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IJETR011730 99%

This system is equipped with the necessary hardware so as analog and digital inputs and outputs can be interfaced with it.


27/12/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

LDUnit8 98%

Analog signals are continuous, with infinite values in a given range.


23/08/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

1481236113-DM Workbook v4 109 97%



17/02/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

CN1Unit3 96%

- Multiplexing, - Spread Spectrum, - Introduction to switching, - Circuit Switched Networks, - Datagram Networks, - Virtual Circuit Networks 6 Hours UNIT-III CHAPTER 5 5.1 DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERSION 70 Computer Network-1 10CS55 Digital-to-analog conversion is the process of changing one of the characteristics of an analog signal based on the information in digital data.


23/08/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

CN1Unit2 95%

- Analog &


23/08/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

TurnCounterHowto 94%

Setting up the turn counter    Analog triggers  Analog triggers convert analog signals into digital signals using the cRIO’s FPGA. In order to  make the turn counter work, we use an analog trigger to create a digital signal when the  potentiometer “wraps around” from 0° to 360° or 360° to 0°.     Code sample (creating an analog trigger):     AnalogTrigger​  _analogTrigger ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTrigger​ (​ channel​ );    Analog trigger outputs  The analog trigger can send outputs in a number of different modes. The two most useful to us  here are Rising Pulse and Falling Pulse. Rising Pulse sends a pulse of digital signal when the  analog signal changes from a value below the minimum voltage you’ve set (hereafter called the  “lower threshold”) to a value above the maximum voltage you’ve set (the “upper threshold”).  Falling Pulse sends a pulse when the signal changes from a value above the upper threshold to  one below the lower threshold. One of these should pulse whenever you hit the potentiometer’s  discontinuity; which one indicates the direction the wheel pod is turning.    Code sample (creating analog trigger outputs):    AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerFalling ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kFallingPulse​ );    AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerRising ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kRisingPulse​ );    Creating the counter  To create a turn counter, we need to count the digital pulses of the analog trigger outputs. When  one pulses, we should increment the counter; when the other pulses, we should decrement it.  Which is which depends on your setup.     Code sample (creating the turn counter):    Counter​  _turnCounter ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ Counter​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpDownCounterMode​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpSource​ (​ _analogTriggerRising​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ setDownSource​ (​ _analogTriggerFalling​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ start​ ();    The filter, setting the sample rate and threshold voltages  Although the potentiometer’s discontinuity normally looks like a straight vertical line of voltage, it  isn’t; it’s a very steep, not­quite­vertical line. Thus, when crossing it, there’s a chance that one of  the voltages sampled by the analog trigger will be on that line, which really messes things up.  Luckily, you can enable a filter on the analog trigger’s input that samples three points and  rejects the one closest to average. In this way, so long as no more than one sampled point in a  row lies on the discontinuity and the surrounding points are below / above the lower / upper  threshold voltages, the crossing will still be detected. We need to set the sample rate low  enough that no more than one point can lie on the line.     