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A four page note on patenting 100%

Meaning A patent is a grant issued by the Government of India giving an inventor the exclusive right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the invention within India for a period of twenty years from the date of filing of the Patent.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/02/02/a-four-page-note-on-patenting/

02/02/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

traditional 97%

By the 17th century, many electricity-related discoveries had been made, such as the invention of an early electrostatic generator, the differentiation between positive and negative currents, and the classification of materials as conductors or insulators.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/11/20/traditional/

20/11/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

10 Inventions on key layout 96%

A new layout (Patent 2040248) Background Although QWERTY keyboard has been ruling over the keyboard kingdom since its invention by Sholes in 1868, many people feel that the distribution of the characters on a QWERTY keyboard is not suitable for a computer keyboard.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/05/14/10-inventions-on-key-layout/

14/05/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

e-prototype feb10 95%

Transforming the Nation’s Capital into a Place of Invention Amanda Murray, Lemelson Center Project Assistant Had your train rolled into the District of Columbia around 1870, you might not have thought it a particularly innovative place.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/03/10/e-prototype-feb10/

10/03/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

CAM CNC Innovations 89%

new idea, device, or process (invention) • Innovation is the “act” of applying better solutions to meet new or existing requirements • Therefore Innovation can be accomplished through more “effective” products processes services technologies or ideas.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/10/11/cam-cnc-innovations/

11/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Francis-Thackeray-Shakespeare- Cannabis 86%

Shakespeare’s cryptic word-play, with special reference to “compounds” (drugs), “weed” and “invention” (creative writing).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/01/13/francis-thackeray-shakespeare-cannabis/

13/01/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

frise mathematiciens v 201510 86%

1637 - Gilles Personne de Roberval (Français) Invention de la sinusoïde.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/10/15/frise-mathematiciens-v-201510/

15/10/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

R D Paper sub 85%

Recombinant theories of innovation suggests that diverse technological inputs are required for new invention, implying that new cross-country collaborations should increase innovative productivity in a standard gains-from-trade model.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/12/17/r-d-paper-sub/

17/12/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

sejda-X31 83%

In his Noctes Atticae or Greek Nights, Aulus Gellius describes ‘the pigeon of Archytas’, an invention dating back to about 360 BC.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/02/22/sejda-x31/

