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Green Coffee Analytics: Relevance to Roasters, Buyers, and Producers Part I: Total Moisture Content and Water Activity By Chris Kornman, May 2016 Most coffee professionals on the buying, roasting, and brewing side of the industry understand and value sensory analysis of coffee. Cupping a coffee, after all, is the single most common and effective way to decide if a coffee is worth purchasing, or if a roast has succeeded or failed. Scores and notes help organize inventories, determine usage, and even provide feedback to producers. In many cases, these scores are even tied to real dollar value whether as green or roasted product. I’d wager that most of the community have at least a cursory knowledge of green grading as well, but I suspect that for many buyers and roasters it’s an afterthought or a metric that is applied haphazardly at best, with little connection to what we usually think of when we think of “quality.” In light of this, I’d like to outline a number of different measurements and describe how they can add value across the supply chain. The first part of this series will focus on moisture in green coffee. Total Moisture Content Moisture content has been a defining characteristic of the coffee export trade for eons. The figure 12% is tossed around fairly loosely, frequently eliciting rejections once it is exceeded. Likewise, the measurement of water activity has become an increasingly common interjection to conversations about physical quality, though it’s limits are a little less universally acknowledged. Let’s dig into what these two different measurements mean, how they are related to each other, and how they can be used as quality tools for the specialty roaster, buyer, and grower. Moisture content is defined as water bound up inside the coffee seed. When a coffee cherry is picked, the seed is full of water and must be dried before export. Throughout the world, this is accomplished in a variety of ways with varying effects on the final product. The specialty community has frequently expressed aversion to vertical driers and cylindrical drum guardiolas used to mechanically dry coffee across much of Central America and Brazil. Compared to sundrying on patios or raised beds, the argument goes, mechanical drying is inferior. However, the precision of a wellmaintained dryer can improve the producer’s ability to consistently dry large quantities of coffee when the temperature is appropriately monitored. Natural challenges arise for any sundried coffees due to the simple nature of exposure to the elements. In my experience, partial shade, protection from rain, and air circulation (frequent parchment turning and/or raised beds) go a long way to ensure that a coffee is appropriately stabilized in sundried environments. It’s generally accepted that drying coffee is the most critical postharvest processing step, and that in general lower drying temperatures are better at preserving quality.1 A research team led by respected coffee scientist Dr. Flávio Borém used SCAA style qualitative analysis to confirm physical measurements of numerous phenomena. Among the measurable data they gathered, the ‘leaching’ of potassium from the coffee bean2. This is relevant because it illustrates an important point: compounds that are bound up inside green coffee are susceptible to escape and degradation, particularly if damage to the seed occurs during the drying process. This means that quality can escape from green coffee even as it rests on a shelf. Unfortunately, simply taking a moisture content reading cannot give us a sufficient glimpse of this sort of data. From one of the most respected voices in coffee research: Flávio Borém, et al., 2008 Potassium leaching has been correlated to defective quality in green coffee: Marcelo Ribeiro Malta, et al., 1981 . 1 2 Water Activity This point brings us to water activity. Humidity, and specifically the evaporation of moisture, is the vehicle by which quality has the potential to escape from green coffee. We can obtain a better indication of the integrity of the structure of the green coffee, and its ability to retain moisture and volatile aromatic compounds, by measuring water activity. Very briefly, water activity (or a ) is the measurement of vapor pressure or “water energy.” It is W expressed mathematically as a comparison of the measurement of the vapor pressure of a substance in question divided by the vapor pressure of water. Imagine the same amount of water is added to two glasses: one with a sponge and one without. The water will evaporate more slowly from the glass with the sponge, because the moisture is bound up in parts of that sponge. So, any substance will have less water activity than water alone, because the moisture in that substance will be bound up in varying degrees. As a result, water activity measurements are expressed as a decimal; a water activity measurement of coffee will always be expressed as a numerical value less than one but greater than zero. Water activity readings may vary in reliability depending on the type of device in use, and these readings can be affected by temperature, relative humidity, and other ambient environmental conditions. The use of water activity measurements