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Nutrition and Diet .pdf

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Title: [Nutrition And Diet]
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[Nutrition And
Learn from us, be healthy and fit

Human Nutrition
Human nutrition entails the consumption of
nutrients in the required amount for good health
and growth.  Poor nutrition results in malnutrition,
which is a major cause of disabilities and deaths
worldwide. Good nutrition can be achieved by
taking all the necessary components through a
well-balanced diet.

Web of Nutrition

Nutrition 101
Nutrition 101: 30 World’s Most Nutritious Foods You Should

What is Human Nutrition?
Human nutrition entails the consumption of nutrients in the required amount for good health
and growth.  Poor nutrition results in malnutrition, which is a major cause of disabilities and
deaths worldwide. Good nutrition can be achieved by taking all the necessary components
through a well-balanced diet.
“You are what you eat.”A healthy diet is also determined by processing, palatability of various
foods and availability. Good nutrition has immense benefits to your body including:

Boosting your immunity- a healthy diet will lower your risk of obesity, diabetes, cancer
and heart disease.
Helps in children’s growth and brain development
Higher energy levels and better mood- a healthy diet is a healthy brain. A healthy diet is
associated with lower cases of depression.
Improving your body image

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What are Nutrients?
Nutrients are molecules obtained from food that organisms need for growth, energy,
development, and reproduction. There are seven main classes of nutrients: water, minerals,
fiber, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats, and protein. These nutrients are either categorized as
macro nutrients or micro nutrients.

Macro nutrients

They include carbohydrates, water, proteins, fats, and fiber. Your body needs them in relatively
large amounts.

1. Carbohydrates
They provide energy to the body. Carbohydrates can be classified into polysaccharides,
disaccharides and, monosaccharides based on the sugar (monomer) units they contain. A
monosaccharide is a basic unit.
Simple carbs are quickly absorbed resulting in increased blood-sugar levels. High blood-sugar
levels in the blood are linked to cardiovascular diseases. It is therefore important to regulate
your intake of carbohydrates. Some foods enriched with carbohydrates include bread, cereal,
grains, pasta candy and sugary drinks like soda.

2. Fats

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Fats are classified into unsaturated and unsaturated fats.  A study has discovered that
unsaturated fats, intake leads to better health. Monounsaturated fats improve the blood
cholesterol levels which could lower the risk of diabetes 2 and heart disease.
Polyunsaturated fats are mostly found in plants. They also improve cholesterol levels in the
blood. Omega-3 fatty acids could especially be important for your heart.
Saturated fats, found in animal sources including poultry, red meat, and dairy products should
be avoided. Trans-fat which can be naturally found in certain foods in low amounts or from
partial hydrogenation (a method of food processing) increases the bad cholesterol in the blood.

3. Proteins
Proteins are responsible for the cellular structure. They are crucial for tissue formation such as
muscles. This explains the intake of protein shake and protein bars by bodybuilders.
A protein molecule contains amino acids whose components are nitrogen and sulphur in
others. For the production of new proteins, the body needs amino acids. Some amino acids can
be produced in the body bust others come from your diet. Some foods with high levels of
protein include fish, eggs, meat, and beans.

4. Fiber
Dietary fiber is some carbohydrates that the body cannot digest. It is groped in two insoluble
and soluble fiber. Cellulose is the main component of insoluble dietary fiber which is insoluble
in water.
Soluble dietary fiber includes esters, resistant starches, waxes, and other water-soluble
carbohydrates. Legumes, whole grains, vegetables, and fruits are excellent sources of fiber.
Fiber is important for better bowel function, weight management, and controlled blood sugar

5. Water
 60% of the human body weight is water. You need to stay hydrated to achieve maximum body
performance. Water helps in various processes such as digestion, regulating body temperature,
removing toxins and waste and protecting your joints, spinal cord, and tissues.

Micro nutrients
They include minerals and vitamins.

