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1481236113-DM Workbook v4 109 97%



TurnCounterHowto 94%

Setting up the turn counter    Analog triggers  Analog triggers convert analog signals into digital signals using the cRIO’s FPGA. In order to  make the turn counter work, we use an analog trigger to create a digital signal when the  potentiometer “wraps around” from 0° to 360° or 360° to 0°.     Code sample (creating an analog trigger):     AnalogTrigger​  _analogTrigger ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTrigger​ (​ channel​ );    Analog trigger outputs  The analog trigger can send outputs in a number of different modes. The two most useful to us  here are Rising Pulse and Falling Pulse. Rising Pulse sends a pulse of digital signal when the  analog signal changes from a value below the minimum voltage you’ve set (hereafter called the  “lower threshold”) to a value above the maximum voltage you’ve set (the “upper threshold”).  Falling Pulse sends a pulse when the signal changes from a value above the upper threshold to  one below the lower threshold. One of these should pulse whenever you hit the potentiometer’s  discontinuity; which one indicates the direction the wheel pod is turning.    Code sample (creating analog trigger outputs):    AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerFalling ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kFallingPulse​ );    AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerRising ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kRisingPulse​ );    Creating the counter  To create a turn counter, we need to count the digital pulses of the analog trigger outputs. When  one pulses, we should increment the counter; when the other pulses, we should decrement it.  Which is which depends on your setup.     Code sample (creating the turn counter):    Counter​  _turnCounter ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ Counter​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpDownCounterMode​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpSource​ (​ _analogTriggerRising​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ setDownSource​ (​ _analogTriggerFalling​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ start​ ();    The filter, setting the sample rate and threshold voltages  Although the potentiometer’s discontinuity normally looks like a straight vertical line of voltage, it  isn’t; it’s a very steep, not­quite­vertical line. Thus, when crossing it, there’s a chance that one of  the voltages sampled by the analog trigger will be on that line, which really messes things up.  Luckily, you can enable a filter on the analog trigger’s input that samples three points and  rejects the one closest to average. In this way, so long as no more than one sampled point in a  row lies on the discontinuity and the surrounding points are below / above the lower / upper  threshold voltages, the crossing will still be detected. We need to set the sample rate low  enough that no more than one point can lie on the line.     This graph shows a closeup of the potentiometer’s discontinuity. In theory, so long as the  sample rate is slower than the 520 Hz displayed, no more than one point should lie along the  line. In practice, I found a huge margin of error beneficial; I went with 50 Hz. However, set the  sample rate too low and you run into another problem: the time between samples may be so  great that the times when the signal is above the upper threshold or below the lower threshold  are missed completely. When you lower the sample rate, you need to lower your upper  threshold and raise your lower threshold; doing this too much can result in false positives from  things like signal noise. In order to ensure that the value above the upper threshold isn’t missed,  the difference between the potentiometer’s real maximum voltage and the upper threshold must  be at least equal to the time between samples (in my case, 0.02 seconds) times the maximum  rate of change of the voltage. The same must be true of the difference between the  potentiometer’s real minimum voltage and the lower threshold. I wound up using a  “real­threshold” voltage difference of 0.6V. To get false positives, the two thresholds have to be  pretty close; once again, big safety margins are your friend.    Code sample (enabling input filtering):    _analogTrigger​ .​ setFiltered​ (​ true​ );    Code sample (setting the thresholds):    double​  _sensingVoltageDifference ​ =​  ​ 0.6;  _analogTrigger​ .​ setLimitsVoltage​ (​ minVoltage ​ +​  _sensingVoltageDifference​ ,​  maxVoltage ​ ­  _sensingVoltageDifference​ );    Code sample (setting the sample rate):    int​  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE ​ =​  ​ 1;  int​  ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE ​ =​  ​ 50​ ;​  ​ //Hz  AnalogModule​  ​ module​  ​ =​  ​ (​ AnalogModule​ )​  ​ Module​ .​ getModule​ (​ ModulePresence​ .​ ModuleType​ .​ kAnalog​ ,  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE​ );  module​ .​ setSampleRate​ (​ ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE​ );    Computing the new degree measurement  The end goal of this is to create a potentiometer that reads beyond 360°. To get this reading,  simply multiply the turn count by 360° and add the wheel’s current heading.    Code sample (reading the new degree measurement):    double​  heading ​ =​  ​ (((​ voltage ​ ­​  _minVoltage​ )​  ​ *​  ​ (​ 360.0​  ​ /​  _maxVoltage​ )))​  ​ %​  ​ 360.0;  double​  degrees ​ =​  heading ​ +​  ​ (​ _turnCounter​ .​ get​ ()​  ​ *​  ​ 360.0​ );      Putting it all together  Here’s my final code. I don’t know if things need to be in this order (as opposed to the order  presented above) but it certainly works for me.         // Constants //  private​  ​ static​  ​ final​  ​ int​  ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE ​ =​  ​ 50;  private​  ​ static​  ​ final​  ​ int​  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE ​ =​  ​ 1​ ;    private​  ​ static​  ​ final​  ​ double​  _sensingVoltageDifference ​ =​  ​ 0.6;    // Global fields //  private​  ​ AnalogTrigger​  _analogTrigger;  private​  ​ Counter​  _turnCounter;  private​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerFalling;  private​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerRising;    // In potentiometer's constructor //  _analogTrigger ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTrigger​ (​ channel​ );  _analogTrigger​ .​ setFiltered​ (​ true​ );  _analogTrigger​ .​ setLimitsVoltage​ (​ minVoltage ​ +​  _sensingVoltageDifference​ ,​  maxVoltage ​ ­  _sensingVoltageDifference​ );  _analogTriggerFalling ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kFallingPulse​ );  _analogTriggerRising ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kRisingPulse​ );    AnalogModule​  ​ module​  ​ =​  ​ (​ AnalogModule​ )​  ​ Module​ .​ getModule​ (​ ModulePresence​ .​ ModuleType​ .​ kAnalog​ ,  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE​ );  module​ .​ setSampleRate​ (​ ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE​ );      _turnCounter ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ Counter​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpDownCounterMode​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpSource​ (​ _analogTriggerRising​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ setDownSource​ (​ _analogTriggerFalling​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ start​ ();    // getDegrees() function //  double​  heading ​ =​  ​ (((​ voltage ​ ­​  _minVoltage​ )​  ​ *​  ​ (​ 360.0​  ​ /​  _maxVoltage​ )))​  ​ %​  ​ 360.0;  double​  degrees ​ =​  heading ​ +​  _offsetDegrees ​ +​  ​ (​ _turnCounter​ .​ get​ ()​  ​ *​  ​ 360.0​ );​  ​ //I have an  "offset" that allows me to compensate for potentiometers that aren't installed exactly  straight


