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CD-Memo-022518 100%

Pitch for a long-Form TV series about Russia in the 1990s Why long-form TV?


CND proposal to FCO 94%

But, drawing on my experience in the 1990s, my approach would be very different.


Before Sunrise 90's 90%

The Long Form October 5, 2015 Before Sunrise As a Product of the 1990s The 1990s were a pivotal time for the world.


Developments in Outer Space 73%

The 1990s saw the privitization and commercialization of space as well as the first major use of space assets in combat.


investigate 71%

“Schmitz rose to fame in Germany in the 1990s as a teenage internet tycoon, who eventually received a two-year probationary sentence for hacking into corporate computer systems and accepting gang-related stolen goods.


The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative 71%

IMF debt relief will be funded with the money obtained from the sale of some IMF gold in the late 1990s.


Communique 2016 October December contest graphic design 71%

2000 Debates continue over how America should confront the effects of soaring immigration rates throughout the 1990s.


media-policy-independent-journalism-greece-20150511 70%

Since the 1980s and 1990s, deregulation has allowed the market entry of commercial channels that has increased the viewing choices for audiences in Greece.


d13Hoare 68%

The role of al-Qaeda and the foreign mujahedin in the wars in the former Yugoslavia of the 1990s remains controversial, but the controversy is not over whether the phenomenon was a positive one or not.


FDA Laws and Drug Prices AAPS 68%

Peltzman (1974) pharmacies Peltzman (1974) formularies Peltzman (1974) physicians R&D/NCE year x = 1.2023 — 23339.6 r2 = 0.7831 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Development times peaked in the 1990s, primarily due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) of 1992.


d5Hoare 67%

The anti-imperialists therefore take no action to protest the worst Western crimes – collusion with the Indonesian invasion of East Timor in the 1970s, with Saddam Hussein in the 1980s, with Slobodan Milošević in the 1990s, each of which resulted in tens or hundreds of thousands of deaths.


Across the channel 67%

It is a book you must own if you have discovered F1 during the 1990s, or even before that.


ALgorithm2 67%

1920s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 5


The Diner Party 67%

I had the pleasure of seeing an Abramovic performance with blocks of ice (and snakes) in the 1990s at Museum of Modern Art Oxford and have to agree with Abramovic that it was plain weird to see her sitting on what was clearly a Perspex cube pretending it was ice.


Sleep Deprivation in the Modern World by Serra Abak 67%

Those figures are largely unchanged from Gallup polls in the 1990s and 2000s, but Americans, on average, slept much more in the 1940s.


Outcomes Star seminar 67%

With a background in research, evaluation and a period in the Latin America department of Christian Aid, Sara pioneered a practical outcomes approach for voluntary organisations in the early 1990s and has worked in this field ever since.


De Rigo Brand Guide De-Rigo-A5-16pp-2016-PRINT-e 67%

During the 1990s Police became a true phenomenon with their iconic blue mirrored lenses:


electronic-computers 67%

(Software‬قائمة من الوامرلتنفيدها من طرف الحاسوب‪ ,‬أوامر البرامج معدة مسبقا من‬ ‫طرف مبرمجين‪.‬‬ ‫ هي التي تجعل الكمبيوتر أداة منتجة‪.‬‬‫ بمثابة مترجم بين النسان و الكمبيوتر‪.‬‬‫نشأة و تطور الإحاسب اللإي‪:‬‬ ‫ أول كمبيوتر صنع في جامعة بنسلفينا في الوليات المتحدة المريكية )‪ (1946‬سمي '‪.'E.N.I.A‬‬‫ إسم المخترع‪ :‬جون فينست أتاناسوف )‪ ,(John Vincent Atanasoff‬إعترف بإختراع‪ a‬في ‪.1973‬‬‫ زادت سعت‪ a‬و قدرات‪ a‬في وقت وجيز‪ ,‬تم تصغير حجم‪) a‬كان يزن حوالي ‪ 30‬طن(‪.‬‬‫ أصبح أدات لتسيير المؤسسات في الستينيات )‪.(1960s‬‬‫ الكمبيوتر الشخصي في الثمانينات )‪ ,(1980s‬زيادة إستخدام‪ a‬في مختلف المجالت‪,‬خاصة العلم و التصال‬‫في التسعانيات )‪.(1990s‬‬ ‫إستخدام الإحاسب اللإي‪:‬‬ ‫ معالجة الكلمات ‪ -‬النشر المكتبي ‪ -‬تصميم الرسوم ‪ -‬التصال المباشر )الشبكة المحلية أو العالمية(‪...‬‬‫مميزات الإحاسب اللإي‪:‬‬ ‫ السرعة و الدقة في أداء العمال و معالجة البيانات‪.‬‬‫ الطاقة التخزينية‪ ,‬تخزين كميات هائلة من المعلومات‪.‬‬‫ العمل المتواصل‪.‬‬‫أشكال الإحاسب اللإي‪:‬‬ ‫ الحاسب المكتبي )كمبيوتر شخصي(‪.‬‬‫ الحاسب المحمول‪.‬‬‫ حاسب الجيب‪.‬‬‫ المنظم الليكتروني‪.‬‬‫أهمية الإحاسب اللإيكتروني‪:‬‬ ‫ من وسائل التصال الجماهرية‪.‬‬‫ أصبح من ضروريات الحاة اليومية‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬إستخدام‪ a‬في جميع المجالت‪ ,‬يخضع لتعديل مستمر‪.‬‬


EcstasyLiteratureReview Dayton 66%

Through surveys and empirical reports, Parrott (2004) found few impurities in ecstasy tablets during the 1980s and early 1990s.


tmp 7486-477011181239752965 66%

Proportion of children in poor households, 4 mid-1990s and mid- to late-2000s 5 1995 77.2 74.4 73.8 73.1 70.6 70.2 69.1 67.9 67.4 66.4 66.2 65.6 65.2 63.8 63.4 63.0 61.6 60.0 59.8 Iceland Norway Switzerland Denmark Netherlands Sweden Canada Finland New Zealand Austria Australia United Kingdom Germany Slovenia United States Estonia Portugal France Japan OECD34 average Ireland Luxembourg Czech Republic Belgium Israel Spain Slovak Republic Poland Korea Hungary Greece Italy Mexico Chile Turkey China Russian Federation Brazil Indonesia South Africa India Mid-2000s Turkey Mexico Chile Korea Slovak Republic Ireland Poland Spain Portugal Greece Japan New Zealand OECD31 average Italy United States Iceland Australia Hungary Czech Republic Luxembourg Canada France Austria Belgium Netherlands Switzerland Norway Finland Denmark United Kingdom Germany Sweden India South Africa Brazil Russian Federation Mid/late-2000s Israel Mexico Turkey United States Poland Chile Spain Portugal Ireland Italy Canada Japan Greece OECD34 average Luxembourg Estonia New Zealand Australia Slovak Republic Czech Republic Korea United Kingdom Belgium Netherlands Switzerland Germany Iceland France Slovenia Hungary Sweden Austria Norway Finland Denmark Russian Federation Mid-1990s 26.6 25.8 24.6 21.6 21.5 20.5 17.3 16.6 16.3 15.3 14.8 14.2 13.2 12.7 12.4 12.4 12.2 11.8 10.9 10.3 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.6 9.4 8.3 8.3 8.0 7.8 7.2 7.0 6.2 5.5 4.2 3.7 20.1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 % children aged <