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1. Vitamins
Vitamins are necessary for healthy growth and development. Your body requires 13 vitamins;
Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, and the B vitamins. You obtain most of
the vitamins from food. Your skin can synthesize Vitamin D when UV radiation is present.
Vitamin deficiency could lead to conditions like scurvy, goitre, osteoporosis, premature aging,
and poor immune system. Fresh fruits and vegetables are great sources of vitamins.

2. Minerals
Dietary minerals comprise of chemical elements needed excluding hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen,
and carbon. Minerals are necessary for converting food consumed to energy, strong teeth and
bones and controlling your body fluids outside and inside the cells.

Essential and non-essential nutrients
Essential nutrients are the nutrients you get from the food you eat. They are necessary for a
healthy life. They include vitamins, fats, minerals, carbohydrates, and proteins.
Non-essential nutrients are still a requirement in your body. They can be synthesized by the
body. They include some vitamins, fiber, essential, and cholesterol. In some cases, you may
require a daily intake of some non-essential nutrients.

5 Tempting Foods Bad for Your Brain; [Bad on Memory,
Concentration, Mood, etc.]
Not all foods are good for the brain. Various foods have a negative impact on your brain,
affecting your mood, memory and increasing the risk of brain-related conditions like dementia.
You can lower your probability of having these conditions by eliminating some foods bad for
brain from your diet. Here’s a list of the worst brain foods.

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1.      Refined Carbohydrates
Refined carbs include highly processed grains and sugars. They have a high hypoglycemic index
(GI) meaning they are quickly digested leading to a spike in blood sugar as well as insulin levels.
When eaten in larger amounts, refined carbs raise blood sugar levels which could impair the
Based on research, a meal with a high glycemic load could impair memory in adults and kids.
Students who took large amounts of refined sugar and fat were found to have poorer memory
compared to those that consumed lower amounts.
Poor memory may be caused by the inflammation of hippocampus; a brain part that affects
various memory aspects and also responsiveness to fullness and hunger.  Inflammation is a
major risk factor for brain degenerative diseases such as dementia.
One study based on elderly people showed that those who obtained more than 58% of daily
calories from carbs posed a double risk of dementia and mental impairment. However, this also
contradicts with findings of another study published in the journal Cell Reports showing that
unrestricted low-protein, high-carb diets have similar protective benefits for the brain as calorie
restriction, which is known for its longevity benefits although not sustainable in
humans. Refined carbohydrates may negatively affect the brain in other ways.
Research found that kids between age 6 and 7 on diets with a lot of refined carbs had lower
scores in nonverbal intelligence. However, the research study does not confirm if the lower
score was caused by consuming refined carbohydrates.

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2.      Sugar-sweetened Drinks

Sweetened drinks are another class of foods bad for brain. They include energy drinks, soda,
fruit juice, and sports drinks. Increased intake of sugar-sweetened drinks not only has a
negative impact on your brain but also increase your chances of suffering from heart disease
and diabetes. They are not only foods bad for brain, but they also lead to a significant weight
High consumption of sugary drinks makes you susceptible to type-2 diabetes which increases
the risk of developing Alzheimer ’s. Additionally, high sugar levels may be a risk factor for
dementia. Most sugar-sweetened drinks comprise of 45% glucose and 55%fructose.
High intake of fructose could cause insulin resistance in your brain and a reduction in memory,
brain function, the formation of neurons and learning. A study on rats showcased impaired
memory and brain inflammation as a result of high sugar intake.
Rats that fed on high-fructose diets featured weight gain, memory impairments, a greater risk
of metabolic-related disorders and bad blood sugar control. Although further research is
needed, scientists suggest that high fructose intake from sugar-sweetened drinks might have
more negative impacts on the human brain than sugar.
Healthier alternatives to sugar-sweetened drinks include vegetable juice, unsweetened ice tea,
water, and Greek yogurt.

