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2019 Technological Innovation in Biomass Energy for the Sustainable Growth of Textile Industry.pdf


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Sustainability 2019, 11, 528

2 of 12

Sustainability 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW

2 of 12

combustion of organic material produced and accumulated in an ecosystem [6]. It can be distinguished
from
differentwaste,
energysolid
sources
with considerable
energy
potential:
waste),
agricultural
waste,
agricultural
municipal
waste, animal
waste,
food wood
waste,(and
aquatic
plants
and algae
[7].
solid
municipal
animal
waste,
food waste,
aquaticthese
plants
and algae
[7]. Compared
with fossil
Compared
withwaste,
fossil fuels
such
as petroleum
products,
wastes
generate
fewer greenhouse
gas
fuels
such as
petroleum
products,
wastes generate
fewer greenhouse
gas emissions
[8]. Therefore,
emissions
[8].
Therefore,
biomassthese
is considered
a sustainable
type of energy
[9–11]. Energy
security
biomass
is
considered
a
sustainable
type
of
energy
[9–11].
Energy
security
is
an
element
of significant
is an element of significant evidence and is crucial for the sustainable economic growth
of every
evidence
and is
for the
economic
growth of
[12]. the
As indicated
by the
country [12].
Ascrucial
indicated
bysustainable
the European
Commission,
theevery
goal country
is to reduce
greenhouse
gas
European
Commission,
the
goal
is
to
reduce
the
greenhouse
gas
(GHG)
emissions
in
the
EU-27
at
(GHG) emissions in the EU-27 by at least 80% in 2050 when compared to the emissions in by
1990
least
80%Also,
in 2050
when compared
to the
emissions
in 1990
[13,14].inAlso,
energy
[13,14].
worldwide
energy
necessities
could
double
2050,worldwide
largely due
to necessities
the quick
could
double
in
2050,
largely
due
to
the
quick
development
of
emerging
nations
[15].
A
different
study
development of emerging nations [15]. A different study confirms a similar tendency, with a rise
of
confirms
a
similar
tendency,
with
a
rise
of
approximately
50%
of
energetic
needs
by
2030,
of
which
as
approximately 50% of energetic needs by 2030, of which as much as 70% are part of India, China and
much
as 70% arenations
part of [16–18].
India, China and other emerging nations [16–18].
other emerging
Although
biomass
is
Although biomass is less
less utilized
utilized than
than hydro
hydro and
and wind
wind energy
energy for
for the
the production
production of
of electricity
electricity
in
Portugal,
it
has
the
advantage
of
being
able
to
be
stored
and
used
only
when
demand
it.
in Portugal, it has the advantage of being able to be stored and used only when demand justifies
justifies it.
Thus,
Thus, in
in this
this way,
way,although
although biomass
biomass isis commonly
commonly dependent
dependent on
on the
the growth,
growth, production
production of
of wastes
wastes
and
agriculture,
therefore,
it
can
be
highly
impacted
on
by
the
weather,
production
rate
and
economic
and agriculture, therefore, it can be highly impacted on by the weather, production rate and
parameters,
which could
leadcould
to raw
shortage,shortage,
it allowsit aallows
constant
supply,supply,
unlike unlike
other
economic parameters,
which
leadmaterial
to raw material
a constant
renewable
energy
sources
that
are
intermittent
and
dependent
on
the
atmospheric
conditions
in
the
other renewable energy sources that are intermittent and dependent on the atmospheric conditions
case
of
wind
and
the
level
of
water
in
dams
in
the
case
of
water,
making
the
production
of
energy
in the case of wind and the level of water in dams in the case of water, making the production of
through
these sources
dependent
and uncertain
[19].
energy through
these sources
dependent
and uncertain
[19].
As
a
result,
one
of
the
solutions
to
reduce
Portugal’s
As a result, one of the solutions to reduce Portugal’s energy
energy dependence
dependence from
from the
the exterior
exterior is
is to
to
replace
replace the
the use
use of
of fossil
fossil fuels,
fuels, one
one of
of the
the most
most promising
promising alternatives
alternatives being
being biomass,
biomass, which
which includes
includes
forest,
animals.
forest, agricultural
agricultural residues,
residues, and
and all
all biodegradable
biodegradable organic
organic waste
waste originating
originating from
from man
man and
and animals.
This
energy
source
is
very
flexible
and
can
be
used
in
its
pure
form
or
processed
to
produce
biofuels.
This energy source is very flexible and can be used in its pure form or processed to produce biofuels.
According
[20,21],
thethe
energy
produced
from from
biomass
and solid
sources in
Portugal
AccordingtotoEurostat
Eurostat
[20,21],
energy
produced
biomass
andbiofuels
solid biofuels
sources
in
in
the
last
10
years
shows
a
significant
decline
in
consumption
between
the
years
2009
and
2012,
as
can
Portugal in the last 10 years shows a significant decline in consumption between the years 2009 and
be
seen
Figure
1. This
decrease
is due
mainly
to the
exportation
of biomass of
products,
in
2012,
asin
can
be seen
in Figure
1. This
decrease
is due
mainly
to the exportation
biomassmainly
products,
the
forminofthe
wood
pellets,
to northern
instead
of national
use
to theuse
higher
by
mainly
form
of wood
pellets, Europe,
to northern
Europe,
instead
ofdue
national
dueprices
to thepaid
higher
such
countries.
prices paid by such countries.

Figure
biomass and
and solid
solid biofuels
biofuelssources
sourcesin
inPortugal
Portugalfrom
from2007
2007toto2016.
2016.
Figure 1.
1. The
The energy
energy produced
produced from
from biomass

This new
new perspective
perspective on
on the
the use
use of
of biomass
biomass is
is also
also due
due to
to the
the discovery
discovery of
of this
this type
type of
of energy
energy by
by
This
industries. Large companies
companies that produce
produce their
their own
own energy
energy are
are replacing
replacing the
the fossil
fossil fuels
fuels that
that moved
moved
industries.
their plants
plantsthrough
through
alternative
sources.
Among
the benefits
main benefits
is achieving
the emissions
their
alternative
sources.
Among
the main
is achieving
the emissions
reduction
reduction
[22].
started
to become
more thanks
attractive
source
thanks toof the
targets
[22].targets
Biomass
has Biomass
started tohas
become
a more
attractivea source
to the
advancement
its
advancement
of
its
processing
technology.
With
the
improvement
of
the
equipment
used
in
processing technology. With the improvement of the equipment used in combustion, the efficiency of
combustion, the efficiency of the process has increased. One of the main challenges of the industry is
to make the most of biomass, since the conditions of humidity and conservation of waste have a
direct impact on the generation of energy [23].