HIOKI SM-8213 ENG 94%

SUPER MEGOHMMETER SM-8213/8215/8220 Super Megohm Testers d Tim e d L a y er, c a a lo y l ompa rge LCD digital/analog displ l fu s n rator, rem o i t ote start &


Fachartikel Analog- versus Digitalscopes 93%

While analog scopes are easy to understand and use, DSO’s are extremely complicated, this explains why even electronics engineers miss the stern warning which is implied in the advertisements “max.


Analog (issue 1) 92%

analog issue 1 fall 2014 home Analog is taking photos that you don’t see until later.


Schorman's Star Wars LaserDisc Archive 2.0 90%

Regards, schorman schorman’s Star Wars LaserDisc Audio Archive 2.0 CONTENTS Analog Captures Theatrical Stereo Mixes 1.


Swerve-Drive-Electronics-Board 90%

SABERTOOTH MOTOR CONTROLLER 1 Signal M1 Signal Ground M1DRIVE MOTOR 1 Battery M2 Battery- M2- M SABERTOOTH MOTOR CONTROLLER 2 Signal FUSE TURNING MOTOR 1 M1 Signal Ground ROTARY ENCODER 1 ROTARY ENCODER 2 M POTENTIOMETER 1 M M1- DRIVE MOTOR 2 TURNING MOTOR 2 POTENTIOMETER 2 M SWITCH Battery M2 Battery- M2- DRIVE MOTOR 3 BATTERY TALON SR MOTOR CONTROLLER 1 11.1V Battery Battery- M M M TALON SR MOTOR CONTROLLER 2 Battery M M- PWM TALON SR MOTOR CONTROLLER 3 Battery Battery- M M- PWM TALON SR MOTOR CONTROLLER 4 Battery Battery- M M- PWM Digital I/O Board PWM1 PWM2 PWM3 PWM4 Battery Data BatteryDigital 1 Digital 2 Digital 3 Digital 4 CRIO Digital I/O Module CRIO Module Slot 1 Slot Connector Data Module Slot 2 Module Slot 3 CRIO Analog Input Module Module Slot 4 Analog 1 Module Slot 5 Slot Connector Module Slot 6 RS232 Serial Port 12V 24V 12V to 5V DC/DC Converter 12V 5V Analog 3 5V Pins Module Slot 8 24V Analog 2 Analog 4 Module Slot 7 12V to 24V DC/DC Converter GND MAX232 Chip RS232 Serial 5V DRIVE MOTOR 4 ROTARY ENCODER 4 M M- PWM TURNING MOTOR 3 Battery- ROTARY ENCODER 3 TTL Data POTENTIOMETER 3 TURNING MOTOR 4 M POTENTIOMETER 4


