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Audhrinn v023 100%

CONSONANTS Letter Sound Value(s) b Usually /b/, but in sb(r) /sp(r)/ d Usually /d/, but in sd(r) /st(r)/ dh Usually /ð/, but word-finally /θ/, in dhr /θr/ and in sdh(r) /sθ(r)/ f Always /f/ fh Always /v/ g Usually /g/, but in ng /nx/ (never /ŋ/ or /ŋg/) and in sg(r) /sx(r)/ gh Usually /ɣ/, but effectively silent in word-final positions h Word-initially and between two vowels /h/ Otherwise modifies a preceding consonant (d, f or g) k Always /k/ l Always /l/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /l:/ m Always /m/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /m:/ Can be found without a vowel at the end of a word in dhm /ðm̩/ and ghm /ɣm̩/ n Always /n/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /n:/ r Always /r/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /r:/ Often modifies the value of a preceding vowel s Always /s/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /s:/ w y - Always /w/ Never modifies the value of a preceding vowel Always /j/ Often modifies the value of a preceding vowel Always a glottal stop /ʔ/ VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS Letter(s) a au Sound Value(s) Usually /æ/, but in word-final positions /ə/ and in ay /aɪ.j/ Always /ɔʊ/ e Usually /e/, but virtually silent in word-final positions and in ey /eɪ.j/ ea Always /ɪjæ/ eo Always /ɪjɒ/ i Usually /ɪ/, but in iy /i:.j/ o Usually /ɒ/, but in oy /ɔɪ.j/ ou Always /aʊ/ u Always /u/, but in word-final positions long /u:/ RHOTICITY Vowels followed by r (in word-final positions or before another consonant) gain rhoticity and are usually lengthened:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/03/14/audhrinn-v023/

14/03/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

consonant quiz 96%

Name._ _ _ _ _ _ Consonant Quiz (open book/take home) due NEXT CLASS.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/03/30/consonant-quiz/

30/03/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

شرح stress 88%

the vowel sound in many lightly pronounced unaccented syllables in words‬‬ ‫‪of more than one syllable.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ال‪ schwa‬؟‬ ‫ﻨﻄﻖ ﻛـ‪ vowel‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‪,‬‬ ‫ال‪ُschwa‬ﺗَ‬ ‫داﺋﻤﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺸﺪد ﻋﻠﻰ ال‪ vowel‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ,‬واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻵﺧﺮ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ ال‪ vowel‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً‬ ‫أي ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻄﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ً‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‪ , pencil :‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ‪ pen‬ﻣﺸﺪد ‪ ,‬واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ‪ cil‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ‬ ‫] ‪[ pens∂l‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﺑﻨﺒﺮة أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟـ‪ vowel‬اﻟﺬي ﻧﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً‬ ‫ﺟﺪا ﻫﻮ ﻋﺎدة ال‪schwa .‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ اﻟـ‪stress :‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ أﻣﻮر ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ً‪:‬‬ ‫أوﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎك ﻧﻮﻋﺎن ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ‪Syllables:‬‬ ‫( ‪Heavy Syllables‬ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺛﻘﻴﻠﺔ )‬ ‫( ‪Light Syllables‬ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ (‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ أو ﺛﻘﻴﻞ؟!‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎك ﺷﺮوط ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ اﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1‬ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺛﻘﻲل‬‫وال ‪vowel‬اﻟﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ ‪long vowels and diphthongs :‬‬ ‫‪2-‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪1 consonants‬‬ ‫أﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ اﻟﺨﻔﻴﻔﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1‬ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺧﻔﻲف‬‫وﻫﻮ‪ :‬ال‪short vowels‬‬ ‫‪2-‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺼﻮت واﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ال ‪consonants‬ﻻ أﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬه اﻷﻣﺮ اﻷول اﻟﺬي ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪ :‬أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫____________________________________‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ اﻟﻤﻘﺎطع‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎك ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺎت ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫اوﻻ ‪ante :‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪pen :‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ult:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ‪ultimalte = ult :‬‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ = ‪penultimate = pen‬‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ = ‪untepenultimate = ante‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ذﻟﻚ ً‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺪا‪.‬‬ ‫___________________________‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪة وﺿﻊ ال‪Stress‬‬ ‫ً ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻧﻌﺮف ﻫﻞ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ أﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ‪verb‬أو اﺳﻢ ‪noun ,‬‬ ‫أوﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ أن ﻧﺤﺪد ﻧﻮع اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻧﺘﺒﻊ اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل‪:‬‬ ‫ً‪ :‬ﻧﺤﺪد ﻧﻮع اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ = ‪Ult :‬‬ ‫أوﻻ‬ ‫إن ﻛﺎن ً‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺎ ) ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ‪ -‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑـ ‪consonant‬واﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ( ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺴﻨﻀﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال = ‪pen‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻢة‬ ‫أﻣﺎ إن ﻛﺎن ﺛﻘﻴً‬ ‫ﻼ ) ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺛﻘﻴﻞ ‪ -‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ واﺣﺪ ‪consonant ) :‬‬ ‫ﻓﺴﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ‪syllables‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻄﺎة‪:‬‬ ‫‪1‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال = ‪ult‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪2‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال = ‪ante‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬا ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺳﻤﺎء‪:‬‬ ‫ً ‪ :‬ﺳﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫أوﻻ‬ ‫إن ﻛﺎن ﻋﺪدﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال‪ stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال‪ = pen‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫إن ﻛﺎن أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ال‪ vowel‬اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﻓﻲ ال‪ult :‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬إن ﻛﺎن ﺛﻘﻴﻞ ) أي ‪ long vowel‬أو ‪ :

