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02 9Dec15 2821 Prasart-10 1 -2016 99%

Local Service Learning in Teacher Preparation Program.


25/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

52-Timbul Pardede 99%



05/12/2011 www.pdf-archive.com

2I17-IJAET1117362 v6 iss5 1948-1966 99%

22311963 THE MCKINSEY 7S MODEL FRAMEWORK FOR E-LEARNING SYSTEM READINESS ASSESSMENT Ali Abdul-Fattah Alshaher Lecture, Department of Management Information System, College of Administration and Economics, University of Mosul, Iraq.


04/07/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

TET Paper 1 Child Development and Pedagogy 99%

Social and Emotional Development during Primary School Years (6 to 10 Years) Meaning of social development-social expectations-Children’s Friendshipsfactors in friendship and choices of companions social acceptance-the desire to belong-peer grouping-Effects of schooling on social, emotional, and cultural spheres-Pattern of emotional development-common emotional patterns-the role of maturation and-learning in emotional development how children develop likes and dislikes to subjects, teachers, school, other students-emotional balance impact of media on emotional development.


03/03/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

artigo educação heurística 99%

towards a pedagogical and heuristic learning Isabel Borges Alvarez Nuno S.


08/08/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

PrinciplesofLearningandLearningTheory 98%

    PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY                 Principles of Learning and Learning Theory  Hannah R. Hiles  University of North Carolina at Greensboro          1      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 2  What is learning?  > Major Learning Theories: Gagné’s Hierarchy  Much of our understanding of education and the teaching process comes from Robert  Gagné, an early 20th­century experimental psychologist who was primarily interested in learning  and instruction. It was Gagné who gave us the most fundamental basis for the process of  teaching and what the instruction process looks like. Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning presents  eight ways to learn, with each stage building on the lower levels, ensuring that the upper levels  require greater skill and ability to conquer.  From the bottom up they begin with Signal Learning. As it is at the very bottom of the  hierarchy it is part of Pavlov’s “classical conditioning,” or the act of conditioning a subject to  provide a desired response in conjunction with a predetermined signal. Next comes  Stimulus­Response Learning – a more advanced version of classical conditioning. It incorporates  the use of schedules and rewards in the learning process. Chaining comes next, wherein a student  begins to learn the ability to connect prior lessons together in an organized sequence. After  Chaining comes Verbal Association. A higher­level form of Chaining, Verbal Association is the  same idea, but with those prior lessons being vocal in nature as opposed to physical. Note that  only halfway up the hierarchy, we are finally at a point where the student is at a point where they  are beginning to incorporate verbal skills – the magnitude of Gagné’s hierarchy and just how  “basic” his most fundamental lessons are cannot be overstated.  Discrimination Learning, Concept Learning, and Rule Learning are next and are very  linked together. Discrimination Learning is the process of a student being able to form  appropriate responses in an organized and precise way. Concept Learning follows this by      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 3  requiring that the student makes those same responses but now with the addition of  categorization – that they respond the same way to the same stimuli, regardless of order or  organization. Rule Learning eventually comes in, the second to last piece of Gagné’s hierarchy.  The most complex part of Rule Learning is that it requires the student to not only learn  relationships between situations and higher concepts but to also predict future situations and  concepts (ie, to understand social rules even if they are in a social situation that is new).  The final part of Gagné’s Hierarchy is Problem Solving. Gagné considered this the  highest level of learning. Because it requires entirely independent cognition and no external  stimuli, the student has to have mastered all previous levels in order to problem solve effectively.  In Problem Solving, the student must be able to face complicated rules and situations and not  know the answers – instead, he or she must know ways of getting to the answers (Singley 1989).  Gagné saw that by working their way up through the levels, students could eventually have  mastery of the task they were studying. This method also allowed for students to move at a pace  that worked for their own abilities, as well as letting them stop and start again at any point and  presenting the entire learning process as a journey rather than a means to an end (Clark 2004).  > Major Learning Theories: Bloom’s Taxonomy  This learning theory comes from a 1956 report that came to be known as “Bloom’s  Taxonomy,” a form of learning through instruction that takes into account the intake of  information through Cognitive (knowledge­based learning), Affective (emotion­based), and  Psychomotor (action­based). Much of instructional design that takes guidance from Bloom looks  specifically at the Cognitive model of Bloom’s Taxonomy, and the six individual components  that Bloom organizes in a hierarchy (similar to Gagné’s own hierarchy). For Bloom, the      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 4  hierarchy comes in the form of Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating,  and Creating.  It’s important when looking at Bloom’s hierarchy to see that, as with Gagné, each step  leads to the next. The student begins with remembering materials – they can recall and repeat  facts and answers from their long­term memory with ease. Once they can remember information  they can proceed to understand it – one can memorize sums and figures or dates in history  without actually understanding what they mean, but Bloom saw this second level of  Understanding as an important moment in the educational process.  Applying is the student’s use of the information they have come to understand – this will  vary depending on the information they have, but the more they use the information at hand, the  deeper their understanding of it will come. This leads directly into Analyzing, where a student  can look at the work they are doing (their “application” in the previous state of the hierarchy)  and determine cause and effect. This work of analyzing their lesson moves organically into  Evaluating – if A causes B, and B is a problem, how can the student solve B? This stage of  Evaluation is similar to Gagné’s final level of Problem Solving – it is the process of a student  looking for the work they are doing and determining where the issues are, then finding for  themselves what the solutions may be.  Finally, the student can move into Creating. Unlike Gagné, Bloom didn’t see the  educational process as stopping at Problem Solving – for him, the pinnacle of mastering a skill or  learning something new came when the student was able to then take that information and do  something unique with it. Bloom’s first edition of the Taxonomy had this final stage as  “Knowledge,” but in 2001 (two years after his death), it was updated to “Creating” or      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORY 5  “Synthesizing”. This is the student’s ability to take unique and individual parts and put them  together into a larger and more unified representation of the lesson or information they have been  learning – a synthesis of their learned knowledge (Wineburg 2009).  > Major Learning Theories: Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism  Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism are three additional members of learning  theory that cannot be neglected. Going back to Gagné’s “signal learning” and Pavlov’s “classical  conditioning,” Behaviorism looks at the most simple behavioral changes in an organism. As  Jordan et al point out, Behaviorists are quick to defend that they don’t believe learners don’t  think, rather “they [researchers] mainly choose to ignore inaccessible mental processes and focus  on observable behaviour” (2008). Cognitivism is a step up, branching into the mental processes  of how we observe and then process our environments and what happens to us. While  Behaviorism may be the knee­jerk reactions, Cognitivism in learning relies on “developing  effective ways of building schemata and processing information” (Jordan). Finally, in  Constructivism, we see yet a further advancement in the realm of cognition. Instead of simply  processing information as in Cognitivism, Constructivism is a school which is based on the  educator taking a passive role in their pupil’s learning – instead of dishing out answers, they may  use questions to inspire their students to probe deeper into their own understanding of the  materials, and find their own answers within. Jordan et al note that while the flow between  Constructivism and Cognitivism can be difficult to differentiate, Constructivism ultimately  “focuses on what people do with information to develop knowledge” (2008).     


