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JavaUnit2 100%

} Super Classes x Each class has a superclass (the class above it in the hierarchy), and each class can have one or more subclasses (classes below that class in the hierarchy).


23/08/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

PrinciplesofLearningandLearningTheory 99%

    PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY                 Principles of Learning and Learning Theory  Hannah R. Hiles  University of North Carolina at Greensboro          1      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 2  What is learning?  > Major Learning Theories: Gagné’s Hierarchy  Much of our understanding of education and the teaching process comes from Robert  Gagné, an early 20th­century experimental psychologist who was primarily interested in learning  and instruction. It was Gagné who gave us the most fundamental basis for the process of  teaching and what the instruction process looks like. Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning presents  eight ways to learn, with each stage building on the lower levels, ensuring that the upper levels  require greater skill and ability to conquer.  From the bottom up they begin with Signal Learning. As it is at the very bottom of the  hierarchy it is part of Pavlov’s “classical conditioning,” or the act of conditioning a subject to  provide a desired response in conjunction with a predetermined signal. Next comes  Stimulus­Response Learning – a more advanced version of classical conditioning. It incorporates  the use of schedules and rewards in the learning process. Chaining comes next, wherein a student  begins to learn the ability to connect prior lessons together in an organized sequence. After  Chaining comes Verbal Association. A higher­level form of Chaining, Verbal Association is the  same idea, but with those prior lessons being vocal in nature as opposed to physical. Note that  only halfway up the hierarchy, we are finally at a point where the student is at a point where they  are beginning to incorporate verbal skills – the magnitude of Gagné’s hierarchy and just how  “basic” his most fundamental lessons are cannot be overstated.  Discrimination Learning, Concept Learning, and Rule Learning are next and are very  linked together. Discrimination Learning is the process of a student being able to form  appropriate responses in an organized and precise way. Concept Learning follows this by      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 3  requiring that the student makes those same responses but now with the addition of  categorization – that they respond the same way to the same stimuli, regardless of order or  organization. Rule Learning eventually comes in, the second to last piece of Gagné’s hierarchy.  The most complex part of Rule Learning is that it requires the student to not only learn  relationships between situations and higher concepts but to also predict future situations and  concepts (ie, to understand social rules even if they are in a social situation that is new).  The final part of Gagné’s Hierarchy is Problem Solving. Gagné considered this the  highest level of learning. Because it requires entirely independent cognition and no external  stimuli, the student has to have mastered all previous levels in order to problem solve effectively.  In Problem Solving, the student must be able to face complicated rules and situations and not  know the answers – instead, he or she must know ways of getting to the answers (Singley 1989).  Gagné saw that by working their way up through the levels, students could eventually have  mastery of the task they were studying. This method also allowed for students to move at a pace  that worked for their own abilities, as well as letting them stop and start again at any point and  presenting the entire learning process as a journey rather than a means to an end (Clark 2004).  > Major Learning Theories: Bloom’s Taxonomy  This learning theory comes from a 1956 report that came to be known as “Bloom’s  Taxonomy,” a form of learning through instruction that takes into account the intake of  information through Cognitive (knowledge­based learning), Affective (emotion­based), and  Psychomotor (action­based). Much of instructional design that takes guidance from Bloom looks  specifically at the Cognitive model of Bloom’s Taxonomy, and the six individual components  that Bloom organizes in a hierarchy (similar to Gagné’s own hierarchy). For Bloom, the      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 4  hierarchy comes in the form of Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating,  and Creating.  It’s important when looking at Bloom’s hierarchy to see that, as with Gagné, each step  leads to the next. The student begins with remembering materials – they can recall and repeat  facts and answers from their long­term memory with ease. Once they can remember information  they can proceed to understand it – one can memorize sums and figures or dates in history  without actually understanding what they mean, but Bloom saw this second level of  Understanding as an important moment in the educational process.  Applying is the student’s use of the information they have come to understand – this will  vary depending on the information they have, but the more they use the information at hand, the  deeper their understanding of it will come. This leads directly into Analyzing, where a student  can look at the work they are doing (their “application” in the previous state of the hierarchy)  and determine cause and effect. This work of analyzing their lesson moves organically into  Evaluating – if A causes B, and B is a problem, how can the student solve B? This stage of  Evaluation is similar to Gagné’s final level of Problem Solving – it is the process of a student  looking for the work they are doing and determining where the issues are, then finding for  themselves what the solutions may be.  Finally, the student can move into Creating. Unlike Gagné, Bloom didn’t see the  educational process as stopping at Problem Solving – for him, the pinnacle of mastering a skill or  learning something new came when the student was able to then take that information and do  something unique with it. Bloom’s first edition of the Taxonomy had this final stage as  “Knowledge,” but in 2001 (two years after his death), it was updated to “Creating” or      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 5  “Synthesizing”. This is the student’s ability to take unique and individual parts and put them  together into a larger and more unified representation of the lesson or information they have been  learning – a synthesis of their learned knowledge (Wineburg 2009).  > Major Learning Theories: Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism  Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism are three additional members of learning  theory that cannot be neglected. Going back to Gagné’s “signal learning” and Pavlov’s “classical  conditioning,” Behaviorism looks at the most simple behavioral changes in an organism. As  Jordan et al point out, Behaviorists are quick to defend that they don’t believe learners don’t  think, rather “they [researchers] mainly choose to ignore inaccessible mental processes and focus  on observable behaviour” (2008). Cognitivism is a step up, branching into the mental processes  of how we observe and then process our environments and what happens to us. While  Behaviorism may be the knee­jerk reactions, Cognitivism in learning relies on “developing  effective ways of building schemata and processing information” (Jordan). Finally, in  Constructivism, we see yet a further advancement in the realm of cognition. Instead of simply  processing information as in Cognitivism, Constructivism is a school which is based on the  educator taking a passive role in their pupil’s learning – instead of dishing out answers, they may  use questions to inspire their students to probe deeper into their own understanding of the  materials, and find their own answers within. Jordan et al note that while the flow between  Constructivism and Cognitivism can be difficult to differentiate, Constructivism ultimately  “focuses on what people do with information to develop knowledge” (2008).     