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3.      Alcohol

Excessive consumption of alcohol has bad effects on your brain. It may result in metabolic
changes, reduced brain volume, and neurotransmitters disruption. In most cases, alcoholics
have low levels of Vitamin B1.
Vitamin B1 deficiency may lead to Wernicke’s encephalopathy, a brain disorder that could
develop to Korsakoff’s syndrome. The syndrome is characterized by severe brain damage
including unsteadiness, confusion, memory loss and disturbances in eyesight.
READ  Nutrition 101: 30 World's Most Nutritious Foods You Should Eat!
Excessive alcohol intake effects are not limited to alcoholics. “Binge drinking” can make the brain
interpret emotional cues differently which may lead to alcohol-related aggression.

During pregnancy, alcohol consumption may have worse effects on the unborn baby. Their
brain is developing and alcohol toxic effects could cause developmental disorders including
fetal alcohol syndrome.
Alcohol intake has damaging effects on teenagers as their brains are yet to develop fully. They
may have abnormal brain function, and structure leading to behavioral changes.
Mixing energy drinks with alcohol may result in higher rates of risky behavior, impaired driving,
binge drinking, and alcohol dependence. Consuming large amounts of alcohol just before bed
may lead to poor sleep quality, posing a risk of sleep deprivation?
Consume alcohol moderately to improve your heart health and reduce the risk of diabetes.
Teenagers and pregnant women should not drink.

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4.      Fish with High Mercury Levels

Here , we are not talking about all fish. Only high mercury containing fish are foods bad for
brain. This is because mercury, a heavy metal, is a neurological poison that lasts for so long in
the body. Long-lived fish are more likely to accumulate mercury. For this reason, seafood is the
number one source of mercury in people. Mercury spreads all over the body after consumption
with the highest concentration in the liver brain and the kidney. It also affects the placenta and
the fetus in pregnant women.
The effects of mercury include disruption of the nervous system as well as stimulation of
neurotoxins leading to brain damage. Mercury toxicity may cause a disruption on brain
development in unborn babies and young kids. This poses a risk of developmental delays
including cerebral palsy.
READ  Nutrition 101: 30 World's Most Nutritious Foods You Should Eat!
Remember, Fish is one of the good foods for the brain. So, in order not to miss out from the enormous
health benefits and nutrients you can get from fish, the trick is to choose lower-mercury fish and
seafood, while avoiding the higher-mercury fish. Lower mercury sea fish include salmon, shrimp, cod,
and sardines. Higher-mercury fish you should avoid or eat sparingly include, tile fish from the Gulf of
Mexico, shark, swordfish, and king mackerel.

5.      Highly Processed Foods
These are foods bad for brain because they have high sugar levels, more fats, and salt. Some
examples include sweets, microwave popcorn, chips, instant noodles, and ready-made sauces.
These foods are low in nutrients and high in calories. They lead to negative brain health and
weight gain

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People who consumed high levels of [processed food is found to have fat surrounding various
organs which leads to brain tissue damage. Decreased brain tissue may cause metabolic
syndrome and insufficient blood supply to the brain.
Avoid highly processed foods. Replace them with whole foods and the Mediterranean –style
diet for a healthier brain.
As seen above, many foods, instead of helping you to maintain a healthy brain will just
negatively affect it. We call these bad foods for brain. By avoiding these foods in your daily diet,
you can, therefore, be able to maintain the health of your brain as well as preserve its alertness,
mood, and memory.

Kitchen & Dining
How To Use Air Fryer Perfectly [3 STEPS, TIPS and
1. Preparing for air frying.
Now after you’ve already bought your air fryer and you’re ready to try it out , these are just a
few things you should do as you prepare for your first ever air frying to the first timers and to
the oldies , just a few things you should incorporate to your routine.
Just before you go ahead and begin your air frying adventure, there are some things you should
first ensure.

