24 hours
Phone: 040 4567 4567
Best Bone Cancer Hospitals In New Delhi
1. Dharamshila Narayana Superspeciality Hospital
The Dharamshila Hospital and Research Center is the first and only cancer hospital
in India that has been accredited by NABH. They also have NABH accredation for
all its allied specialties and its laboratories. Dr. S. Khanna is the founder of this
Address: Vasundhara Enclave, Near New Ashok Nagar Metro Station, Dallupura,
New Delhi, Delhi 110096
Hours: Open 24 hours
Phone: 1860 208 0208
Motto: Cancer is Curable
2. Dr Dinesh Bhurani, Hematologist In India, Bone Marrow Transplant
Specialist, Hematology Centre
The idea of Bone Marrow India was conceptualized by Dr. Dinesh Bhurani, a
prominent bone marrow transplant specialist who has successfully conducted
approximately 400 bone marrow transplants at the Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute &
Research Center, New Delhi. There is a team of five transplant specialists who
provide transplant care on your doorstep.
Address: Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre,, Sector 5, Rohini,
Near Rohini West Metro Station, West Delhi, New Delhi, Delhi 110085
Phone: 099715 00861.
Best Bone Cancer Hospitals In Mumbai
1. Tata Memorial Hospital
Tata Memorial Hospital is located in Mumbai, India. It is a specialized center for
cancer treatment and research, closely associated with the Advanced Center for
Cancer Education, Treatment and Research.
Address: Dr. E Borges Road, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400012
Hours: Open 24 hours
Phone: 022 2417 7000
Established: February 28, 1941
2. P.D. Hinduja Hospital & Medical Research Centre
The P.D. Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Center is a multisectoral tertiary care hospital. The Hinduja National Hospital and the Medical
Research Center were founded by Parmanand Deepchand Hinduja.
Address: Veer Sawarkar Marg, Mahim West, Mahim, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Opening Hours: 8AM
Phone: 022 6766 8181
Number of beds: 402
Best Bone Cancer Hospitals In Bengaluru
1. Sri Shankara Cancer Hospital and Research Center
The hospital provides expertise in all super-specialties of cancer, has 42 highly
qualified and dedicated medical consultants. To date, SSHRC has treated 21,000
new cancer patients and has consistently sought to achieve its primary goals of
providing affordable treatment, including free cancer treatment.
Address: 1st Cross, Shankara Matt Premises, Shankarapuram, Basavanagudi,
Bengaluru, Karnataka 560004
Hours: Open 24 hours
Phone: 080 2698 1100
2. Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology
Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology is a cancer care hospital located in
Bangalore, India. It is an autonomous institution of the Karnataka government and
a regional cancer center funded by the Government of India.
Address: KMIO Campus, Dr M H Mariagowda Road, Near Bangalore Dairy,
Bengaluru, Karnataka 560029
Phone: 080 2609 4000
Established: June 26, 1973