as a food safety indicator has been in circulation since th the middle of the 20 century. William James Scott was able to convincingly prove that water activity measurements can predict microbial growth in 1953. Since that time, water activity has come to be accepted as a more accurate and important indicator of “microbial, chemical, and physical properties… than is total moisture content.”3 Across many industries water activity measurement is now considered vital not just for safety, but as an indicator of potential for chemical and physical reactions. As you might imagine, this is relevant to coffee in a number of ways. The first and most obvious is in product safety. At a certain level, mold and other microbes can grow; that level is firmly established across all substance types. Below a water activity range of 0.60, no microbial proliferation occurs 4, and foods are generally considered free from potential for new contamination. Between the range of 0.60 and 0.90 a , molds and other fungi, yeasts, and W other microbial activity increases, particularly at higher ranges. Of particular interest to coffee are mold types that contain mycotoxins and 3 4 Jorge Chirife and Anthony J. Fontana, Jr., 2007 Anthony J. Fontana, Jr., 2008 ochratoxins, as these are known hazards to health. Per AquaLab water activity “for molds and yeast growth is about 0.61 with the lower limit for growth of mycotoxigenic molds at 0.78 a .”5 W During postharvest processing, HACCP6 guidelines suggest that “all coffee, cherry or parchment, must spend no more than four days between [water activity of] 0.95… and… 0.80.”7 It’s a little hard to imagine a farmer or producer measuring the water activity of their coffee while it ferments, or during the first few days on a patio or drying table. If you think about it, however, these are some things we’ve felt intuitively and know experientially. Wet parchment sitting around in bags in Sumatra, for example, generally isn’t a favorable storage condition for coffee of any quality. Similarly, Rwandan and Brazilian practice of tarp coverings for wet parchment coffee on beds or patios can foster microbial growth (the spread of potato through a lot, or the off flavors of rio/phenol, respectively). In terms of practical applications for the coffee roaster and buyer, AquaLab has some relevant points to make: “Green coffee deteriorates very gradually, but the ‘past crop’ taste… is partially associated with the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose, especially. Higher water activity can possibly provide an indication of the level of this activity.”8 Put simply, water activity measurements can help indicate the shelfstability of a coffee, particularly as it relates to perceived past crop flavors. These flavors are related to the escape and/or chemical change in compounds created inside the bean and preserved (or not) by the drying process postharvest. While it’s impossible to predict an exact shelflife using water activity readings9, we can use water activity to give us an indication of how welldried, and thus how stable a green coffee might be. When used in conjunction with moisture content, this can be a powerful tool for evaluating the longevity of a highdollar/high quality product’s value. For 5 AquaLab is the water activity meter manufacturing arm of Decagon. They have numerous product manuals and educational resources available for free online, including the one quoted here: http://agrotheque.free.fr/Fundamentals.pdf 6 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, as recommended by the FDA & USDA 7 This HACCP guildine is quoted by Aqualab here . 8 Again, Aqualab’s Coffee product manua l is responsible for this claim. 9 Theodore P. Labuza, 1980 most purposes, the upper limit of 0.60 seems like a convenient “soft” limit for predicting shelf stability for more than 6 months past harvest under normal storage conditions (moderate temperatures, low relative humidity, GrainPro or other preservation method also recommended to help prevent moisture migration). There’s yet another side to this coin: water activity has the ability to predict the potential and rate of changes related to browning reactions like caramelization and Maillard reactions. We know that these reactions are absolutely critical to the development of complex chain sugars and aromatic compounds and flavors in coffee as it roasts. Maillard reaction rate increases in conjunction with water activity, reaching maximum potential at between 0.60 and 0.70, with increases beyond 0.70 generally decreasing likelihood again.10 So, let’s look at this on a basic chart that should help frame the discussion visually: You can see that the range for shelf stability is a little lower a than the peak for browning W reactions, and that the microbial activity potential increases beyond 0.60. In light of these signposts, coffee’s ideal water activity could be described as “close to 0.60.” Each roaster and buyer, however, must choose on which side of this line they prefer to err: higher than 0.60 10 http://www.webpal.org/SAFE/aaarecovery/2_food_storage/Processing/Water%20Activity.pdf
of C In keeping with Pueblo’s rich and diverse history, Pueblo coffee shops are a unique Find your way to ffee Great Co Solar Roast 226 N.
