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2019 Technological Innovation in Biomass Energy for the Sustainable Growth of Textile Industry.pdf


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Sustainability 2019, 11, 528

3 of 12

the process has increased. One of the main challenges of the industry is to make the most of biomass,
since the conditions of humidity and conservation of waste have a direct impact on the generation of
energy
[23].
Sustainability 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW
3 of 12
The main objective of this work is to research into the energy efficiency management and logistics
associated
use of biomass
as a source
of thermal
in theefficiency
Portuguese
textile industry,
The with
mainthe
objective
of this work
is to research
into energy
the energy
management
and
since
the increasing
energy
require
the creation
of information
networks
and
logistics
associatedconsumption
with the useof
ofthis
biomass
as will
a source
of thermal
energy
in the Portuguese
textile
data
analysis
thatthe
will
support consumption
decision making,
contributing
the development
of information
the collective
industry,
since
increasing
of this
energy will to
require
the creation of
networkssystems.
and data analysis that will support decision making, contributing to the development of
awareness
theThis
collective
systems.
work awareness
is organized
as follows. In Section 2, the literature review is performed. In Section 3,
Thissources
work isused
organized
as follows.
Intextile
Sectiondye
2, the
literature
is performed.
In Section
3,
the energy
in Portugal
by the
Industry
are review
addressed.
A comparison
between
the
energy
sources
used
in
Portugal
by
the
textile
dye
Industry
are
addressed.
A
comparison
biomass and fuels of fossil origin is made in Section 3. In Section 4, a SWOT analysis of the use of
between
biomass
and textile
fuels ofindustry
fossil origin
is made
in Section
In Section
4, a SWOTinanalysis
biomass
energy
in the
is made.
Finally,
the 3.
results
are analyzed
Sectionof4,the
and
use
of
biomass
energy
in
the
textile
industry
is
made.
Finally,
the
results
are
analyzed
in Section 4,
conclusions are drawn in Section 5.
and conclusions are drawn in Section 5.
2. State-of-The-Art
2. State-of-The-Art
The textile industry is considered one of the most complex industries due to the variety of
The textile industry is considered one of the most complex industries due to the variety of
processes,
machinery and components used throughout the process, as well as all types of fibres and
processes, machinery and components used throughout the process, as well as all types of fibres and
yarns, production methods, finishing, preparation, dyeing and coating, amongst others which are
yarns, production methods, finishing, preparation, dyeing and coating, amongst others which are
also important. The number of enterprises that are part and are operating in this industry in Portugal
also important. The number of enterprises that are part and are operating in this industry in Portugal
can be seen in Figure 2, where the turnover in millions of euros that these enterprises generate when
can be seen in Figure 2, where the turnover in millions of euros that these enterprises generate when
combined can also be observed [24]. Energy is one of the main components of this industry, and
combined can also be observed [24]. Energy is one of the main components of this industry, and
consequently,
energy
highduring
duringaaperiod
periodofof
high
price
volatility.
consequently,
energyconsumption
consumptioncosts
costs are
are especially
especially high
high
price
volatility.
One
of of
thethe
main
interests
is energy
energyefficiency.
efficiency.
One
main
interestsofofthe
thestakeholders
stakeholdersof
ofthis
this industry
industry is

Figure
2. Number
of Portuguese
enterprises
operating
in textile
the textile
industry
the turnover
in
Figure
2. Number
of Portuguese
enterprises
operating
in the
industry
vs thevs
turnover
in millions
millions of euro.
of euro.

The
textile
industry
element of
ofthe
theglobal
globaleconomy,
economy,which
which
suffered
The
textile
industryisisconsidered
consideredaa significant
significant element
suffered
profound
changes
in the
decades
totechnological
the technological
advancements
that followed
profound
changes
in the
last last
few few
decades
due due
to the
advancements
that followed
during
during
the
same
years
[25].
This
industry,
in
Portugal,
is
up
against
difficult
competitive
challenges,
the same years [25]. This industry, in Portugal, is up against difficult competitive challenges, and the
and the
reason iscosts
elevated
costs of production,
which
turn are provoked
by increasing
costs of
reason
is elevated
of production,
which in turn
areinprovoked
by increasing
costs of energy
as a
energy
a part of the
European
energy
costHowever,
trend [26].this
However,
this
industry
has beenasresilient,
as
part
of theasEuropean
energy
cost trend
[26].
industry
has
been resilient,
represented
represented
in Figure
where
can the
be seen
that the
turnover
has been
steadily increasing
the
in Figure
3, where
it can3,be
seenitthat
turnover
has
been steadily
increasing
since the since
2007–2008
2007–2008
financial
crisis
[24].
However,
this
industry
is
responsible
for
a
substantial
share
of
energy
financial crisis [24]. However, this industry is responsible for a substantial share of energy consumption,
consumption,
as in
can
be observed
in Figure
4 [24]. The
textile industry
known
for being
very
as can
be observed
Figure
4 [24]. The
textile industry
is known
for beingisvery
diverse,
with several
diverse, with several distinct production processes. However, within this industry, the textile dyeing
distinct production processes. However, within this industry, the textile dyeing sector is recognized as
sector is recognized as a considerable energy consumer, since its manufacturing process requires a
substantial quantity of steam for it to operate properly [27].