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In 1954, by decree of Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev, Crimea was officially transferred from the control of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic to that of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.1 The move transferred over a million ethnic Russians and nearly 250-300,000 Ukrainians to Ukraine.
One of the most blatant examples of this came in 2014, when Russia violated international agreements and the territory of a neighbouring sovereign state by seizing Crimea by force from Ukraine.
2 So when Russian troops seized Crimea and invaded Eastern Ukraine in the spring of 2014 – the point at which the intense Russian disinformation campaign began – there were plenty of people in Russia and the West who were ready to accept such Russian lies as:
Russia was a guarantor of Ukr sovereign integrity, and a signatory to the Budapest Memorandum There exists/existed visa free travel between Rus and Ukr and an absence of international borders The war is, “hybrid in form, and asymmetric in content [this is exemplified in Crimea]” There is a high degree of SF activity „Buying‟/recruitment of the Ukr government by the aggressor Prevalence of information activity over military operations Rus is using Ukr as a testing ground for equipment and tactics „Three Quarters War‟ – in which troops are simultaneously committed to conventional military contact, policing functions and humanitarian operations [JPS note:
But there was also a Jewish colony in the Bosporan Kingdom [on the Taman Peninsula at east end of the Crimea, separating the Black Sea from the Sea of Azov] to which Hadrian had Jewish captives brought in 137, after the victory over Bar-Kokhba.
and the situation in Moldova currently resembles the situation in Ukraine before the annexation of Crimea.
Russian President Vladimir Putin, the argument goes, annexed Crimea out of a long-standing desire to resuscitate the Soviet empire, and he may eventually go after the rest of Ukraine, as well as other countries in eastern Europe.
as well as sending to Russia a group of French parliamentarians in September 2014, and later, in July 2015, to Crimea.
Such crises give populist players a good opportunity to challenge the foreign policy of the mainstream.10 The annexation of Crimea also proved to be a turning point for radical left parties, leading to a striking display by some far-left groups of their allegiance to the Kremlin.
Under these men, Russia attacked Georgia in 2008 and went even further in 2014 by illegally seizing Crimea from Ukraine and then sending troops into Eastern Ukraine and starting a war which continues to this day and has cost over 10,000 lives.
Both Kaliningrad and Crimea are seen by Russia as being encircled by NATO.
Antes de que tuviéramos estas armas no nos escuchaban, ¡ahora nos van a escuchar!”, clama el presidente Putin Putin apenas ha realizado mítines electorales, salvo en Crimea y alguno en Moscú.
Colin Freeman reported, from this writer’s urging s Given recent very large - scale cocaine seizures in Romania and the immediate post Crimea seizures of heroin shipments there which had transited Odessa and then Transnistria or directly to Western Moldova would also give opportunities for interest in Italy and Germany.
Great, but it makes the date on these pieces I wrote after he invaded Crimea more painful.
With Russian gains in Crimea and marked involvement in the Syrian civil war, attention has been drawn towards other areas of potential competition.
ARMIES ONLINE Chapter I. Introduction. World Geopolitics 2012 2014. In a changing world army is an important protector of stability of the country. Any government values society opinions of its army, and governments are working to influence this opinion in various ways, making use of modern digital tools and mediums, such as social networks. Many people do not know how glorious history of the IDF began. In times of the Second Aliyah a large number of Jewish youth, who had experience in creating selfdefense units to protect against the racist massacres in Russia, moved to Palestine. April 12, 1909 organization HaShomer the predecessor of the Haganah, was established. Starting as an organization consisting of scattered selfdefense units it turned into a military formation. In the period of 19361939 the policy of havlagah (policy of selfrestraint) was introduced. 1618 May 1941 in view of the potential danger of the GermanItalian invasion of Palestine Haganah created “strikeforces” Palmach. Many members of the Haganah volunteered for the British Army forming Jewish Brigade. During the uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto Jewish Fighting Organization, consisting of more than 600 almost bare handed men, was able to destroy several dozen Nazis. Most of the men died, but some managed to get out of the ghetto. Disaster was a bitter lesson for our people, and the young state faced with the need to build an effective army to defend the Jews against new threats which evolve in the modern world. More than decade has passed since the world changing terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in NY, USA. Shock suffered by America that day has put a serious mark on the inner life of the United States and American foreign policy. United States and its NATO allies invaded Afghanistan and Iraq, giving start to the long civil war that is still yet to end. The invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan cost US taxpayers 4.4 trillion dollars. The war against terrorism has led to changes in American society and expanded the boundaries of what the Americans are ready to sacrifice in exchange for security. The recent scandal in the United States associated with the widespread use of torture towards suspected terrorists clearly demonstrated it. CIA chief said that torture helped establish the whereabouts of Osama bin Laden. The number of victims of terrorist attacks reached almost 18 thousand in the year 2013, according to the Global Terrorism Index. In 13 years since the «11/09», the number of victims of terrorist attacks increased by almost 5 times. Severe growth – by 60% even in comparison with 2012. The number of terrorist victims is growing: 3361 in 2000 to 17958 in 2013. The lion's share of the activities of terrorists falls on four major terrorist organizations: the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria; Boko Haram (Nigeria), the Taliban (Afghanistan) and Al Qaeda (in different parts of the world). But not only the number of victims increase – International Terrorism is expanding geographically, hence the word «international». In 2008 there were 19 countries in which more than 50 people were killed by terrorist, in 2013 the number of such countries has grown to 24. Over the past seventy years Middle East remains the center