                IS ZHANG YIMOU A SELF­ORIENTALIST?            Lawson Jiang  Film 132B: International Cinema, 1960­present  February 5, 2016  TA: Isabelle Carbonell  Section D          Along with the rise of the Fifth Generation directors,1 the contemporary Chinese cinema  has gained more popularities on the international film festivals since the early 1990s. While these  films presenting the local Chinese culture are well received internationally, the Fifth Generation  directors, particularly Zhang Yimou, are often denounced for their self­Orientalist filmmaking  practice of selling films packaged with exoticized Chineseness to the Western audience. Based  on the belief that the interpretations on cinema can result differently according to various  ideological reading, the assertion that Zhang deploys Orientalism in his films can be a result of  misinterpretation. This article—through reviewing several books and journals about his 1992  film adaptation ​ Raised the Red Lantern​ —will explore how Zhang is perceived by various  Chinese and Hong Kong scholars in order to find out whether or not he is a self­Orientalist.  Zhang, the cinematographer­turned­director who began his career after graduated from  Beijing Film Academy in 1983, has been receiving both extreme acknowledgments and  criticisms on his films such as ​ Hero​  (2002), ​ House of Flying Daggers​  (2004), ​ Curse of the  Golden Flower​  (2006) from the Chinese film critics. On the one hand, Zhang is recognized as a  successful director of commercial productions; on the other hand, these commercial titles are  also criticized for their banalities due to the lack of depth in storytelling.2 ​ Hero​ , along with his  earlier work ​ Raise the Red Lantern​ ,​  ​ are criticized by some Chinese journalist as self­Orientalist  exercises catering the West. Despite ​ Red Lantern ​ astonishes many Western audience, the film, in  1   The  Fifth  Generation  refers  to   the  group  of  Chinese  directors began  their  filmmaking  since  the 1980s.  Some  of  the  notable  figures  are  Zhang  Yimou, Zhang Yimou, Feng Xiaogang, and Chen Kaige. Although the Sixth  Generation  emerged  in  the  mid­1990s,  some  the  Fifth  Generation directors  like  Zhang  Yimou  and  Feng  Xiaogang  continues their productions and has become more commercial­oriented in Mainland China.  2   I  found  a  brief comment  in  the  entry  page  of  ​ Hero  ​ on during  the  research,  it  goes  “Zhang,  you should stick back to your cinematography, but not directing.”    Lawson Jiang  1    the eyes of a native Beijinger, as Dai Qing3  comments, is “really shot for the casual pleasures of  foreigners [who] can go on and muddle­headedly satisfy their oriental fetishisms.”4  Dai, from a  native perspective, criticizes that ​ Red Lantern​ —though the red lanterns provide stunning visual  motif—represents a false image of China in terms of the mise­en­scene.   First, Dai notices the Zhang­ish Chineseness on the walls of the third wife’s room are  decorated with large Peking opera masks, which is a major symbol of Chineseness that did not  come into fashion until the 1980s and even then only among certain “self­styled avant­garde”  artists would like to show off their “hipness” through these mask decorations. The third wife  “would never have thought of decking her walls with those oversized masks,”5 hinting that  Zhang is the one who is responsible for this historical mistake in his production. Second, Dai  points out that Zhang has also made a fundamental—and the foremost—mistake on the portrayal  of the Master:  I  have  never  seen  nor  heard  nor  read  in  any   book  anything  remotely  resembling  the  high­handed and  flagrant  way  in  which  this “master”  flaunts  the details of  his sex life.  Even  Ximen  Qing,  the  protagonist  of  the  erotic Chinese  classic  ​ Jin  Ping  Mei  and  the  archetype  of  the  unabashedly  libidinous  male,  saw  fit  to  maintain  a discreet demeanor  in  negotiating  his  way  among  his  numerous  wives,  concubines,  and  mistresses,   and  even then he had to resort occasionally to sending a servant to tender his excuses.6   The speaking of one’s sex life has been treated as a taboo in Chinese society—a topic that  is forbidden to be brought up publicly—even in the present. As a result, such a portrayal of the  3  Chinese people who do not have an English name, in the English context, would usually have their names  sorted in the same order as they are in the Chinese context (family name goes first and given name goes after) In this  case, Dai Qing is referred by ​ Dai​  as Zhang Yimou is referred by ​ Zhang​ .   4   Dai  Qing,  “Raised  Eyebrows for  Raise  the Red Lantern.” Translated  by Jeanne Tai. ​ Public Culture 5, no.  2 (1993): 336.   