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Difference Between Viral and Bacterial Infection .pdf

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Hunan Huateng Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.

Difference Between Viral and
Bacterial Infection
As you might think, bacteria and viruses can both cause mild to serious
infections. While they are different from each other. Perhaps the most important
difference between bacteria and viruses is that antibiotic drugs usually kill
bacteria, but they aren't effective against viruses.

What's the Difference Between Viruses and Bacteria?



Is there a cell

single cell



DNA and RNA drift freely
in the cytoplasm. There
DNA and RNA are
are cell walls and cell wrapped in a protein film.






Some viruses have.




Infectious nature

Local infection

Systemic infection



Vaccines can prevent


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transmission, and
antivirals can reduce virus
replication, but can't stop
its replication.



Invade and take over host
cells, use host cells to
replicate viral DNA / RNA,
then destroy host cells
and release new viruses.


1000 nm

20-400 nm

By comparing the characteristics of bacteria and viruses in the above table, you
can find the following difference between viruses and bacteria.

1. A bacterium is a single, but complex, cell. Viruses are smaller and are not

2. Viruses reproduce by infecting a host and using the host's DNA repair and
replication systems to make copies of itself, and most bacteria can live on
the surface of inanimate objects.

3. Bacteria exist in intercellular organisms, and viruses are organisms that
exist within cells. Viruses invade host cells and change the normal
function of host cell genetic material.

4. The vast majority of bacteria are harmless to people and some strains
are even beneficial, but almost all viruses are harmful.

5. Antibiotics only kill bacteria, but not viruses. Therefore, only by exploring
the source of the disease and analyzing the case, can we grasp the
treatment plan to benefit the patients at the first time.

What's the Difference Between Bacterial and Viral
It is important to know whether bacteria or viruses cause an infection, because
the treatments differ.
Examples of bacterial infections include whooping cough, strep throat, ear
infection, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, bacterial meningitis, cellulitis, Lyme disease,
tetanus and urinary tract infection (UTI).
Viral infections include the common cold, flu, viral gastroenteritis, chickenpox,
measles most coughs and bronchitis, HIV/AIDS andCOVID-2019.


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It can be difficult to know what causes an infection because viral and bacterial
infections can cause similar symptoms. Your doctor may need a sample of your
urine, stool and blood for a "culture" test to have the bugs identified under a

Treatment of Bacterial and Viral Infection

Bacterial infection treatment
Doctors usually treat bacterial infections with antibiotics. They either kill
bacteria or stop them from multiplying.
But since antibiotic resistance is a growing problem, antibiotics may be
prescribed only for serious bacterial infections.

Viral infection treatment
Many viral infections resolve themselves without treatment. Other times, the
treatment of a viral infection is focused on relieving symptoms rather than
fighting the virus. For example, cold medicine helps relieve the pain and
congestion caused by colds, but it doesn't directly affect cold viruses.
Some drugs can act directly on the virus. These are called antivirals. They work


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by inhibiting the production of virus particles. Some interfere with the
production of viral DNA. Others prevent viruses from entering host cells. These
drugs have other ways of working. In general, taking an antiviral drug as early
as possible during the first viral infection or recurring episodes is most effective.
Various antiviral drugs can be used to treat chickenpox, shingles, herpes
simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), HIV, hepatitis
B, hepatitis C, and influenza.

Viral Disease Prevention
Vaccines can reduce the risk of certain viral diseases. Vaccines can be used to
prevent influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, chickenpox, herpes zoster (shingles),
cancer-causing strains of human papillomavirus (HPV),
measles/mumps/rubella (MMR), polio, rabies, rotavirus, and other viruses.
Hunan Huateng Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. is a leading pharmaceutical company
focusing on the creation of long-acting targeted new drugs. The company has
extensive experience in the development of new antiviral drugs that can treat
epidemic influenza, H7N9, and H5N1 avian influenza,
including Oseltamivir, Baloxavir Marboxil and others.
Other News:
Novel Coronavirus infection: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Nature Reviews: Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Treatment Options
Huateng Pharma Develops Spray Against New Coronavirus Infection

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