This graph shows a closeup of the potentiometer’s discontinuity. In theory, so long as the  sample rate is slower than the 520 Hz displayed, no more than one point should lie along the  line. In practice, I found a huge margin of error beneficial; I went with 50 Hz. However, set the  sample rate too low and you run into another problem: the time between samples may be so  great that the times when the signal is above the upper threshold or below the lower threshold  are missed completely. When you lower the sample rate, you need to lower your upper  threshold and raise your lower threshold; doing this too much can result in false positives from  things like signal noise. In order to ensure that the value above the upper threshold isn’t missed,  the difference between the potentiometer’s real maximum voltage and the upper threshold must  be at least equal to the time between samples (in my case, 0.02 seconds) times the maximum  rate of change of the voltage. The same must be true of the difference between the  potentiometer’s real minimum voltage and the lower threshold. I wound up using a  “real­threshold” voltage difference of 0.6V. To get false positives, the two thresholds have to be  pretty close; once again, big safety margins are your friend.    Code sample (enabling input filtering):    _analogTrigger​ .​ setFiltered​ (​ true​ );    Code sample (setting the thresholds):    double​  _sensingVoltageDifference ​ =​  ​ 0.6;  _analogTrigger​ .​ setLimitsVoltage​ (​ minVoltage ​ +​  _sensingVoltageDifference​ ,​  maxVoltage ​ ­  _sensingVoltageDifference​ );    Code sample (setting the sample rate):    int​  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE ​ =​  ​ 1;  int​  ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE ​ =​  ​ 50​ ;​  ​ //Hz  AnalogModule​  ​ module​  ​ =​  ​ (​ AnalogModule​ )​  ​ Module​ .​ getModule​ (​ ModulePresence​ .​ ModuleType​ .​ kAnalog​ ,  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE​ );  module​ .​ setSampleRate​ (​ ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE​ );    Computing the new degree measurement  The end goal of this is to create a potentiometer that reads beyond 360°. To get this reading,  simply multiply the turn count by 360° and add the wheel’s current heading.    Code sample (reading the new degree measurement):    double​  heading ​ =​  ​ (((​ voltage ​ ­​  _minVoltage​ )​  ​ *​  ​ (​ 360.0​  ​ /​  _maxVoltage​ )))​  ​ %​  ​ 360.0;  double​  degrees ​ =​  heading ​ +​  ​ (​ _turnCounter​ .​ get​ ()​  ​ *​  ​ 360.0​ );      Putting it all together  Here’s my final code. I don’t know if things need to be in this order (as opposed to the order  presented above) but it certainly works for me.         // Constants //  private​  ​ static​  ​ final​  ​ int​  ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE ​ =​  ​ 50;  private​  ​ static​  ​ final​  ​ int​  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE ​ =​  ​ 1​ ;    private​  ​ static​  ​ final​  ​ double​  _sensingVoltageDifference ​ =​  ​ 0.6;    // Global fields //  private​  ​ AnalogTrigger​  _analogTrigger;  private​  ​ Counter​  _turnCounter;  private​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerFalling;  private​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerRising;    // In potentiometer's constructor //  _analogTrigger ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTrigger​ (​ channel​ );  _analogTrigger​ .​ setFiltered​ (​ true​ );  _analogTrigger​ .​ setLimitsVoltage​ (​ minVoltage ​ +​  _sensingVoltageDifference​ ,​  maxVoltage ​ ­  _sensingVoltageDifference​ );  _analogTriggerFalling ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kFallingPulse​ );  _analogTriggerRising ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kRisingPulse​ );    AnalogModule​  ​ module​  ​ =​  ​ (​ AnalogModule​ )​  ​ Module​ .​ getModule​ (​ ModulePresence​ .​ ModuleType​ .​ kAnalog​ ,  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE​ );  module​ .​ setSampleRate​ (​ ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE​ );      _turnCounter ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ Counter​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpDownCounterMode​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpSource​ (​ _analogTriggerRising​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ setDownSource​ (​ _analogTriggerFalling​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ start​ ();    // getDegrees() function //  double​  heading ​ =​  ​ (((​ voltage ​ ­​  _minVoltage​ )​  ​ *​  ​ (​ 360.0​  ​ /​  _maxVoltage​ )))​  ​ %​  ​ 360.0;  double​  degrees ​ =​  heading ​ +​  _offsetDegrees ​ +​  ​ (​ _turnCounter​ .​ get​ ()​  ​ *​  ​ 360.0​ );​  ​ //I have an  "offset" that allows me to compensate for potentiometers that aren't installed exactly  straight   