5  Ibid., 335.  6  Ibid., 334.    Lawson Jiang  2    Master’s sex life, in a traditional sense, is a major flaw of the filmic setting. Dai understands that  it is inevitable for Zhang to exoticize and to sell the Chineseness to the Western audience as  Zhang is “a serious filmmaker being forced to make a living outside his own country,”  suggesting that it is worth the Chinese audience’s sympathy to some extent.7   Dai identifies herself as a person who belongs to the generation of Chinese whose  sensibilities have been “ravaged by the Mao­style proletarian culture,”8 Dai—along with her  generation who are not allowed and are unable to interpret films from other philosophical  perspective—can only seek extreme authenticities in films. “I know nothing about film theory,  cinematic techniques, auteurs, schools,” Dai declares in the first paragraph of her journal, “my  only criterion is how I respond emotionally to a film.”9 With the Mao­styled materialistic  influence, Dai’s generation can no longer enjoy any new fashions and trends that she labels as  “half­baked” and that the experiencing of new attempts of storytelling and filmic presentation as  “sensibility­risking.”10 To Dai’s generation, authenticity is the only criteria concerned in judging  a film. Whatever reflects the real Chineseness—the Chineseness that is culturally and historically  correct—is considered a good film. That is, authenticity provides emotional satisfactions. ​ Raise  the Red Lantern​ , unfortunately, fails to accomplish these two tasks, and the lack of  understanding on film theory limits Dai’s interpretation on ​ Red Lantern​ . She would have been  surprised that the red lantern motif that makes her raising eyebrows does far more than that: a  basic reading of the lantern, for example, can be viewed as a reinforcement of male authority,  while the color of red implies the state of purgatory that the wives suffer in the household—any  7  Ibid., 337.   Ibid., 336.  9  Ibid., 333.  10  Ibid., 336.  8   Lawson Jiang  3    of these symbolic implications can easily be identified by the younger generation of Chinese  audience. Dai’s demand on authenticities leads to a deviation from reading the theme, that what  she has observed from the film are only twisted cultural products; the exotic Chineseness  contrived by Zhang. Hence, Dai’s focus on reading the filmic setting rather than the theme  results in a biased comment denouncing Zhang as a self­Orientalist.  Jane Ying Zha, a Chinese writer from Beijing—the same city where Dai is from—adopts  a relatively moderate view on ​ Red Lantern​ . In her journal “Lore Segal, Red Lantern, and  Exoticism” Zha does not perceives the film as “a work of realism in a strict sense” as “some of  the details in the movie seem exaggerated, even false, to any historically informed and  realistic­minded audience.”11 That is, ​ Red Lantern ​ does not attempt, in any sense, to accurately  reflect the history of feudal China, but to present the woman’s suffering under the patriarchy in  the feudal context. The context functions as a “stage” assisting the director to achieve his  expression that is alterable to be set in modern China—while the notion of patriarchal oppression  is remain firmly unchanged.  Zha views the film as a formalistic exercise due to Zhang’s cinematographic expertise  built up earlier in his career, which shares a similar perspective with Rey Chow, who writes in  her book ​ Primitive Passions​ , “the symmetrical screen organizations of architectural details, and  the refined­looking furniture, utensils, food, and costumes in ​ Rain the Red Lantern ​ are all part  and parcel of the recognizable cinematographic expertise of Zhang and his collaborators.”12 Zha  is impressed by the camera work that deliberately avoid giving close­up to the Master as  “[Zhang] thought nothing of shooting the awkwardly melodramatic scenes from the eyes of a   Jane Ying Zha, “Lore Segal, Red Lantern, and Exoticism.” ​ Public Culture ​ 5, no. 2 (1993): 331.   Rey Chow, ​ Primitive Passions: Visuality, Sexuality, Ethnography, and Contemporary Chinese Cinema.  (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), 143.  11 12   Lawson Jiang  4


WhitePaperChainX1 64%

The mysterious e-money conventions of the 1980s and the 1990s were generally dependent on a cryptographic primitive known as Chaumian Blinding.


De Rigo Brand Guide e-version 64%

During the 1990s Police became a true phenomenon with their iconic blue mirrored lenses:


UkraineCrisis 63%

Since the mid-1990s, Russian leaders have adamantly opposed NATO enlargement, and in recent years, they have made it clear that they would not stand by while their strategically important neighbor turned into a Western bastion.