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TOC 2839FINAL 100%

Vi s i tBookPage Three CHAPTER CHAPTER iv     Contents Four Fostering Oral Language     63 Vocabulary Instruction     91 Focus Questions     63 In the Classroom     64 Focus Questions     91 In the Classroom     92 Introduction     65 Introduction     92 Informal Speaking     66 Types of Vocabulary     93 Conversations     66 Selecting Vocabulary Words to Teach     94 activity  Just Suppose     68 Levels of Word Knowledge     95 activity  Campfire     68 Principles of Vocabulary Instruction     96 Directed Group Discussions     69 Word Study     98 Discussions About Text     71 A Review of Reading and Spelling Stages     99 Informal Debates     72 Early Word Study Instruction     100 Formal Speaking     73 Oral Reports     73 Interviews     74 Advanced Word Study Instruction     100 activity  Roots and Branches     104 Teaching Individual Word Meanings     107 activity  Getting to Know You     76 Incidental Learning     107 Oral Histories     76 Explicit Instruction     108 Panel Discussions     77 activity  Controlled Participation (CONPAR)     78     Impromptu Speeches     78 Drama     79 Effective Strategies for a Comprehensive Vocabulary Program     109     Relate New Words to Known Words     109 activity  Semantic Map     110     Role Plays     79 activity  Constructing and Using a Clarifying Table     111 activity  Role Play     80 activity  Creating a Semantic Feature Analysis     112 Simulations     82     Use Context     112 activity  Prejudice     83 activity  C(2)QU     114 Creating Original Drama     83 Consult Resources to Discover the Meaning of Words     115 Listening Instruction     85 Designing Listening Instruction     85 activity  Listening Comprehension     86 Troubleshooting     87 Dominating a Discussion     87 Lack of Verbal Skills in English     87         Lack of Participation     88 Limited Voice Projection     88 Summary     88 questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     89 suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     89 References     89 activity  Very Important Term Word Book     116 Learn to Determine the Meanings of Polysemantic Words     118 activity  How Is It Used?     119 activity  Possible Sentences     119 Infuse New Vocabulary into Writing and Speaking     120 activity  Semantic Gradient     120 Commit to Learning New Words     121 activity  Hinky Pinkies     122 activity  Paraphrastics     123 Troubleshooting     124 Limited Interest/Experience in Independent Reading     124 Limited Schema for Remembering New Vocabulary     125 activity  Virtual Field Trips     126 Summary     126 questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     127 suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     128 References     129 CHAPTER Contents      v Five Reading Comprehension     131 Focus Questions     131 In the Classroom     132 Defining Comprehension     132 Difficulty Making Connections Before Reading     170 Difficulty Making Connections During Reading     170 Difficulty Making Connections After Reading     172 Summary     173 questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     175 suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     175 References     176 Factors External to Readers     133 Readers’ Internal Characteristics     134 Assessing and Selecting Texts     136 Determining Text Demands     136 Estimating Reading Difficulty     138 Comprehension Strategies For Readers To Use     139 Predicting     140 CHAPTER Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension     133 Six Writing Instruction     179 Focus Questions     179 In the Classroom     180 Generating Questions     140 How Instruction in Writing has Changed     180 Checking Back     140 The Writing Process     181 Imagery/Visualizing     141 Planning/Prewriting     182 Summarizing     141 Composing/Drafting     185 Effective Direct Instructional Practices     141 Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) (Focus on Process)     142 Think Aloud     143 Revising     185 Editing     186 Publishing     187 Writing Workshop     188 activity  Think Aloud (Focus on Process)     143 Minilessons     188 Guided Reading     143 State-of-the-Class Conference     189 Directed Reading–Thinking Activity     144 Writing and Conferencing     189 activity  DRTA (Focus on Content and Process)     145 Group Sharing     190 GIST     145 Using Technology in the Writing Process     190 activity  GIST (Focus on Content)     145 Teaching the 6 + 1 Traits of Effective Writing     191 Reciprocal Teaching     149 Ideas     192 activity  Reciprocal Teaching (Focus on Content and Organization     193 Process)     149 Voice     193 Dyad Reading     150 Word Choice     194 activity  Dyad Reading (Focus on Content)     150 Sentence Fluency     195 Question–Answer Relationships     150 Conventions     195 activity  QARs (Focus on Content and Process)     151 Novel Study     151 Implicit Instruction     154 Presentation     196     Inspiring Students to Write     196 Dialogue Journals     197 Independent Reading     154 Extended Narrative Text     199 activity  Literature Circles/Book Clubs     159 Poetry     200 activity  Jigsaw:


19/02/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

Untitleddocument (1) 99%

Name Level Activity Mag Book Ench Elem ical ant ent Skill Item:


30/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

The Reproduction of Daily Life 99%

The everyday practical activity of tribesmen reproduces, or perpetuates, a tribe.


28/04/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

PUI Market Update 2.03.2012 98%

Statistics - Marin County - SFR &


13/02/2012 www.pdf-archive.com

guildcoins 98%

Here you can see that at 61% total guild activity in 50% of the cases there is an improvement with the new system compared to the current system.


03/12/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

T&C.docx final 98%

TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF #FREEDOMFROM ACTIVITY Please read this agreement carefully before accessing or using this Twitter activity.


12/08/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Jus Beginners Waiver 98%

It is not intended as a substitute for formal instruction by certified or licensed instructors or physicians in the respective activity, nor is it intended for medical, nutritional or certification claims.


01/12/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

tESOchar 97%

DRAGONKNIGHT Ardent Flame Standard of Might:


12/02/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

Physical Activity 97%

The physical activity aspect is often overlooked.


18/07/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

Participant Activity Waiver and Release 97%

Each activity has its own risks, and rather than ask you to sign a new release or waiver with Remote Year each time you participate in activity, we're providing this waiver to cover all Remote Year activities or Remote Year sponsored/affiliated activities.


06/09/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Sports Ministry Participation Agreement 96%

Sport Activity: Date(s) and location of activity:


11/02/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

ConceptDocument 96%

        In  this  activity,  students  hear  a  word  spoken  and  choose  a   picture  whose  name  ends  in  the  same  sound.


20/08/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

ACKNOWLEDGMENT and RELEASE FORMS (for Email Use - 2006)-2 96%

from all liability for any personal injury, death, property damage, or loss resulting from my participation in the equine activity due to any cause, including but not limited to negligence (failure to use such care as a reasonably prudent and careful person would use under similar circumstances), breach of any duty imposed by law, breach of contract or mistake or error in judgment of the "Host";


