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butterfly garden guide easy 100%

Smooth Aster If over time the plant becomes lanky by late summer, try cutting back 1/3 mid – late spring, shear moderately hard as bloom starts to finish to control reseeding.


17/05/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

B&W B2B Spring Presentation Final LR 97%

bloomandwild.com/business 020 3475 3032 About us Bloom &


05/07/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

7 methods to grow flowers1849 97%

Trees Don t assume all specimens generated a weeping habit are flowering landscape trees, but this text looks at several weeping varieties that do bloom, headed by four kinds of cherry.


30/04/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Flower Delivery Auckland 97%

People utilize the bloom to display love and respect buying enough each flower has bloom now its own worth and part of a gigantic industry get more info.


12/02/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Ad Page 2 92%



16/06/2012 www.pdf-archive.com

PrinciplesofLearningandLearningTheory 92%

    PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY                 Principles of Learning and Learning Theory  Hannah R. Hiles  University of North Carolina at Greensboro          1      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 2  What is learning?  > Major Learning Theories: Gagné’s Hierarchy  Much of our understanding of education and the teaching process comes from Robert  Gagné, an early 20th­century experimental psychologist who was primarily interested in learning  and instruction. It was Gagné who gave us the most fundamental basis for the process of  teaching and what the instruction process looks like. Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning presents  eight ways to learn, with each stage building on the lower levels, ensuring that the upper levels  require greater skill and ability to conquer.  From the bottom up they begin with Signal Learning. As it is at the very bottom of the  hierarchy it is part of Pavlov’s “classical conditioning,” or the act of conditioning a subject to  provide a desired response in conjunction with a predetermined signal. Next comes  Stimulus­Response Learning – a more advanced version of classical conditioning. It incorporates  the use of schedules and rewards in the learning process. Chaining comes next, wherein a student  begins to learn the ability to connect prior lessons together in an organized sequence. After  Chaining comes Verbal Association. A higher­level form of Chaining, Verbal Association is the  same idea, but with those prior lessons being vocal in nature as opposed to physical. Note that  only halfway up the hierarchy, we are finally at a point where the student is at a point where they  are beginning to incorporate verbal skills – the magnitude of Gagné’s hierarchy and just how  “basic” his most fundamental lessons are cannot be overstated.  Discrimination Learning, Concept Learning, and Rule Learning are next and are very  linked together. Discrimination Learning is the process of a student being able to form  appropriate responses in an organized and precise way. Concept Learning follows this by      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 3  requiring that the student makes those same responses but now with the addition of  categorization – that they respond the same way to the same stimuli, regardless of order or  organization. Rule Learning eventually comes in, the second to last piece of Gagné’s hierarchy.  The most complex part of Rule Learning is that it requires the student to not only learn  relationships between situations and higher concepts but to also predict future situations and  concepts (ie, to understand social rules even if they are in a social situation that is new).  The final part of Gagné’s Hierarchy is Problem Solving. Gagné considered this the  highest level of learning. Because it requires entirely independent cognition and no external  stimuli, the student has to have mastered all previous levels in order to problem solve effectively.  In Problem Solving, the student must be able to face complicated rules and situations and not  know the answers – instead, he or she must know ways of getting to the answers (Singley 1989).  Gagné saw that by working their way up through the levels, students could eventually have  mastery of the task they were studying. This method also allowed for students to move at a pace  that worked for their own abilities, as well as letting them stop and start again at any point and  presenting the entire learning process as a journey rather than a means to an end (Clark 2004).  > Major Learning Theories: Bloom’s Taxonomy  This learning theory comes from a 1956 report that came to be known as “Bloom’s  Taxonomy,” a form of learning through instruction that takes into account the intake of  information through Cognitive (knowledge­based learning), Affective (emotion­based), and  Psychomotor (action­based). Much of instructional design that takes guidance from Bloom looks  specifically at the Cognitive model of Bloom’s Taxonomy, and the six individual components  that Bloom organizes in a hierarchy (similar to Gagné’s own hierarchy). For Bloom, the      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 4  hierarchy comes in the form of Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating,  and Creating.  It’s important when looking at Bloom’s hierarchy to see that, as with Gagné, each step  leads to the next. The student begins with remembering materials – they can recall and repeat  facts and answers from their long­term memory with ease. Once they can remember information  they can proceed to understand it – one can memorize sums and figures or dates in history  without actually understanding what they mean, but Bloom saw this second level of  Understanding as an important moment in the educational process.  Applying is the student’s use of the information they have come to understand – this will  vary depending on the information they have, but the more they use the information at hand, the  deeper their understanding of it will come. This leads directly into Analyzing, where a student  can look at the work they are doing (their “application” in the previous state of the hierarchy)  and determine cause and effect. This work of analyzing their lesson moves organically into  Evaluating – if A causes B, and B is a problem, how can the student solve B? This stage of  Evaluation is similar to Gagné’s final level of Problem Solving – it is the process of a student  looking for the work they are doing and determining where the issues are, then finding for  themselves what the solutions may be.  Finally, the student can move into Creating. Unlike Gagné, Bloom didn’t see the  educational process as stopping at Problem Solving – for him, the pinnacle of mastering a skill or  learning something new came when the student was able to then take that information and do  something unique with it. Bloom’s first edition of the Taxonomy had this final stage as  “Knowledge,” but in 2001 (two years after his death), it was updated to “Creating” or      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 5  “Synthesizing”. This is the student’s ability to take unique and individual parts and put them  together into a larger and more unified representation of the lesson or information they have been  learning – a synthesis of their learned knowledge (Wineburg 2009).  > Major Learning Theories: Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism  Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism are three additional members of learning  theory that cannot be neglected. Going back to Gagné’s “signal learning” and Pavlov’s “classical  conditioning,” Behaviorism looks at the most simple behavioral changes in an organism. As  Jordan et al point out, Behaviorists are quick to defend that they don’t believe learners don’t  think, rather “they [researchers] mainly choose to ignore inaccessible mental processes and focus  on observable behaviour” (2008). Cognitivism is a step up, branching into the mental processes  of how we observe and then process our environments and what happens to us. While  Behaviorism may be the knee­jerk reactions, Cognitivism in learning relies on “developing  effective ways of building schemata and processing information” (Jordan). Finally, in  Constructivism, we see yet a further advancement in the realm of cognition. Instead of simply  processing information as in Cognitivism, Constructivism is a school which is based on the  educator taking a passive role in their pupil’s learning – instead of dishing out answers, they may  use questions to inspire their students to probe deeper into their own understanding of the  materials, and find their own answers within. Jordan et al note that while the flow between  Constructivism and Cognitivism can be difficult to differentiate, Constructivism ultimately  “focuses on what people do with information to develop knowledge” (2008).     