25/05/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

HIOKI SM-8213 ENG 94%

SUPER MEGOHMMETER SM-8213/8215/8220 Super Megohm Testers d Tim e d L a y er, c a a lo y l ompa rge LCD digital/analog displ l fu s n rator, rem o i t ote start &


25/12/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Fachartikel Analog- versus Digitalscopes 93%

While analog scopes are easy to understand and use, DSO’s are extremely complicated, this explains why even electronics engineers miss the stern warning which is implied in the advertisements “max.


06/07/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Analog (issue 1) 92%

analog issue 1 fall 2014 home Analog is taking photos that you don’t see until later.


08/01/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

LDUnit1 92%

Logic Design 10CS33 Unit-1 Digital Principles, Digital Logic 1.1 Definitions of Analog vs Digital signals An Analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.


23/08/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Wireless Digital Camera 90%

When choosing exactly what kind of wireless camera system you need, you will typically need to pick in between a digital system and an analog system.


26/03/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

Schorman's Star Wars LaserDisc Archive 2.0 90%

Regards, schorman schorman’s Star Wars LaserDisc Audio Archive 2.0 CONTENTS Analog Captures Theatrical Stereo Mixes 1.


18/11/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

slau525 90%

Verified Design Bipolar +/-10V Analog Output from a Unipolar Voltage Output DAC TI Precision Designs Circuit Description TI Precision Designs are analog solutions created by TI’s analog experts.


13/07/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Swerve-Drive-Electronics-Board 90%

SABERTOOTH MOTOR CONTROLLER 1 Signal M1 Signal Ground M1DRIVE MOTOR 1 Battery M2 Battery- M2- M SABERTOOTH MOTOR CONTROLLER 2 Signal FUSE TURNING MOTOR 1 M1 Signal Ground ROTARY ENCODER 1 ROTARY ENCODER 2 M POTENTIOMETER 1 M M1- DRIVE MOTOR 2 TURNING MOTOR 2 POTENTIOMETER 2 M SWITCH Battery M2 Battery- M2- DRIVE MOTOR 3 BATTERY TALON SR MOTOR CONTROLLER 1 11.1V Battery Battery- M M M TALON SR MOTOR CONTROLLER 2 Battery M M- PWM TALON SR MOTOR CONTROLLER 3 Battery Battery- M M- PWM TALON SR MOTOR CONTROLLER 4 Battery Battery- M M- PWM Digital I/O Board PWM1 PWM2 PWM3 PWM4 Battery Data BatteryDigital 1 Digital 2 Digital 3 Digital 4 CRIO Digital I/O Module CRIO Module Slot 1 Slot Connector Data Module Slot 2 Module Slot 3 CRIO Analog Input Module Module Slot 4 Analog 1 Module Slot 5 Slot Connector Module Slot 6 RS232 Serial Port 12V 24V 12V to 5V DC/DC Converter 12V 5V Analog 3 5V Pins Module Slot 8 24V Analog 2 Analog 4 Module Slot 7 12V to 24V DC/DC Converter GND MAX232 Chip RS232 Serial 5V DRIVE MOTOR 4 ROTARY ENCODER 4 M M- PWM TURNING MOTOR 3 Battery- ROTARY ENCODER 3 TTL Data POTENTIOMETER 3 TURNING MOTOR 4 M POTENTIOMETER 4


25/05/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Advantages of Wifi Ip Camera 90%

Advantages of Wifi Ip Camera Here are some reasons why companies should switch from analog cameras to digital cameras and dedicated network video recorders (NVRs) for video surveillance requirements.


05/05/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

CN1Syllabus 89%

Analog &


23/08/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications 2011 89%

FUNDAMENTAL THEORY Electrical Fundamentals Analog Basics Digital Basics PRACTICAL DESIGN AND PRINCIPLES RF Techniques Computer-Aided Circuit Design Power Supplies Modulation Oscillators and Synthesizers Mixers, Modulators and Demodulators RF and AF Filters Receivers Transmitters Transceivers DSP and Software Radio Design Digital Modes RF Power Amplifiers Repeaters ANTENNA SYSTEMS AND RADIO PROPAGATION Propagation of Radio Signals Transmission Lines Antennas EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Component Data and References Construction Techniques Station Accessories Test Equipment and Measurements Troubleshooting and Maintenance RF Interference USA $49.95 ARRL Order No.


04/05/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

HIOKI 8910 ENG 88%

The 8910 CAN ADAPTER allows you to freely select signals on the CAN bus for conversion to analog and logic signals for recording and monitoring.


24/12/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Winter Forecast 2016-2017 88%

My favorite technique is analog forecasting, in which you compare similar weather patterns from years past with this year’s patterns, then predict the winter based off of this information.


05/11/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

IJEART03404 88%

A literature review of such analog active block is presented in [1-2].


10/09/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

ADOH-SimulationModelsandAnalysesReference-050813-1033-27772 87%

Simulation Models The Altium Designer-based Circuit Simulator is a true mixed-signal simulator, meaning that it can analyze circuits that include both analog and digital devices.


17/03/2018 www.pdf-archive.com