HOSTEL 16 MESS MENU ( 22.01.18 - 28.01.18 ) MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THRUSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY Uthappam Boiled Egg Moong Sprout BBJ Tea+Coffee Milk+BournVita Chocos Besan Chilla Egg bhurji Bolied Corn BBJ Tea+Coffee Milk+BournVita Cornflakes Paneer paratha Boiled egg Matki Sprout BBJ Tea+Coffee Milk+BournVita Cornflakes Indori Poha Omelette Chana Sprout BBJ Tea+Coffee Milk+BournVita Chocos Masala Dosa Boiled egg Moong Sprout BBJ Tea+Coffee Milk+BournVita Cornflakes Coconut Upma Paneer bhurji Boiled Channa BBJ Tea+Coffee Milk+BournVita Cornflakes Sabudana khichdi Boiled Egg Boiled Corn BBJ Tea+Coffee Milk+BournVita Cornflakes Chana Soya Bean Kadhi Pakoda Chhole Bhature Mix Veg Dry(paneer) Aloo Gobhi Rajma Jhol Aloo Tamatar Moong Dal Aka Masoor Arhar Dall Arhar Dal Dal Makhni Arhar Dal Mix Dal Puri+Roti Roti+Ghee Roti Roti+Ghee Roti Roti+Ghee Roti Triangle Paratha Methi Puri Plain Rice Plain Rice Plain Rice Plain Rice Jeera Rice Plain Rice Aloo Papad Papad B R EA K FA ST Week-4 Jeera Rice Papad Raita Dahi Dahi Dahi Dahi D IN N ER TI FF IN LU N C H Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) LIME TANG Mango Tang Lassi ORANGE TANG Macaroni Cheese Burger Aloo Tawa Sandwich Fried Idli BBJ BBJ BBJ BBJ Dhokla Aloo Tikki Chhole Bhel puri BBJ BBJ Tea+Coffee Tea+Coffee Tea+Coffee BBJ Tea+Coffee Tea+Coffee Tea+Coffee Tea+Coffee Butterscotch Milk Banana Shake Orange Pineapple Musk Melon Guava Strawberry Shake Chhole Masala Roti+Ghee Roti Methi Aaloo Dry Handi Paneer Gajar Matar Veg Kofta Palak Paneer Corn Beetroot Matar Dry Roti+Ghee Roti Roti+Ghee Roti Roti+Ghee Roti Roti+Ghee Roti Roti+Ghee Roti Moong Dal Roti+Ghee Roti Chana Dal Dal Makhani Moong Dal Arhar Dal Moong Dal Dal Makhani Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Salad(*Lemon &Tomato) Ice cream Plain rice +Sweet rice Plain Rice EGG CURRY Note:- Non avilability of materials can lead to change in menu.
8 COLD BREW COFFEE M ARKET OVERVIEW......................................................................................................
WELCOME CONTENTS The Specialty Coffee Chronicle is published four times per year by the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) as a forum for discussion and information on industry-related topics and issues.
This means that the actions moves from the coffee washing stations to the dry mill and that it´s time to focus ourselves in the processing period!
+971(0)6344010, firstname.lastname@example.org Coffee Break Menus Coffee Break “A” Assorted Mini Croissants Assorted Cookies Tea &
jam inclusive of American coffee Eggs any style (fried, scrambled or poached), baked beans, hash browns, grilled mushrooms, turkey bacon, beef sausage, toast &
Coffee Report BRIEFING NOTE 1 – January 2013 LA ROYA Introduction There have been a lot of newswire stories about the recent spread of “La Roya” in Central America and Mexico.
coffee fellows AlleFotos:Filialmanagement Ortstermin Mario Abbate hat sich mit Bruder Rosario als Pächter von Coffee Fellows selbstständig gemacht.
May has passed by and the coffee season is already in its last weeks.