25/07/2012 www.pdf-archive.com

Green Coffee Analytics Part 1 96%

  Green Coffee Analytics: Relevance to Roasters, Buyers, and Producers  Part I: Total Moisture Content and Water Activity  By Chris Kornman, May 2016         Most coffee professionals on the buying, roasting, and brewing side of the industry understand  and value sensory analysis of coffee. Cupping a coffee, after all, is the single most common and  effective way to decide if a coffee is worth purchasing, or if a roast has succeeded or failed.  Scores and notes help organize inventories, determine usage, and even provide feedback to  producers. In many cases, these scores are even tied to real dollar value whether as green or  roasted product.     I’d wager that most of the community have at least a cursory knowledge of green grading as  well, but I suspect that for many buyers and roasters it’s an afterthought or a metric that is  applied haphazardly at best, with little connection to what we usually think of when we think of  “quality.” In light of this, I’d like to outline a number of different measurements and describe how  they can add value across the supply chain. The first part of this series will focus on moisture in  green coffee.             Total Moisture Content    Moisture content has been a defining characteristic of the coffee export trade for eons. The  figure 12% is tossed around fairly loosely, frequently eliciting rejections once it is exceeded.  Likewise, the measurement of water activity has become an increasingly common interjection to  conversations  about physical quality, though it’s limits are a little less universally  acknowledged. Let’s dig into what these two different measurements mean, how they are  related to each other, and how they can be used as quality tools for the specialty roaster, buyer,  and grower.    Moisture content is defined as water bound up inside the coffee seed. When a coffee cherry is  picked, the seed is full of water and must be dried before export. Throughout the world, this is  accomplished in a variety of ways with varying effects on the final product. The specialty  community has frequently expressed aversion to vertical driers and cylindrical drum ​ guardiolas  used to mechanically dry coffee across much of Central America and Brazil. Compared to  sun­drying on patios or raised beds, the argument goes, mechanical drying is inferior. However,  the precision of a well­maintained dryer can improve the producer’s ability to consistently dry  large quantities of coffee when the temperature is appropriately monitored. Natural challenges  arise for any sun­dried coffees due to the simple nature of exposure to the elements. In my  experience, partial shade, protection from rain, and air circulation (frequent parchment turning  and/or raised beds) go a long way to ensure that a coffee is appropriately stabilized in sun­dried  environments.  It’s generally accepted that drying coffee is the most  critical post­harvest processing step, and that in  general lower drying temperatures are better at  preserving quality.1 A research team led by respected  coffee scientist Dr. Flávio Borém used SCAA style  qualitative analysis to confirm physical measurements  of numerous phenomena. Among the measurable data  they gathered, the ‘leaching’ of potassium from the  coffee bean2. This is relevant because it illustrates an  important point: compounds that are bound up inside  green coffee are susceptible to escape and  degradation, particularly if damage to the seed occurs  during the drying process. This means that quality can  escape from green coffee even as it rests on a shelf.  Unfortunately, simply taking a moisture content reading  cannot give us a sufficient glimpse of this sort of data.   From one of the most respected voices in coffee research: ​ Flávio Borém, et al., 2008   Potassium leaching has been correlated to defective quality in green coffee: ​ Marcelo Ribeiro Malta, et al.,  1981​ .  1 2      Water Activity    This point brings us to water activity. Humidity, and specifically the evaporation of moisture, is  the vehicle by which quality has the potential to escape from green coffee. We can obtain a  better indication of the integrity of the structure of the green coffee, and its ability to retain  moisture and volatile aromatic compounds, by measuring water activity.     Very briefly, water activity (or a​ ) is the measurement of vapor pressure or “water energy.” It is  W​ expressed mathematically as a comparison of the measurement of the vapor pressure of a  substance in question divided by the vapor pressure of water. Imagine the same amount of  water is added to two glasses: one with a sponge and one without. The water will evaporate  more slowly from the glass with the sponge, because the moisture is bound up in parts of that  sponge. So, any substance will have less water activity than water alone, because the moisture  in that substance will be bound up in varying degrees. As a result, water activity measurements  are expressed as a decimal; a water activity measurement of coffee will always be expressed as  a numerical value less than one but greater than zero. Water activity readings may vary in  reliability depending on the type of device in use, and these readings can be affected by  temperature, relative humidity, and other ambient environmental conditions.     