24/04/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

springsale-us 91%

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28/04/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

WholeBlossoms.ppt 90%

Welcome To WholeBlossoms Our Focus 1.


17/04/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

BigSkyXeriscape 88%

4 Prairie Dropseed Purple Coneflower 4 Requires infrequent water after establishment TRANSITION ZONE low water | hardy mass in front of window | late summer bloom low water once established | shade tolerant | fall color 4 Species:


11/08/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Flower Gift Delivery for Make Someone You Love Smile 88%

In the event that it's "I cherish you", then you can locate the ideal blossom for that, in the event that you need to inspire another lover, there's a bloom for that as well.


02/08/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Astrological Significance of Vasant Panchami 87%

Cancerians can either go for white Lotus or whatever other white bloom, while individuals under Leo sign can get advantages by loving with red Hibiscus.


11/02/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

AED 222 Week 8 CheckPoint Bloom 85%

AED 222 Week 8 CheckPoint Bloom’s Taxonomy Within a Planning Pyramid To purchase this material click below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/AED-222/AED-222Week-8-CheckPoint-Blooms-Taxonomy-Within-aPlanning-Pyramid Resource:


27/05/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

PDF 10 85%


10/01/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

orchid magazine - 2 85%

But What is considered interesting information on That is This orchids may bloom with regard to quite a few years.


01/02/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

wow 83%

Like · Reply · 7 hrs Dave Bloom Michael Rendle who tf argues in Hilary's defense...


09/07/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

The Features of LIFE 83%

"Clivia never blooms in the inharmonious family, and it will bloom in advance to announce the good news when there is celebration.


19/01/2012 www.pdf-archive.com

how to look after dendrobium1350 79%

5.Fertilizer As with every different kind of orchids, Dendrobiums need feeding throughout their growing seasons and also while they are about to bloom.


04/06/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Best Wedding Advice 78%

Give them a little flexibility with your wedding bloom outline and I guarantee you won't be sad!


21/08/2017 www.pdf-archive.com