of constant tension. Since the end of the War of Independence by April 2013, 2493 civilians were killed in terrorist attacks in Israel. Since the beginning of the Second Intifada in 2000 until April 2013, 974 civilians were killed in Israel. More than 1.5 million people died as victims of armed conflict, which began in late 2010 in Libya, Egypt, Yemen and Syria. Political crisis in Ukraine that began in November 2013, led to a bloody civil war in the middle of Europe and found controversial by many countries reunification of the Crimea with Russia. Today, according to OSCE study, 4,000 people were killed in Ukraine civil conflict and this number is still growing. Russia has also paid a price for the Crimea annexation – ruble, Russian currency, took a deep dive during 2014 and fell by 40%. The USA made a huge effort to manipulate Europe and isolate Russia politically and economically. The economic situation in Russia began to deteriorate before the Ukrainian crisis but the US and EU sanctions and the collapse of the oil market kicked the process up a notch. Terrorism is not the only threat faced by the world in the last decade. Social inequality and thus instability is growing. 80% of world's GDP belongs to the 24 countries that are home to 14.5% of the world population; 15% of GDP 63 countries with 31% of the world population; 5% of GDP 45 countries with 55% of the world population. By the beginning of the XXI century the gap in GDP per capita between the rich and poor parts of humanity has reached 15.4 thousand dollars, an increase, which has tripled over the past 40 years. In 1960, 20% of the richest population had 70% of the total world income; today this figure reaches 90%. The poorest 20% of the world population in 1960 had 2.3% of global economic income, and today they have less than 1.1%. 2015 could be a turning point for the existence of the EU. The impetus for the collapse of the United Europe according to financial analysts from Saxo Bank will be output of the United Kingdom from the Union. According to the forecast of the Danish analysts, during the election to be held in the Kingdom on May 7, 2015, a quarter of the votes will get the United Kingdom Independence Party known for its antiEuropean policy. Thus, «the eurosceptics» will be the third largest party in the British Parliament. Today eurosceptics’ popularity is growing exponentially. So, in the last parliamentary elections in France 14% of voters voted for the National Front, led by Marine Le Pen. In comparison: in 2007 Le Pen's rightwing party won only 4% of the French voters. «Alternative for Germany» established in 2013, the party has achieved real success in the regional elections in the parliaments of Brandenburg and Thuringia, receiving 12% and 10% of the votes respectively. In addition, representatives of the party passed in the parliament of Saxony (with 9.7% of the votes). Today, "Alternative for Germany" is the third most popular party in Germany. According to the research center Forsa, 10% of Germans support antieuropean rhetoric. Global economic slowdown, growing frustration and disappointment over United Europe and rising tensions in the Middle East with Israel and Palestine and Syria and Iraq because of the activity of a terrorist organization ISIS these are the main trends that will shape 2015 political, economical and social world map. Today it is s especially important for Israel to take into account the perception of its army within the country and in the international arena. After all, we are a small country with few natural resources, surrounded on all sides by enemies who do not let us expand. Chapter ll. IsraeliPalestinian conflict. Historical context of IDF. Attitude towards Israeli army has changed over the past forty years. Internet has sped up access to information and made the army more open and transparent. With the help of social networks people can give feedback to the army, to share their thoughts and feelings about how they evaluate military operations. Today, of all the currently existing democratic states, Israel is the only country that throughout its history is constantly facing with the threat of war. And even now, after five largescale wars with Arab countries (in 19481949, 1956, 1967, 1973 and 19821985.), as well as IsraeliEgyptian War of Attrition (19671970.) most of them refuse to recognize Israel's right to exist. Since 1948, Israel was in the process that transformed population that consisted of repatriates into a single cohesive nation. In the mid1950s, the leadership of the country defined foreign policy of Israel after a long dispute, Moshe Sharett who executed moderate pacifist approach was dismissed from his post as prime minister, and more radical David BenGurion, who enjoyed great respect among the generals, gained control. Retaliation, and then the Sinai Campaign became a kind of "test of maturity" for the new militarypolitical course, and many believed then, despite the retreat from Sinai after the war, that Israel as a whole has successfully coped with the task. Unprecedented mobilization and enthusiasm of Israeli society has been immediately seen after the Six Day War. Many were surprised by swift victory and gaining of new territories, often perceived as their liberation. All that was seen as convincing proof and justification of righteous model of "a nation in uniform", demanding great hardships in the name of collectivist values and ideals. Even the Yom Kippur War was not conducive to a major change of public opinion. Moreover, the war strengthened the Israelites in the belief that they are one people, united by a common destiny, shared victories and defeats. For decades, the military confrontation with hostile Arab environment was the most important axis of identity in Israeli society. In many respects the opposition allowed external threat to rally society, muting its internal contradictions. First Lebanon War led to the fact that selfperception of nation striving for peace and fighting only as a last resort necessity, given the failure. The war gave rise to sharp public criticism, the apogee of which was the demonstration by about four hundred thousand people in protest against the massacre with the connivance of the IDF by Lebanese Christians in the Palestinian refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila. In the first half of the 1980s, When the IDF was in Lebanon, Israeli society has realized that the army was not able to successfully perform police functions. This is due primarily to the fact that its personnel is replenished from different layers of society and holds conflicting political views. The
The West’s hesitant response to Putin’s invasion of Crimea had led to growing aggression by pro-Russian militia in eastern Ukraine and, only a few days earlier, four German members of an OSCE monitoring mission had been taken hostage.