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January 16, 2015 20:50 EST Fiber, total dietary(g) Value Per NDB_No Description 20015 Corn bran, crude 79.00 42281 Gums, seed gums (includes locust bean, guar) 77.30 11988 Fungi, Cloud ears, dried 70.10 02015 Spices, curry powder 53.20 02010 Spices, cinnamon, ground 53.10 08244 Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE Bran Cereal 47.50 02039 Spices, savory, ground 45.70 20077 Wheat bran, crude 42.80 02036 Spices, rosemary, dried 42.60 02027 Spices, oregano, dried 42.50 08005 Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG, KELLOGG'S ALL-BRAN BRAN BUDS 42.50 02013 Spices, coriander seed 41.90 08363 Cereals ready-to-eat, SUN COUNTRY, KRETSCHMER Toasted Wheat Bran 41.30 02023 Spices, marjoram, dried 40.30 02038 Spices, sage, ground 40.30 02018 Spices, fennel seed 39.80 16055 Carob flour 39.80 08651 Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE 80 Calories, Honey Squares 38.50 02005 Spices, caraway seed 38.00 02003 Spices, basil, dried 37.70 14068 Beverages, KELLOGG'S SPECIAL K20, protein water mix 37.50 02042 Spices, thyme, dried 37.00 19165 Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened 37.00 31019 Seaweed, Canadian Cultivated EMI-TSUNOMATA, dry 36.70 08669 Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE 80 Calories, Chocolate Squares 35.20 02028 Spices, paprika 34.90 02009 Spices, chili powder 34.80 12006 Seeds, chia seeds, dried 34.40 02011 Spices, cloves, ground 33.90 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27 January 16, 2015 20:50 EST Page 2 of 218 Fiber, total dietary(g) Value Per NDB_No Description 19860 Cocoa, dry powder, hi-fat or breakfast, processed with alkali 33.90 11625 Parsley, freeze-dried 32.70 02066 Spearmint, dried 29.80 19166 Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened, processed with alkali 29.80 19859 Cocoa, dry powder, hi-fat or breakfast, plain 29.80 08001 Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG, KELLOGG'S ALL-BRAN Original 29.30 11962 Peppers, hot chile, sun-dried 28.70 02006 Spices, cardamom 28.00 08611 Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG's FIBERPLUS Cinnamon Oat Crunch 28.00 12220 Seeds, flaxseed 27.30 02031 Spices, pepper, red or cayenne 27.20 18375 Leavening agents, yeast, baker's, active dry 26.90 11982 Peppers, pasilla, dried 26.80 02029 Spices, parsley, dried 26.70 02004 Spices, bay leaf 26.30 02032 Spices, pepper, white 26.20 11615 Chives, freeze-dried 26.20 16135 Winged beans, mature seeds, raw 25.90 16067 Hyacinth beans, mature seeds, raw 25.60 16085 Peas, green, split, mature seeds, raw 25.50 02030 Spices, pepper, black 25.30 16022 Beans, french, mature seeds, raw 25.20 16047 Beans, yellow, mature seeds, raw 25.10 16052 Broadbeans (fava beans), mature seeds, raw 25.00 16027 Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds, raw 24.90 16030 Beans, kidney, california red, mature seeds, raw 24.90 16035 Beans, kidney, royal red, mature seeds, raw 24.90 16045 Beans, small white, mature seeds, raw 24.90 16019 Beans, cranberry (roman), mature seeds, raw 24.70 02019 Spices, fenugreek seed 24.60 35203 Rose Hips, wild (Northern Plains Indians) 24.10 11432 Radishes, oriental, dried 23.90 20063 Rye flour, dark 23.80 11683 Carrot, dehydrated 23.60 14236 Coffee substitute, cereal grain beverage, powder 23.30 18226 Crackers, rye, wafers, plain 22.90 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27 January 16, 2015 20:50 EST Page 3 of 218 Fiber, total dietary(g) Value Per NDB_No Description 02043 