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/02/22/stress/

22/02/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

CMA Phonotactics 87%

Mohammed V University – Agdal Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences – Rabat Department of English Master’s Program in Language and Linguistics Casablanca Moroccan Arabic Consonant Phonotactics Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master’s Degree in Language and Linguistics Page 1 Supervisor:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/03/26/cma-phonotactics/

26/03/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Conlang 83%

• There cannot be any consonant clusters like e.g., <th>

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/04/06/conlang/

06/04/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

IMG 77%

ol§i",ju English consonant allophones O Voiceless plosives r filr syllable.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/03/24/img/

24/03/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

Untitled 2 64%

masculine country beginning with consonant = au ex.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/03/21/untitled-2/

21/03/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Final Clue 63%

Decipher the puzzle below to discover the final clue!

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/09/01/final-clue/

01/09/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Using Qedavian Script 62%

It’s also important to note that I’ve taken a few ideas from Hebrew and Arabic in that the script is mostly consonant based, dropping vowels completely or using them only when at the beginning or ends of words or are necessary (not implied) for pronunciation.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/08/18/using-qedavian-script/

18/08/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Luigi Russolo - The Art of Noise 55%

The Greeks, with their musical theory mathematically determined by Pythagoras, according to which only some consonant intervals were admitted, have limited the domain of music until now and made almost impossible the harmony they were unaware of.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/01/23/luigi-russolo-the-art-of-noise/

23/01/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

TMLP 49%

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/12/09/tmlp/

09/12/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

ConceptDocument 46%

   Please   note  that  the  activity  also  reinforces  decoding  skills  by   emphasizing  the  consonant  blend  beginning  the  word.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/08/20/conceptdocument/

20/08/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

K4A Selichot 41%

a as in father ai as in aisle e as in red ei as in eight i as in pizza o as in no oy as in toy u as in tune ch as in Bach in German (strong sound from the throat) g as in give tz as in lots ’ typically adds an “EH” sound after a consonant, this is known as a Shva Na or pronounced Shva as in the word “Sh’ma”.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/09/20/k4a-selichot/

20/09/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

wollof 38%

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/12/08/wollof/

08/12/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

Creation and Science 33%

      Graphic confusion (letter that look similar are mistook) Misdivision (words are divided in the wrong place) Transposition or metathesis (this is the exchange of the position of the consonant within a word) Modernization (archaic features often removed or replaced with modern versions) Prosaizing (poetry often given elements that converts it to prose) Interpretive errors (misinterpretation of the original text) As with all the other errors that we have looked at thus far these errors can only be identified when reliable sources are compared.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/12/18/creation-and-science/

18/12/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

Stout v. State (Ark. 1968) 28%

Consonant with his right of self-defense, he would have been entitled to an instruction covering excusable homicide.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2012/02/04/stout-v-state-ark-1968/

04/02/2012 www.pdf-archive.com