Week 1 Monday Wash Dishes / load dishwasher Wash kitchen sink Put away dry dishes Sweep Kitchen Pick up family room Pick up toy room Clear off / wipe kitchen counters Wipe out bathroom sink Empty all trash cans Do laundry Take vitamins Clear off / wipe dining room table Clear off / wipe down coffee table Mop Kitchen Exercise Clean toilet Clean bathroom mirror Wipe down kitchen appliances _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Wednesday Wash Dishes / load dishwasher Wash kitchen sink Put away dry dishes Sweep Kitchen Pick up family room Pick up toy room Clear off / wipe kitchen counters Wipe out bathroom sink Empty all trash cans Do laundry Take vitamins Clear off / wipe dining room table Clear off / wipe down coffee table Mop Kitchen Exercise Sweep/vacuum main floor ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Tuesday Wash Dishes / load dishwasher Wash kitchen sink Put away dry dishes Sweep Kitchen Pick up family room Pick up toy room Clear off / wipe kitchen counters Wipe out bathroom sink Empty all trash cans Do laundry Take vitamins Clear off / wipe dining room table Clear off / wipe down coffee table Clean tub/shower Wipe down baseboard on first floor Declutter office area ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ Thursday Wash Dishes / load dishwasher Wash kitchen sink Put away dry dishes Sweep Kitchen Pick up family room Pick up toy room Clear off / wipe kitchen counters Wipe out bathroom sink Empty all trash cans Do laundry Take vitamins Clear off / wipe dining room table Clear off / wipe down coffee table Change Sheets Clear off/organize night stands _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ ____ / ____ to ____ / ____ Friday Wash Dishes / load dishwasher Wash kitchen sink Put away dry dishes Sweep Kitchen Pick up family room Pick up toy room Clear off / wipe kitchen counters Wipe out bathroom sink Empty all trash cans Do laundry Take vitamins Clear off / wipe dining room table Clear off / wipe down coffee table Mop Kitchen Exercise Clean kitchen garbage can Dust Sweep/vacuum second floor ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Sunday Wash Dishes / load dishwasher Wash kitchen sink Put away dry dishes Sweep Kitchen Pick up family room Pick up toy room Clear off / wipe kitchen counters Wipe out bathroom sink Empty all trash cans Do laundry Take vitamins Clear off / wipe dining room table Clear off / wipe down coffee table Mop Kitchen Exercise Plan upcoming weeks activities Plan upcoming weeks errand/shopping list ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ Saturday Wash Dishes / load dishwasher Wash kitchen sink Put away dry dishes Sweep Kitchen Pick up family room Pick up toy room Clear off / wipe kitchen counters Wipe out bathroom sink Empty all trash cans Do laundry Take vitamins Clear off / wipe dining room table Clear off / wipe down coffee table Back up computer files Clean kids room ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Weekly Appointments / Notes _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Weekly Goals ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ January:
Tinto $1.600 Coffee Café con leche $2.200 Coffee with cream Capuchino $4.300 Cappuccino Capuchino saborizado Sirope de masmelo o vainilla $4.700 Flavored cappuccino Marshmallows or vanilla syrup Café crema Café expreso, leche espumada y crema chantilly $4.500 Coffee cream Espresso, steamed-milk and whipped cream Café moka Helado de café, brandy y crema chantilly $6.300 Moka coffee Coffee ice cream, brandy and whipped cream Café ópera Helado de café, amaretto, crema, nueces y salsa de chocolate $7.300 Opera coffee Coffee ice cream, amaretto liqueur, whipped cream, nuts and chocolate syrup Granizado de café $5.000 Coffee frosty Malteada de café $7.000 Coffee milk shake Té (Lipton) · En agua · En leche $2.300 $2.900 Tea (Lipton) · Water · Milk Té verde en agua (Twinings) $2.300 Green tea (Twinings) Infusión natural de frutas, hierbas aromáticas y panela $5.000 Natural infusion with fruits, aromatic herbs and panela (Compact brown sugar) Aromáticas (Twinings) Flor de Jamaica, Maracuyá con durazno, Limón, Frutas silvestres, Hinojos dulces, Limón con jengibre, Manzanilla, Manzanilla con miel y vainilla $2.300 Herbal and fruit infusions (Twinings) Roselle Hibiscus, Peach and passion fruit, Lemon twist, Wild berries, Sweet fennel, Lemon and ginger, Camomil, Camomil with honey and vanilla Chocolate caliente con galletas $5.000 Hot chocolate with cookies Chocolate orgánico en aguapanela $5.400 Organic hot chocolate sweetened with panela Milo caliente $4.800 Hot Milo (Mayores de 18 años) (Must be over 18) Capucheers Capuchino &
After sharing a long journey with us, our coffee beans will soon start leaving Burundi to discover the world that awaits them.