Spices, turmeric, ground 22.70 25045 Formulated bar, high fiber, chewy, oats and chocolate 22.50 08688 Cereals, QUAKER, Instant Oatmeal, Cinnamon Swirl, high fiber 22.30 08390 Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI GOOD FRIENDS 21.70 02001 Spices, allspice, ground 21.60 11978 Peppers, ancho, dried 21.60 11634 Peppers, sweet, green, freeze-dried 21.30 11931 Peppers, sweet, red, freeze-dried 21.30 02016 Spices, dill seed 21.10 20060 Rice bran, crude 21.00 18227 Crackers, rye, wafers, seasoned 20.90 02025 Spices, nutmeg, ground 20.80 16074 Lima beans, thin seeded (baby), mature seeds, raw 20.60 35183 Corn, dried, yellow (Northern Plains Indians) 20.50 08435 Cereals ready-to-eat, UNCLE SAM CEREAL 20.30 02022 Spices, mace, ground 20.20 16024 Beans, great northern, mature seeds, raw 20.20 08393 Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI GOLEAN 20.10 19171 Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened, HERSHEY'S European Style Cocoa 20.00 35204 Chokecherries, raw, pitted (Northern Plains Indians) 20.00 28220 MURRAY, SUGAR FREE, Chocolate Bites Cookies 19.60 02033 Spices, poppy seed 19.50 08598 Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE, HONEY CLUSTERS 19.20 35232 Wocas, dried seeds, Oregon, yellow pond lily (Klamath) 19.20 08596 Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE, Caramel Delight 19.10 16071 Lima beans, large, mature seeds, raw 19.00 08608 Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI Berry Blossom 18.90 16076 Lupins, mature seeds, raw 18.90 02073 PACE, Dry Taco Seasoning Mix 18.80 08562 Cereals, KASHI GO LEAN Hot Cereal, Creamy TRULY VANILLA, dry 18.50 08657 Cereals ready-to-eat, BARBARA'S PUFFINS, original 18.50 12163 Seeds, pumpkin and squash seeds, whole, roasted, without salt 18.40 12663 Seeds, pumpkin and squash seeds, whole, roasted, with salt added 18.40 08029 Cereals ready-to-eat, POST Bran Flakes 18.30 16083 Mungo beans, mature seeds, raw 18.30 08599 Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE, RAISIN BRAN CLUSTERS 18.20 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27 January 16, 2015 20:50 EST Page 4 of 218 Fiber, total dietary(g) Value Per NDB_No Description 08668 Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE, Nutty Clusters &amp;
Staying Dry/ Things you can do to keep the wet out Let’s begin by talking about things you can do to get dried out and then we’ll cover 10 things to do to be sure you ride dry all day long.
2) Pour a small amount of white spirits gently over the talcum powder 3) DO NOT TOUCH the talcum powder until the spirits has dried up.
The solids within the liquid solution form bonds between particles which are maintained even after the liquid is dried and milled.
However, the fire and color will come back once the opal has fully dried, which can take anywhere between minutes to weeks, depending on how much water they managed to absorb.
1⁄2 Onion 4-5 Cloves of Garlic 2 Tablespoons Paprika 2 Tablespoons Oregano (dried) 1 1⁄2 Tablespoons Basil (dried) Salt &
PACKAGED CONDIMENTS CANNED BAKING DRY GOODS WHAT TO BUY Oats Rices (Brown, Long Grain, Arborio) Pastas (Long, Shapes, Couscous) Beans (Black, White, Kidney, Garbanzo) Corn Tortillas Flour Tortillas Flour Sugar Baking Soda Baking Powder Broth Canned Tomatoes Tomato Paste Marinara Sauce Coconut Milk Mayonnaise Honey Sriratcha Soy Sauce Peanut Butter Dijon Mustard Dried Fruit Raw Nuts Olive Oil Balsamic Vinegar Salt &
for hair, use 6-10 drops on towel-dried hair and scalp, depending on amount of hair and style as you normally would.