22/02/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

WaterworksEssayFinalDraft 82%

FINAL DRAFT      Waterworks Essay  Final Draft  Ryan Moore    Medical Morality in the Gilded Age    The Gilded Age was a time of radical change in America, right on the cusp of the  Industrial Revolution. Americans living in urban regions had no choice but to adapt to the  changes that came with obstacles such as rapid urban expansion, violent gang activity in major  cities, and sub­standard hygiene. E.L. Doctorow’s novel, ​ The Waterworks​ , is a book that depicts  an accurate historical view of New York in this time period. In this book, the character of Dr.  Sartorius serves two purposes: Sartorius shines a light on some of the beneficial advancements in  Gilded Age medicine, in order to gain the reader’s trust; then, he provokes the issue of medical  morality in his twisted experiments using deceased street­orphan children to prolong the lives of  rich old men. The role of Dr. Sartorius in ​ The Waterworks​  brings up a very relevant question: at  what point does the pursuit of medicinal knowledge become immoral? Well, based on simple  laws of ethics, one can easily deduce that the pursuit of medical knowledge becomes immoral if  the patients, or people close to the patients, experience physical or emotional trauma as a direct  result of your practice. What truly matters in deciding medical morality is the intention of the  doctor: did the doctor intend to cause harm, or was the doctor doing the best they could with the  knowledge available in that time period? Some doctors in the Gilded Age adhered to some sort  of ethical code, while some did not. Both ends of this moral spectrum deserve to be examined,  and the morality of the actions of Dr. Sartorius deserve the same scrutiny.  For every medical advancement made during the Gilded Age, an outdated (and often  terrifying) medical procedure would be eliminated from the average doctor’s arsenal of “normal  medical procedures”. Many people know of the classic “horror movie” medical procedures, such  as electroshock therapy, or the use of leeches for bloodletting. These practices might not have  been common but they were most certainly used at one time. Those living in the Gilded Age saw  the brief rise and fall of medical practices far more concerning than the aforementioned, such as  the lobotomy, which was thought to “cure” homosexuality (4). In 1898, Heroin  (diacetylmorphine) was manufactured and distributed by pharmaceutical companies to treat  common symptoms like coughs, colds, and pain (4). “Radium therapy”, or the consumption of  radioactive radium­infused water, was thought to cure a number of illnesses such as arthritis and  rheumatism, but actually led to far more serious health complications (4). Another periodic table  element, mercury, was used as a treatment for syphilis until the early 20th century, until it was  discovered that mercury led to very painful symptoms, including stomach ulcers and sometimes  death (4).   Doctors that performed these bizarre procedures did not always have ill intent; a great  deal of these doctors simply did not know any better because they were going about their  business based on the knowledge that was available to them in that time period. Dr. Sartorius is  an example of a doctor operating without any regard for morals or ethical medicine; he had the  potential to launch Gilded Age medicine years into the future, but instead he conducted his  experiments in secret, knowing that he would be in trouble if he got caught. The actions of Dr.  Sartorius are best described in this chilling quote from Doctorow’s novel: “I saw him transfuse  blood from one living being to another. I saw him with a hypodermic tube inject cellular matter  into deadened brains. I saw first one, then another, of the orphan children begin to age, like  leaves turning yellow.” (​ Waterworks​  pg. 198).  In contrast to the horrors of pre­contemporary medicine, the Gilded Age was also a time  of great growth in safe, benevolent medical practices. The most groundbreaking and well­known  change in medicine during this time was the creation of the condom for males around the turn of  1840 (6). During a time period when the concepts of abortion and “free love” were in direct  insubordination of the “word of God”, this invention was a topic of great debate, and caused  quite a stir. The invention of the condom was thought to promote sinful activity in the eyes of the  predominantly­Catholic community of the Gilded Age, and were often condemned by local  church preachers. However, the condom played a key role in drastically reducing the number of  cases of venereal disease in sexually active people. The condom serves as a prime example of a  harmless, victimless medical invention, quite contrary to the medical proceedings of Dr.  Sartorius.  Medical schools were also in desperate need of reformation due to substandard hygiene  conditions and ill­informed doctors. In 1910, Abraham Flexner did a study on American medical  colleges which led to the closing of various shoddy medical schools; this sparked great changes  in the medical curriculum as well as the teaching methods they used (1). The use of ether as a  surgical anesthetic was introduced in 1846 which allowed surgeons to conduct their work  without any screaming, thrashing, or unbearable pain being inflicted on their patients (2). This  was particularly necessary during a time period when a crushed limb or a bullet wound could  easily lead to a fatal systemic infection. Amputations before the introduction of ether were  obviously very gruesome. As for Dr. Sartorius, his procedures were not all as deranged as his  experiments with the orphan children; he actually created a brilliant machine used for measuring  brain activity, an invention far ahead of his time. “Afterward he showed me what he said was a  graphic representation of the electric impulsings of my brain...a fairly regular figuration similar  to the path of the sine and cosine in mathematics. This remarkable picturing device was of his  own invention.” (​ Waterworks​  pg. 196)  After examining the foundation of medical reforms of the Gilded Age, one can easily  make an educated guess as to where Dr. Sartorius falls on the moral spectrum. At what point  does the pursuit of medicinal knowledge become immoral? The facts of the matter are clear: Dr.  Sartorius harvested the life force of orphan children in order to prolong the lives of rich men, in  exchange for financial gain. Martin Pemberton described the nightmarish blood transfusions in  an earlier quote, but Sartorius himself goes on to describe the zombie­like state that became of  the rich benefactors as well: “...They did not agree to give themselves to my care in a uniform  condition, you understand. The illnesses varied, the ages, the prognoses. Though all the illnesses  were fatal. Yet I had them conformed to a degree of existence I could lower or raise by my  application, as you quicken or dampen a gas flame with a turn of the wrist. I reached only this  early stage, that I could keep them biomotive, that is, where they did not stop breathing, to the  extent that I did not overendow them with self­sustaining energies. This, of course, was not what  they had dreamed of for themselves...” (​ Waterworks​  pg. 215)  Sartorius was obviously indifferent about the fates of those he experimented with. Martin  comments on the absence of empathy in Sartorius, saying that, “...everything was Sartorius’s  triumph. Though he scrupulously fulfilled his part of the contract, he was entirely without care or  concern for his patients except as they were the objects of his thought. What he warranted was  only his scientific attention. But this was all!” (​ Waterworks​  pg. 200) Furthermore, when Martin  was questioned by Dr. Hamilton on his observations of Dr. Sartorius conducting his experiments,  Martin described how the orphan children were used, dead or alive. “Children died in their  place.” “Never by his hand.” “What?” “Not from any of his procedures. Either he took them after  an accidental death...or, if he worked with living...donors, as he did subsequently...those who  died, died of fear. Of an undetectable...infirmity in their spirits of the...survival instinct.”  (​ Waterworks​  pg. 233) The pursuit of medical knowledge becomes immoral if your practice  causes physical or emotional trauma to your patients or people close to your patients, and Dr.  Sartorius certainly did a good enough job of causing trauma to his victims as well as the people  in his community.  This time period was monumental in the progress of American civilization. Doctors have  always been held to the highest esteem for their indispensible skills, and rightly so; on the other  hand, there have always been doctors that were either mentally unstable or just unaware of the  “proper” way of doing things. Dr. Sartorius fell into the category of the former, despite the  benevolent advances he made in blood transfusion and recording brain activity. Doctorow  suggests that Sartorius is a medical genius who invented various surgical techniques, but is only  concerned with the pursuit of medical knowledge, nothing else. Sartorius pays no mind to any  pain or suffering that he inflicts on his patients. The facts are plain and simple: this character was  conducting grisly experiments using orphan children and tried to keep it a secret. If Dr. Sartorius  wanted to, he could have conducted his research the right way, and he could have applied his  genius to a much more nobler goal. Instead, he fell under the persuasion of money and potential  glory, and lost his sense of humanity in the process. The pursuit of medical knowledge should 