The use of water activity measurements as a food safety indicator has been in circulation since  th​ the middle of the 20​  century. William James Scott was able to convincingly prove that water  activity measurements can predict microbial growth in 1953. Since that time, water activity has  come to be accepted as a more accurate and important indicator of “microbial, chemical, and  physical properties… than is total moisture content.”3 Across many industries water activity  measurement is now considered vital not just for safety, but as an indicator of potential for  chemical and physical reactions.     As you might imagine, this is relevant to coffee  in a number of ways. The first and most  obvious is in product safety. At a certain level,  mold and other microbes can grow; that level is  firmly established across all substance types.  Below a water activity range of 0.60, no  microbial proliferation occurs 4, and foods are  generally considered free from potential for new  contamination. Between the range of 0.60 and  0.90 a​ , molds and other fungi, yeasts, and  W​ other microbial activity increases, particularly at  higher ranges. Of particular interest to coffee are mold types that contain mycotoxins and  3 4  ​ Jorge Chirife and Anthony J. Fontana, Jr., 2007   ​ Anthony J. Fontana, Jr., 2008    ochratoxins, as these are known hazards to health. Per AquaLab water activity “for molds and  yeast growth is about 0.61 with the lower limit for growth of mycotoxigenic molds at 0.78 a​ .”5  W​   During post­harvest processing, HACCP6 guidelines suggest that “all coffee, cherry or  parchment, must spend no more than four days between [water activity of] 0.95… and… 0.80.”7  It’s a little hard to imagine a  farmer or producer  measuring the water activity  of their coffee while it  ferments, or during the first  few days on a patio or  drying table. If you think  about it, however, these are  some things we’ve felt  intuitively and know  experientially. Wet  parchment sitting around in  bags in Sumatra, for  example, generally isn’t a  favorable storage condition  for coffee of any quality. Similarly, Rwandan and Brazilian practice of tarp coverings for wet  parchment coffee on beds or patios can foster microbial growth (the spread of potato through a  lot, or the off flavors of rio/phenol, respectively).    In terms of practical applications for the coffee roaster and buyer, AquaLab has some relevant  points to make: “Green coffee deteriorates very gradually, but the ‘past crop’ taste… is partially  associated with the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose, especially. Higher water activity can  possibly provide an indication of the level of this activity.”8     Put simply, water activity measurements can help indicate the shelf­stability of a coffee,  particularly as it relates to perceived past crop flavors. These flavors are related to the escape  and/or chemical change in compounds created inside the bean and preserved (or not) by the  drying process post­harvest. While it’s impossible to predict an exact shelf­life using water  activity readings9, we can use water activity to give us an indication of how well­dried, and thus  how stable a green coffee might be. When used in conjunction with moisture content, this can  be a powerful tool for evaluating the longevity of a high­dollar/high quality product’s value. For  5  AquaLab is the water activity meter manufacturing arm of Decagon. They have numerous product manuals  and educational resources available for free online, including the one quoted here:  http://agrotheque.free.fr/Fundamentals.pdf  6  Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, as recommended by the FDA & USDA  7  This HACCP guildine is quoted by Aqualab ​ here​ .  8  Again, Aqualab’s ​ Coffee product manua​ l is responsible for this claim.  9  ​ Theodore P. Labuza, 1980    most purposes, the upper limit of 0.60 seems like a convenient “soft” limit for predicting shelf  stability for more than 6 months past harvest under normal storage conditions (moderate  temperatures, low relative humidity, GrainPro or other preservation method also recommended  to help prevent moisture migration).     There’s yet another side to this coin: water activity has the ability to predict the potential and  rate of changes related to browning reactions like caramelization and Maillard reactions. We  know that these reactions are absolutely critical to the development of complex chain sugars  and aromatic compounds and flavors in coffee as it roasts. Maillard reaction rate increases in  conjunction with water activity, reaching maximum potential at between 0.60 and 0.70, with  increases beyond 0.70 generally decreasing likelihood again.10     So, let’s look at this on a basic chart that should help frame the discussion visually:          You can see that the range for shelf stability is a little lower a​  than the peak for browning  W​ reactions, and that the microbial activity potential increases beyond 0.60. In light of these  signposts, coffee’s ideal water activity could be described as “close to 0.60.” Each roaster and  buyer, however, must choose on which side of this line they prefer to err: higher than 0.60  10  ​ http://www.webpal.org/SAFE/aaarecovery/2_food_storage/Processing/Water%20Activity.pdf 


03/05/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

7010 s12 qp 32 96%

When a guest wants to book an activity, they can phone the holiday park receptionist.


13/06/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

7010 s12 qp 31 96%

When a guest wants to book an activity, they can phone the holiday park receptionist.


13/06/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Winter English for Teenagers Flyer-2013-2014-LR 96%

Niagara Falls Medieval Times dinner + show Activities Included 1 Weekend Activity:


18/11/2013 www.pdf-archive.com