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2019 Technological Innovation in Biomass Energy for the Sustainable Growth of Textile Industry.pdf


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Sustainability 2019, 11, 528

4 of 12

a considerable energy consumer, since its manufacturing process requires a substantial quantity of
steam for it to operate properly [27].
Sustainability 2019,
2019, 11,
11, xx FOR
FOR PEER
PEER REVIEW
REVIEW
Sustainability

of 12
12
44 of

Figure
3.
Theturnover
turnoverofof
ofthe
thetextile
textileindustry
industry in
in EU,
Portugal,
United
Kingdom
and
Spain.
Figure
3. 3.
The
EU, Portugal,
Portugal,United
UnitedKingdom
Kingdomand
and
Spain.
Figure
The
turnover
the
textile
industry
Spain.

Figure
4.
The
energyconsumed
consumedby
bythe
thetextile
textile industry
industry in
in
EU,
Portugal,
United
Kingdom
and
Spain.
Figure
4. 4.
The
energy
in EU,
EU,Portugal,
Portugal,United
UnitedKingdom
Kingdom
and
Spain.
Figure
The
energy
consumed
by
the
textile
industry
and
Spain.

The
Portuguesetextile
textiledyeing
dyeingindustry
industry relies
relies mostly
mostly on
on
natural
gas
asasfuel.
fuel.
However,
inin
some
The
Portuguese
mostly
onnatural
naturalgas
gasas
fuel.However,
However,
some
The
Portuguese
textile
dyeing
industry
in
some
instances,
the
use
of
naphtha
and
propane
gas
still
occurs,
not
by
the
choice
of
prices
being
more
instances,
theuse
useofofnaphtha
naphthaand
and propane
propane gas still occurs,
being
more
instances,
the
occurs, not
notby
bythe
thechoice
choiceofofprices
prices
being
more
competitive,
but
due
to
logistical
obstacles
or
due
to
a lack
lack
of
accesstoto
tothe
thenatural
naturalgas
gassupply
supplychain
chain[4].
competitive,
due
logistical
obstacles
due
access
the
natural
gas
supply
chain
competitive,
butbut
due
to to
logistical
obstacles
oror
due
toto
a alack
ofof
access
[4].
Theof
price
of utilising
utilising
steam
boilers
for steam
steam
production,
usually
at 10
10
bar
and
at9090
90◦ C,
°C,makes
makesup
up as
[4].
The
price
of
boilers
for
production,
usually
bar
and
°C,
makes
up
The
price
utilising
steamsteam
boilers
for steam
production,
usually
at at
10
bar
and
atat
as
much
as
60%
of
the
textile
dyeing
industry’s
energy
costs.
Therefore,
the
opportunity
to
use
as
much
as
60%
of
the
textile
dyeing
industry’s
energy
costs.
Therefore,
the
opportunity
to
use
much as 60% of the textile dyeing industry’s energy costs. Therefore, the opportunity to use biomass
biomass as
as an
an alternative
alternative energy
energy source
source brings
brings many
many advantages
advantages for
for this
this industry
industry [28,29].
as biomass
an
alternative
energy source
brings
many
advantages
for this industry
[28,29]. [28,29].
Researchers
have
been
steadily
increasing
their
focus
and
attention
on
the use
use of biomass
biomass in
in the
the
Researchers
havebeen
beensteadily
steadilyincreasing
increasing their
their focus
Researchers
have
focus and
andattention
attentionon
onthe
the useofof
biomass in
the
textile
industry.
A
study
focusing
on
the
analysis
of
the
energy
mix
profile
and
energy
efficiency
of
textile
industry.AAstudy
studyfocusing
focusingon
onthe
the analysis
analysis of
efficiency
of
textile
industry.
of the
the energy
energymix
mixprofile
profileand
andenergy
energy
efficiency
of
the Brazilian
Brazilian dairy
dairy industry
industry is presented
presented in
in Reference
Reference [30],
[30], in
in which, biomass
biomass sources for
for thermal
thermal
thethe
Brazilian dairy
industry isispresented
in Reference
[30], in which,
which, biomasssources
sources for
thermal
energy generation
generation are
are addressed.
addressed. In
In Reference
Reference [4],
[4], the
the environmental
environmental and
and economic
economic benefits
benefits of
of
energy
energy generation are addressed. In Reference [4], the environmental and economic benefits of utilising
utilising
textile
waste
for
thermal
energy
generation
are
investigated
and
a
comparative
economic
utilising textile waste for thermal energy generation are investigated and a comparative economic
textile
waste for
thermal
energy
generation
are investigated
a comparative
economic
assessment
assessment
with
distinct
fuels is
is made.
made. A
A study
study
of biomass
biomassand
employment
as an
an energetic
energetic substitute
substitute
assessment
with
distinct
fuels
of
employment
as
with
fuelsdyeing
is made.
A study
of
biomass
as an energetic
substitute
for detailed
the textile
fordistinct
the textile
textile
industry
of Portugal
Portugal
is employment
made in
in Reference
Reference
[25]; however,
however,
more
for
the
dyeing industry
of
is
made
[25];
aa more
detailed
3
consumption of
of steam
steam production
production in
in m
m3 is
is lacking.
lacking.
consumption
A decrease
decrease of
of the
the adsorbed
adsorbed dyes’
dyes’ volume
volume by
by utilizing
utilizing the
the aerobically-activated
aerobically-activated sludge
sludge process
process
A
in
the
discharged
sludge
originating
from
an
industrial
textile
wastewater
treatment
plant
is
in the discharged sludge originating from an industrial textile wastewater treatment plant is