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R. Kumar and N.R. Kuloor Studies in Bubble Formation I IV.pdf

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1 Studies in bubble formation I. Bubble
formation under constant flow conditions


Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-12,

(First received 16 July 1968, in revised form 27 November 1968)

Abstract – model based on two step mechanism of bubble formation is proposed.
The resulting equations are used to explain the discrepancies existing in the literature.
Data have been collected over a wide range of variables to test the model.

Bubble formation from single nozzles submerged in Newtonian liquids has been studied by many investigators [1, 3–6, 9, 13, 14, 16, 20, 24]. The results obtained by them,
particularly with respect to the influence of the physical properties of the liquid on
bubble size, are of contradictory nature [10]. The conclusions drawn by various authors
for this situation are summarized in Table 1.1 to indicate the areas in which the discrepancies exist. Further, to date, there is no theoretical model which predicts the bubble
size under such conditions, where both viscosity and surface tension of the liquid exert
significant influence though models for extreme conditions [1, 3–6, 9, 13, 14, 16, 20, 24]
have been proposed and verified.