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R. Kumar and N.R. Kuloor Studies in Bubble Formation I IV.pdf


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1 Studies in bubble formation I. Bubble formation under constant flow conditions
In this paper, a model which explains most of the discrepancies existing in the literature
is developed for bubble formation under constant flow conditions.

Table 1.1: The discrepancies existing in the literature regarding the influence of
various physical properties of the liquid on bubble size
Investigators

Influence of
Viscosity

Surface Tension

Density

Datta et al. Negative (small)
[4]

Positive

Quigley et al. Positive (small)
[20]

No

No

Coppock
No
and Meiklejohn [3]

Positive

Negative

Davidson
and Schüler
[5, 6]

No - const.flow

Negative

Positive (large)

Positive - const. pressure
Benzing and
Myers [1]

No

Siemes
Positive (large)
and
Kauffmann [24]

Positive

Negative

No

No

The term “negative” means that the bubble volume decreases with the
increase in the value of the property of the liquid.

1.2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL
The present model assumes the bubble formation to take place in two stages, namely
the expansion stage and the detachment stage. During the first stage, the bubble
expands while its base remains attached to the tip of the orifice whereas in the detachment stage the bubble base moves away from the tip, the bubble itself being in
contact with the orifice through a neck. The two stages of bubble formation are shown

4