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Read manual. I can’t emphasize enough on this. You know it is there for a purpose,
when the manufacturer put it there for a purpose. So read it. It will guide you on how to
effectively use your newly purchased appliance. Familiarize yourself with the dos and
don’ts listed and look out for any tips.
Check out for any free recipes. Some air fryers come with a free recipe book so as you
unpack your air fryer look out for this. Who doesn’t love new recipes especially those
that come free!
Get right position for air fryer. Positioning is very important. Find a position out of
clutter and with a little preparation space around it just as you need around your stove.
Position it near a socket for ease of use.
Turn your air fryer on. Well this one may sound so obvious but trust me, in the midst of
excitement to try it out or just exhaustion, some of us may just forget to switch it on.
Familiarize yourself with the setting. Just how much heat can this air fryer handle, are
there any special features? Get to know it all as different heat setting cook food
Have an idea of what you want to cook and how you want it. Having an overall idea of
your end product helps a lot in understanding just how to cook it and what settings to
Preheat before adding food. This is another golden rule on how to use air fryer. Don’t
forget to preheat before the actual cooking for about 2 to 3 minutes.

2. During air frying.

Add water. This particularly advised when cooking foods with lots of fat like pork or
even when you just want some thick stew in your food. Water should be added from
time to time in small proportions in the food drawer of your air fryer.
Don’t overcrowd the food basket. Give your food space to soak in the spices and
perhaps the marinade. Overloading often results in undercooked foods or soggy food.
Turn the food when it has cooked halfway. Just like you would normally do in your
cooking, you have to give the other side time to cook too and evenly at that.
Open the air fryer from time to time just to check for doneness. This is particularly with
meat; different kind cook at different rates.
Wobble your air fryer basket gently to prevent any sticking. This also aids in evenly
cooking of the food. This also works to rearrange the ingredients hence better crispiness
and browning
Spray oil regularly. This is because after a while to oil will sink into the food there
spraying a little oil will help in crisping of the food. This also helps stock sticking. Be
careful not to go overboard with the oil.

3. After air frying.

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Don’t be in a rush to dispose of the spicy juices in your air fryer’s food drawer. This is
simply because it can be used as marinade or added to your broth to make it tastier.
Clean immediately after use. Laziness aside mates. Far far aside. This maintenance tip
will increase the life of air fryer and also avoid any stickiness from the oil and food
Use the air fryer to dry itself. Once you’ve cleaned your air fryer, switch on to a low heat
setting and let it dry itself. Genius right.

READ  Ultimate Air Fryer FAQ - Answers To 20 Air Fryer Frequently Asked Questions

General tips on how to use air fryer effectively.

Adjusting your cooking temperature. Cooking with just the normal temperature may
bring rather boring food. Turn up the heat and let it cook to perfection. Reducing heat is
also a cool trick as it lets food cook slowly and you all know what they say about food
that cooks slowly, it soaks in all the creamy and spicy tastes.
Use oil sparingly. Remember this is the healthier alternative of cooking, so don’t overdo
the oiling. Everything in moderation they say, isn’t it?
Make French fries as often as you can. In case you are wondering why? Well you just
listen to me and tell me if you’ve had such crunchy fries yet so healthy. Don’t be left
behind, make your fries and join the trend.
Accessorize! Yes, you heard me right. Get the right accessories for different cooking
techniques. You don’t have to give up your skewer. Buy a multi-purpose rack for that
and a cake barrel for your sweet tooth adventures, make the most of surface for
cooking using a Metal holder and for those moist richly flavored homemade pizzas get a
pizza pan.
Invest in kitchen spray bottle. I just prefer spraying oil that pouring it on the food. Not
only does it evenly distribute the oil, you also avoid the risk of using too much of it.

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Toothpick trick. The air fryer has a very powerful fan therefore when cooking light foods,
use a toothpick to hold them down from being blown out of place.
Use the right technique in order to achieve crunch food. Using the right technique in
breading without skipping a step will avid the air fryer’s powerful fan from blowing away
the breadcrumbs. Coat well with eggs and breadcrumbs and repeat it while firmly
pressing the crumbs into the flesh.
Be creative! Use different recipes, use different cooking techniques. Unless you try
something new, you’ll never discover the different delicacies waiting to be discovered.

Read More

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