Green Coffee Analytics: Relevance to Roasters, Buyers, and Producers Part I: Total Moisture Content and Water Activity By Chris Kornman, May 2016 Most coffee professionals on the buying, roasting, and brewing side of the industry understand and value sensory analysis of coffee. Cupping a coffee, after all, is the single most common and effective way to decide if a coffee is worth purchasing, or if a roast has succeeded or failed. Scores and notes help organize inventories, determine usage, and even provide feedback to producers. In many cases, these scores are even tied to real dollar value whether as green or roasted product. I’d wager that most of the community have at least a cursory knowledge of green grading as well, but I suspect that for many buyers and roasters it’s an afterthought or a metric that is applied haphazardly at best, with little connection to what we usually think of when we think of “quality.” In light of this, I’d like to outline a number of different measurements and describe how they can add value across the supply chain. The first part of this series will focus on moisture in green coffee. Total Moisture Content Moisture content has been a defining characteristic of the coffee export trade for eons. The figure 12% is tossed around fairly loosely, frequently eliciting rejections once it is exceeded. Likewise, the measurement of water activity has become an increasingly common interjection to conversations about physical quality, though it’s limits are a little less universally acknowledged. Let’s dig into what these two different measurements mean, how they are related to each other, and how they can be used as quality tools for the specialty roaster, buyer, and grower. Moisture content is defined as water bound up inside the coffee seed. When a coffee cherry is picked, the seed is full of water and must be dried before export. Throughout the world, this is accomplished in a variety of ways with varying effects on the final product. The specialty community has frequently expressed aversion to vertical driers and cylindrical drum guardiolas used to mechanically dry coffee across much of Central America and Brazil. Compared to sundrying on patios or raised beds, the argument goes, mechanical drying is inferior. However, the precision of a wellmaintained dryer can improve the producer’s ability to consistently dry large quantities of coffee when the temperature is appropriately monitored. Natural challenges arise for any sundried coffees due to the simple nature of exposure to the elements. In my experience, partial shade, protection from rain, and air circulation (frequent parchment turning and/or raised beds) go a long way to ensure that a coffee is appropriately stabilized in sundried environments. It’s generally accepted that drying coffee is the most critical postharvest processing step, and that in general lower drying temperatures are better at preserving quality.1 A research team led by respected coffee scientist Dr. Flávio Borém used SCAA style qualitative analysis to confirm physical measurements of numerous phenomena. Among the measurable data they gathered, the ‘leaching’ of potassium from the coffee bean2. This is relevant because it illustrates an important point: compounds that are bound up inside green coffee are susceptible to escape and degradation, particularly if damage to the seed occurs during the drying process. This means that quality can escape from green coffee even as it rests on a shelf. Unfortunately, simply taking a moisture content reading cannot give us a sufficient glimpse of this sort of data. From one of the most respected voices in coffee research: Flávio Borém, et al., 2008 Potassium leaching has been correlated to defective quality in green coffee: Marcelo Ribeiro Malta, et al., 1981 . 1 2 Water Activity This point brings us to water activity. Humidity, and specifically the evaporation of moisture, is the vehicle by which quality has the potential to escape from green coffee. We can obtain a better indication of the integrity of the structure of the green coffee, and its ability to retain moisture and volatile aromatic compounds, by measuring water activity. Very briefly, water activity (or a ) is the measurement of vapor pressure or “water energy.” It is W expressed mathematically as a comparison of the measurement of the vapor pressure of a substance in question divided by the vapor pressure of water. Imagine the same amount of water is added to two glasses: one with a sponge and one without. The water will evaporate more slowly from the glass with the sponge, because the moisture is bound up in parts of that sponge. So, any substance will have less water activity than water alone, because the moisture in that substance will be bound up in varying degrees. As a result, water activity measurements are expressed as a decimal; a water activity measurement of coffee will always be expressed as a numerical value less than one but greater than zero. Water activity readings may vary in reliability depending on the type of device in use, and these readings can be affected by temperature, relative humidity, and other ambient environmental conditions. The use of water activity measurements as a food safety indicator has been in circulation since th the middle of the 20 century. William James Scott was able to convincingly prove that water activity measurements can predict