Pasta 2.41 99 2.41 12) Tony's Pizza 7.22 297 7.22 5) Best Coffee Shop Or Cup o' Joe Response % Bar Count Percent 01) Kaffe Mercantile 13.21 471 13.21 02) Bean &
Coffee Harvest Season March is the start of the harvest season.
Domestic Turkish Tobacco US Red Mix Virginia Voodoo Various / Non Tobacco Flavours PREMIUM COFFEE / TEA DRINK COCKTAIL SWEET FRUIT Andromeda Blue Tornado Candy Crush Dr.
Communication Direction 12 Communication Details 13 Target Market Segmentation 14 Target Profiles 15 Creative Brief 17 Brand Essence 19 Core Campaign Pieces 20 Microsite Flat 21 Print Ads 25 Video 27 IMC Pieces 28 Guerilla 35 Future Recommendations 37 The BAACK Agency Team 38 1 Situation Analysis Company History Hendershot’s is a 4 person partnership, S&H Coffee LLC, originally located on Oglethorpe Avenue.
BARISTA About Founded in NJ, Rook Coffee is a visionary coffee company complete with multiple coffee bars, a roastery and distribution center, a bottled cold brew business and an online store.
12.00 Iced Coffee Milkshake coffee, cashew ice cream, vanilla, little bird chocolate sauce, hazelnut milk 12.00 nut milks Made from rich, smooth nut milk squeezed fresh daily.
Silver Gold Ducat Italian Blend Latakia Tobacco Makedonian Maxx Blend Oriental Red Ryder Princess PuroS RY-4 Salemint S'Camel Tobaccam-C Tobacco Tobacco Symphony Tobacco-C WBBT Win Tobacco Arabic Tobacco Black Jack Tobacco Camtel Cavendish Tobacco Cuban Cigar Cuban Supreme Cubanito Dark Vapure Desert Voyager Golden Bahraini Apple Golden Virginia Kent Western Blend Old Havana Perique Black Pipe Tabac Stukas Tabac Tabooz Turkish Tobacco Tuscan Garden US Red Mix Virginia Various / Non Tobacco Flavours COFFEE / TEA DRINK COCKTAIL MINT SWEET FRUIT Black Tea Café Viennois Cappuccino Cappuccino Amaretto Cocoa Coffee Coffee with Almond Coffee with Hazelnut Coffee with Vanilla Colombian Coffee Dark Roasted Coffee Espresso Green Tea Irish Coffee Lemon Tea Masala Chai Mocha Mochaccino Peach Tea Absinthe Amaretto Beer Brandy Champagne Cherry Liqueur Cognac Cola Cola Lemon Energy Drink Gin Irish Cream Liqueur Irn-Bru Jamaican Rum Kahlua Peach Schnapps Root Beer Sambuca Sarsaparilla Tequila Whisky Blue Hawaiian Blushin’ Russian Caipirissima Cuba Libre Earthquake Gin Lemon Margarita Matador Mexican Kiss Mojito Pina Colada Rum with Pineapple Sex on the Beach Singapore Sling Summertime Cherry Menthol* Crème de Menthe Fresh Blast Gum Mint Malibu Menthol Menthol Mint Mint on Ice Mint with Chocolate Mint with Eucalyptus Mint with Tobacco-C Mix Mint Peppermint Spearmint FLOWER / TREE NUT SPICE Elderflower Jasmine Lavender Mastic Oak Wood Rose Violet Ylang-Ylang Zen Garden Almond Hazelnut Nut Mix Peanut Pistachio Walnut Anise Cardamom Chili Cinnamon Cinnamon Red Hots Clove Exotic Roots Sesame Banoffee Bavarian Cream Bubble Gum Butterscotch Candy Crush Caramel Caramel &
Coffee Harvest Season In Burundi, the arrival of March unequivocally means that the harvest is here.