The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications 2011 89%

FUNDAMENTAL THEORY Electrical Fundamentals Analog Basics Digital Basics PRACTICAL DESIGN AND PRINCIPLES RF Techniques Computer-Aided Circuit Design Power Supplies Modulation Oscillators and Synthesizers Mixers, Modulators and Demodulators RF and AF Filters Receivers Transmitters Transceivers DSP and Software Radio Design Digital Modes RF Power Amplifiers Repeaters ANTENNA SYSTEMS AND RADIO PROPAGATION Propagation of Radio Signals Transmission Lines Antennas EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Component Data and References Construction Techniques Station Accessories Test Equipment and Measurements Troubleshooting and Maintenance RF Interference USA $49.95 ARRL Order No.


HIOKI 8910 ENG 89%

The 8910 CAN ADAPTER allows you to freely select signals on the CAN bus for conversion to analog and logic signals for recording and monitoring.


Winter Forecast 2016-2017 88%

My favorite technique is analog forecasting, in which you compare similar weather patterns from years past with this year’s patterns, then predict the winter based off of this information.


AHD series brochure 160218 PDIa 87%

Product Comparison Chart Analog HD Camera TV Lines / Resolutions Imaging Device Horizontal Resolution Min.


BMT-2098C-A line scan camera user manual 87%

BMT-2098C-A User Manual Colour Line Scan Analog Camera BalaJi MicroTechnologies Pvt.


HIOKI MR8875 ENG 86%

Depending on which input modules are installed, measurement capabilities range from 16 analog channels to 60 thermocouple temperature measurement channels.


BalaJi MicroTechnologies C Arm 86%

"We are the renowned manufacturer of high speed Analog &


HIOKI IM7583 ENG 85%

0.07% GHz (Analog measurement time) (When measuring at 1GHz with the IM7585) 2 High-speed, highly stable measurement Ideal for common mode filter and chip inductor production lines IMPEDANCE ANALYZER IM7583 Measurement frequency 1MHz to 600MHz Repeatability and analog measurement time Repeatability (Z, 3CV) [%] 0.4 0.3 (Data shown for reference) Measurement freq.:


HIOKI MR8827 ENG 84%

MEMORY HiCORDER MR8827 Recorders 64 32 analog channels + ch 32 logic channels High-speed Isolated testing The Memory HiCorder MR8827 achieves isolated input between the main unit and channel or between channels, at a maximum sampling speed of 20 MS/s on all channels.


lab8 84%

In those time, most of the controls are actually analog.


Transmissor Pressao 83%

Basic Board Mount Pressure Sensors ABP Series—High Accuracy Digital or Analog Output Compensated/Amplified 60 mbar to 10 bar | 6 kPa to 1 MPa | 1 psi to 150 psi Datasheet Basic Amplified Board Mount Pressure Sensors The Basic Amplified ABP Series is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor offering a ratiometric analog or digital output for reading pressure over the specified full scale pressure span and temperature range.


BMT-2098C-A line scan camera summary page 82%

BMT-2098C-A Product Summary Summary Specification BMT-2098C-A Colour Line Scan Analog Camera Name Specification Resolution 2098 Tri-Linear CCD (KLI-2113) Pixel size 14×14 (µm×µm) (8 lines spacing) MAX.



BMT-2098C-A A Product Summary Summary Specification BMT-2098C-A Colour Line Scan Analog Camera Name Specification Resolution 2098 Tri Tri-Linear CCD (KLI-2113) Pixel size 14×14 ((µm×µm) (8 lines spacing) MAX.


InstekGOS 635G 622G 620.specsheet 82%

The 50MHz GOS-653G/652G Series are examples of classic analog oscilloscope design.


BalaJi MicroTechnologies Diamond Bruter 81%

"We are the renowned manufacturer of high speed Analog &


HIOKI 3504 ENG 81%

C METER 3506-10, C HiTESTER 3504 Component Measuring Instruments For Low Capacitance C METER 3506 -10 Measures at 1 kHz and 1 MHz For High Capacitance MLCCs C HiTESTERs 3504 -60, 3504 -50 and 3504 -40 Measures at 120 Hz and 1 kHz Ideal for testing taping machines and sorters C METER 3506-10 • High-speed measurement with an analog measurement time of 0.6 ms (1 MHz) • Improved noise resistance and dramatically increased repeatability for measurement of minuscule capacitance values • Stable measurement of low-capacitance capacitors at 1 MHz C HiTESTER 3504-60/3504-50/3504-40 • Constant-voltage measurement with an analog measurement time of 1 ms (1 kHz);