microbial growth in 1953. Since that time, water activity has come to be accepted as a more accurate and important indicator of “microbial, chemical, and physical properties… than is total moisture content.”3 Across many industries water activity measurement is now considered vital not just for safety, but as an indicator of potential for chemical and physical reactions. As you might imagine, this is relevant to coffee in a number of ways. The first and most obvious is in product safety. At a certain level, mold and other microbes can grow; that level is firmly established across all substance types. Below a water activity range of 0.60, no microbial proliferation occurs 4, and foods are generally considered free from potential for new contamination. Between the range of 0.60 and 0.90 a , molds and other fungi, yeasts, and W other microbial activity increases, particularly at higher ranges. Of particular interest to coffee are mold types that contain mycotoxins and 3 4 Jorge Chirife and Anthony J. Fontana, Jr., 2007 Anthony J. Fontana, Jr., 2008 ochratoxins, as these are known hazards to health. Per AquaLab water activity “for molds and yeast growth is about 0.61 with the lower limit for growth of mycotoxigenic molds at 0.78 a .”5 W During postharvest processing, HACCP6 guidelines suggest that “all coffee, cherry or parchment, must spend no more than four days between [water activity of] 0.95… and… 0.80.”7 It’s a little hard to imagine a farmer or producer measuring the water activity of their coffee while it ferments, or during the first few days on a patio or drying table. If you think about it, however, these are some things we’ve felt intuitively and know experientially. Wet parchment sitting around in bags in Sumatra, for example, generally isn’t a favorable storage condition for coffee of any quality. Similarly, Rwandan and Brazilian practice of tarp coverings for wet parchment coffee on beds or patios can foster microbial growth (the spread of potato through a lot, or the off flavors of rio/phenol, respectively). In terms of practical applications for the coffee roaster and buyer, AquaLab has some relevant points to make: “Green coffee deteriorates very gradually, but the ‘past crop’ taste… is partially associated with the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose, especially. Higher water activity can possibly provide an indication of the level of this activity.”8 Put simply, water activity measurements can help indicate the shelfstability of a coffee, particularly as it relates to perceived past crop flavors. These flavors are related to the escape and/or chemical change in compounds created inside the bean and preserved (or not) by the drying process postharvest. While it’s impossible to predict an exact shelflife using water activity readings9, we can use water activity to give us an indication of how welldried, and thus how stable a green coffee might be. When used in conjunction with moisture content, this can be a powerful tool for evaluating the longevity of a highdollar/high quality product’s value. For 5 AquaLab is the water activity meter manufacturing arm of Decagon. They have numerous product manuals and educational resources available for free online, including the one quoted here: http://agrotheque.free.fr/Fundamentals.pdf 6 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, as recommended by the FDA & USDA 7 This HACCP guildine is quoted by Aqualab here . 8 Again, Aqualab’s Coffee product manua l is responsible for this claim. 9 Theodore P. Labuza, 1980 most purposes, the upper limit of 0.60 seems like a convenient “soft” limit for predicting shelf stability for more than 6 months past harvest under normal storage conditions (moderate temperatures, low relative humidity, GrainPro or other preservation method also recommended to help prevent moisture migration). There’s yet another side to this coin: water activity has the ability to predict the potential and rate of changes related to browning reactions like caramelization and Maillard reactions. We know that these reactions are absolutely critical to the development of complex chain sugars and aromatic compounds and flavors in coffee as it roasts. Maillard reaction rate increases in conjunction with water activity, reaching maximum potential at between 0.60 and 0.70, with increases beyond 0.70 generally decreasing likelihood again.10 So, let’s look at this on a basic chart that should help frame the discussion visually: You can see that the range for shelf stability is a little lower a than the peak for browning W reactions, and that the microbial activity potential increases beyond 0.60. In light of these signposts, coffee’s ideal water activity could be described as “close to 0.60.” Each roaster and buyer, however, must choose on which side of this line they prefer to err: higher than 0.60 10 http://www.webpal.org/SAFE/aaarecovery/2_food_storage/Processing/Water%20Activity.pdf
•To achieve an “antique” look when using a Minwax® Polycrylic® Protective Finish stain, don’t break the edges until after the stain has been applied and dried.
INGREDIENTS Chicken Meal, Whole Grain Brown Rice, Oat Meal, Pearled Millet, Chicken Fat (preserved with Mixed Tocopherols), Lamb Meal, Dehydrated Alfalfa Meal, Flax Seed (Omega 3 Fatty Acid Source), Dried Egg Product, Flaxseed Oil , Potassium Chloride, Dried Kelp, Yeast Culture, Whole Carrots...