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/11/30/waterworksessayfinaldraft/

30/11/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Mobile-Implants 80%

Mobile Implants In March 7-th 1876, an outstanding american scientist inventor Alexander Bell received a patent for the invention of the phone.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/05/15/mobile-implants/

15/05/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

EchoSignopenInvent 79%

openInvent An article on these public domain invention ideas released to public by Autumn Leon (Punkroku) on Sunday, September 16th, 2k12 at 6:42pm via openInvent Future Goals:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/03/20/echosignopeninvent/

20/03/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Influences of users and art 79%

Morrison Hallie Morrison DIGPO 31 March 2014 Influences of Users and Art in the Age of Digital Proliferation In the Age of Digital Proliferation, I am fascinated with the success human users of digital domains create for the invention of the Internet, today.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/05/12/influences-of-users-and-art/

12/05/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

Carbon 77%

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/12/21/carbon/

21/12/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Chapitre 1 - Introduction 76%

Invention : ... → Invention : circuit intégré.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/02/16/chapitre-1-introduction/

16/02/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

CameraReport2 75%

With the invention, improvement upon and fusion of the practices of printing (such as lithography),9 mass production, chemistry and camera technology, it was projected that ways to “mechanically” record images directly from life would emerge in the near future.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/02/28/camerareport2/

28/02/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

BasicFacts 0 75%

A patent protects an invention.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/12/20/basicfacts-0/

20/12/2017 www.pdf-archive.com