24/04/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

ACAUnit6 97%

Advance Computer Architecture 10CS74 UNIT - VI REVIEW OF MEMORY HIERARCHY:


23/08/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

1z0-588 Exam Questions Updated Demo 2018 91%

are both versions in your DRM application and both have a hierarchy named "Legal Entity".


22/01/2018 www.pdf-archive.com


INTRODUCTION This article explores the possible consequences of dismantling hierarchy in public governance systems through the spectacles of cultural theory.


25/03/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Karim Mahmoud CV:Portfolio 89%

Construction technique of the Piano Nobil plan Main axes of circulation Main axes of circulation Main axes of circulation Hierarchy displayed in difference in peak heights Hierarchy displayed in the different sized windows Hierarchy displayed in the different sized windows Hierarchy displayed in the different sized windows


11/03/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

it sem4 coa assignments 89%

4) Explain type of memories based on the hierarchy of speed and size.


27/03/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

IJETR2224 89%

Basically the study is based on multi criteria decision making with the help of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).


09/09/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Best 5 Principles of Effective Web Design 88%

Visual Hierarchy Visual hierarchy is one amongst the foremost vital principles behind smart web design.


28/02/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

it sem4 coa assignments 88%

Explain type of memories based on the hierarchy of speed and size.


28/03/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Non est Sicut Deus 88%

RELIGIOUS ORDERS PAGE 29 Redemptorists PAGE 30 Franciscans PAGE 31 Benedictines PAGE `32 Discussion PAGE 33 MANDATORY CELIBACY PAGE 39 Path of Perfection PAGE 40 Celibacy becomes a Shame PAGE 41 A Fear-based Church PAGE 43 Discussion PAGE 45 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND PAGE 46 Real Reasons for Celibacy PAGE 47 Beginning of the Church untill 200 AD PAGE 49 From 200 to 400 AD PAGE 51 From 500 to 1000 AD PAGE 52 From 1000 to 1500 AD PAGE 54 15th and 16th Centuries PAGE 55 Up to the 21st Century PAGE 56 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 INSTRUMENTS OF CONTROL PAGE 58 Obedience PAGE 59 Secrecy PAGE 62 Purity and Misogyny PAGE 65 God’s Representatives PAGE 69 Control and Power PAGE 71 Clerical Arrogance PAGE 72 THE FRATERNITY PAGE 75 Blind Obedience to the Hierarchy PAGE 76 Hostages of the Hierarchy PAGE 77 Enslavement by the Hierarchy PAGE 80 Who can leave?


05/12/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

4cs 87%

Thus was born Dr Maslow’s famous Hierarchy of Needs.


20/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

7691X Exam Dumps - Try Latest 7691X Demo Questions 87%

1) Open the Upgrade Firmware view of Dashboard.2) Select Configuration Hierarchy.3) Launch the Firmware Manager.4) Select the firmware Image tab.5) Select Upload.


22/01/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

7691X Exam Questions Updated Demo 2018 87%

1) Open the Upgrade Firmware view of Dashboard.2) Select Configuration Hierarchy.3) Launch the Firmware Manager.4) Select the firmware Image tab.5) Select Upload.


22/01/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

Disfelowship page 85%

Your letter to the Roman Catholic Hierarchy's Eucharistic Congress was sent to an organization that deserves the label of ENEMY NUMBER ONE of honest, God-fearing American people.


02/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

46-Sri Enny Triwidiastuti 84%

PERBANDINGAN METODOLOGI REDUKSI VARIABEL ANTARA AXIOMATIC DESIGN DENGAN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS DALAM PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN, TINJAUAN DARI SUDUT PANDANG PENGENDALIAN KUALITAS BERKELANJUTAN Sri Enny Triwidiastuti Universitas Terbuka Email Korespondesi:srienny@ut.ac.id ABSTRAK Reduction of variables required for selecting and specifying some of the most important variables without losing the overall information is needed in decision making.


05/12/2011 www.pdf-archive.com

Programming Assignment - Problem statement only 84%

menu climbing scuba skyDive spelunk Program Design In modular programs, hierarchy charts are used to show the relationship between modules.


23/02/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Troubleshooting BI Security Issues 83%

No Access for hierarchy When the above error is received, this means that a hierarchy characteristic needs to be created for the required node.


19/07/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

MKT 571 Week 3 Quiz NEW 82%

value grid demand chain business model customer-value hierarchy 11.


15/03/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Metaphysical Law And Murder 81%

A person that is both neither part of their hierarchy, yet knows of its existence and activities.


25/04/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Testing 81%

towards a logical hierarchy?


21/02/2011 www.pdf-archive.com

Testing 81%

towards a logical hierarchy?


21/02/2011 www.pdf-archive.com

2014 04 24 TEAM8 DESIGN Wireframes JULP 81%

Norman Group E-Concept Development 3 | 70 DESIGN Wireframes OFFICAL DEFINITION Wireframes are a visual representation of an interface, used to communicate the content, the structure, the information hierarchy, the functionality and the behavior of an interface.


16/12/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

UOP COMM 400 Week 1 Individual Communications 81%

• The intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, organizational, and intercultural levels of communication within your company • How information travels up, down, and across your organization and how it relates to the basic communications model • The functions of the Y hierarchy of managerial communications.


22/06/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

ASH ECE 405 Week 1 DQ 2 Children and 81%

ASH ECE 405 Week 1 DQ 2 Children and Prejudice Check this A+ tutorial guideline at http://www.ece405entirecourse.com/ece405-ash/ece-405-week-1-dq-2-children-andprejudice In Vivian Gussin Paley’s book, “You Can’t Say, You Can’t Play”, a hierarchy of “bosses” and “outcasts” emerges year after year in her classroom.


03/03/2017 www.pdf-archive.com