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(Komodo dragon) 8.E.2 Understand the history of Earth and its life forms based on evidence of change recorded in fossil records and landforms.
www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol Viewpoint Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming Antonio Zecca , Luca Chiari Physics Department, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo (TN), Italy a r t i c l e in fo abstract Article history:
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SCI 245 Week 8 CheckPoint Fossil Fuels and Minerals • Respond to the following in 300- to 350-words:
The Sources of Australia's Energy The production of energy in Australia relies almost entirely on fossil fuels.
Electricity generation and production requires fossil fuel, a type of non-renewable energy, to be burned.
The as of late found fossil of snake Titanoboa was around 15 meters in length.
Even the least stable minerals, such as olivine, in the basalt and the fossil-bearing sediments show only minor weathering, which is compatible with the incipient pedogenic properties of the sediments.
Drew Lyons Micah Mansfield Animal Design Project #1 Thrinaxodon Thrinaxodon, a synapsid cynodont, was a small, mammallike reptile that lived 253 million years ago in the late Permian. It disappeared during the extinction event 245 million years ago at the end of the Olenekian portion of the Triassic period. The discovery of Thrinaxodon was important as a transitional fossil in the evolution of mammals. Cladogram showing the relationship of Thrinaxodon to mammals (Botha and Chinsamy, 2005). Fossils of Thrinaxodon were found in modern day South Africa and Antarctica, providing strong evidence that Thrinaxodon once roamed an area that combined these land masses because the physiology of Thrinaxodon suggests it could neither swim long distances nor fly. Current day separation of fossils by a vast ocean helped scientists understand plate tectonics and the existence of a supercontinent called Pangea. Pangea: Image taken http://www.metafysica.nl/wings/wings_3a.html. The inserted black box shows the location where Thrinaxodon fossils were found and where it likely lived during the Late Permian and Early Triassic periods. Thrinaxodon was 30 to 50 cm in length, 10 cm tall, had a large, flat head and legs somewhat characteristic of fossorial animals that splayed out slightly from the torso, creating a 15 cm wide stance. Indentations in fossils of its skull provide strong evidence that Thrinaxodon had whiskers. Whiskers are a very beneficial adaptation for predators at night because it would allow the animal to better sense its surroundings in low light conditions, giving it a competitive advantage over its prey and other predators that compete for similar resources. If it had whiskers then there may have been fur as well, indicating that it was homeothermic since fur functions to insulate the animal from the outside conditions, so the animal’s temperature is being driven more by internal processes. Being one of the earliest mammallike organisms with fur, it was most likely less dense than the fur modern mammals have (prehistoricwildlife.com, 2011). Thrinaxodon had many mammalianlike adaptations that in ways allowed it to function in similar ways as modern day mammals, suggesting it was a distant ancestor of mammals. Key morphological innovations allowed for increased metabolic rates and its survival through the PermianTriassic extinction event. These included features in Thrinaxodon’s skeleton such as the addition of lumbar vertebrae on the spine and the shortening of thoracic vertebrae, one additional occipital condyle, the presence of a masseteric fossa, and a hardened secondary palate. The segmentation of the spine allowed for increased weight bearing and movement in the lower back. Segmentation, in combination with the absence of ribs in the lower abdomen, suggests the presence of a diaphragm. The ribs now form a chest cavity that houses the lungs and provides an attachment surface for the diaphragm, which allows for increased respiration efficiency and minimum energy expenditure due to breathing (Cowen, 2000). The addition of an occipital condyle functioned to increase articulation with the atlas vertebrae and permitted more movement, which allowed it to be more aware of its surroundings and potential predators. The masseteric fossa presented a larger surface area for muscle attachment on the dentary bone to make chewing and processing food more efficient, which in turn leads to a faster metabolism. One of the most important adaptations, especially for carnivores, is the presence of the hardened secondary palate that allowed for breathing through the nose while chewing, which is important in order to take down struggling prey or chew for a longer period of time while still maintaining the ability to breathe (prehistoricwildlife.com, 2011). Thrinaxodon also possesses the beginnings of a brain case, which is shown by the epipterygoid bone expanding to alisphenoidlike proportions, as well as nasal turbinates, which are “convoluted bones in the nasal cavity that are covered by olfactory sense organs” (Cynodontia). The teeth of Thrinaxodon display the mammalian traits of thecodontia (teeth present in the socket of the dentary) and differentiated teeth. In its tooth differentiation, the three cusped post canines that Thrinaxodon was named after were important so it could thoroughly chew its food and decrease the time of digestion. This also suggests a faster metabolism that was more like modern mammals, as well as an important evolutionary step towards the tribosphenic molar (Estes, 1961). Due to this increased metabolism, Thrinaxodon was eurythermic, meaning it was able to function in a broad range of temperatures, and was essentially homeothermic.
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We have always known that – it’s fairly easy to understand when you consider that most of our energy is derived from fossil fuels.
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Carbon Crusade 84%
divest from coal, saying Indiana Department investments in fossil fuels are at risk as nations of Insurance move to lower-carbon Commissioner economies.
5014 s09 ms 1 83%
potential to develop nuclear power (with sufficient finance) employment revenues would raise living standards avp  (c) exhaustion of fossil fuels cleaner than fossil fuels / concern over air pollution from fossil fuels does not produce greenhouse gases / fossil fuels produce greenhouse gases concern about global warming does not produce acid rain / fossil fuels cause acid rain wish to diversify sources of energy / not rely on potentially volatile areas of supply of gas / oil rapid industrial growth in some countries only need to import small quantities of uranium advantages compared with other alternative energy sources avp  2 (a) (i) larvae hatch into worms inside them  (ii) the carrier lives in water  (iii) still / shallow water / water present all year  (b) install toilets / sanitation / treat human waste before it enters the water do not enter the water wear impermeable cover on feet and legs control / clear snails drain water bodies containing snails introduce fish predators to eat snails avp  (c) weakness anaemia kidney / bladder infections death reduced resistance to other diseases * reduced ability to work * reduced agricultural output / food supply avp at least one * point for max.
Bio-fuel pellets, wood pellets, renewable energy, non-fossil fuels Analysis on China bio-fuel pellets market 1.