24/04/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

FPSBotArtificialIntelligenceWithQLearning VG KQ 98%

FPS Bot Artificial Intelligence with Q-Learning Vladislav Gordiyevsky and Kyle Joaquim Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, MA 01854 Abstract—Innovation has stagnated in artificial intelligence implementations of first-person shooter bots in the video games industry.


15/01/2020 www.pdf-archive.com

pros cons and considerations of1342 98%

pros cons and considerations of Distance learning, as with any academic course, comes with advantages and disadvantages.


07/07/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

PosterSessionProgram 98%

Annual Stanford Machine Learning Poster Session December 13, 2016 - Project Directory # Area Title Authors 100 Athletics &


13/12/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Global Machine Learning Chip Market 98%

Executive Summary (1/2) Knowledge Based Value (KBV) Research Global Machine Learning Chip Market Full Report:


17/04/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

APersonalizedFutureforEducation 98%

Twenty-five or thirty kids sitting in rows learning the same thing at the same time at the same pace makes no sense… There are some really creative, innovative things happening across the country.


04/04/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

Infographic- Emerging Trends in Educational Technology 98%

Learning coding promises to move students from simple interactions with devices to controlling how those devices interact with them.


17/01/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

How to Learn Chinese 98%

Therefore, when learning a word, it is not enough to only learn pronunciation, but also to learn the correct tone, otherwise, the words can easily be used in the wrong context, making it difficult for others to understand what you are trying to express.


13/06/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

Difference Between Cooperative and Collaborative Learning 98%

Difference Between Cooperative and Collaborative Learning In the 21st century, teamwork was deemed as essential part of the learning curve in the classroom.


04/09/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

learning and developing in the EYFS little hens 98%

A parents’ guide to Teaching and Learning Teaching and Learning in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) EYFS Themes The EYFS has four Themes which act as ‘golden threads’, pulling together all of the principles and research that underpin the requirements for teaching and learning of babies and young children in England.


20/07/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

free-guitar-report 98%

You see, learning to play a guitar is now possible online.


24/06/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

10 6Jan16 2992 Revised Role of teacher Francisca 98%

The Role of Teacher in Medical Student Self-Directed Learning Process.


25/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

ECGBL2012 98%

An Inclusive Framework for Developing Video Games for Learning Moyen Mustaquim and Tobias Nyström Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden moyen.mustaquim@im.uu.se tobias.nystrom@im.uu.se Abstract:


06/04/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Brain Games 98%

As we learn, groupings of neurons physically work together to accomplish learning or thinking tasks.


13/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

learning spanish and cant get1402 98%

learning spanish and cant get Learning Spanish is a worthy goal in life.


03/07/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

Online Adult Learning Instrument 97%

Online Adult Learning Inventory For Assessing the Application of Adult Learning Principles to Web-Based Instruction © Dr.


24/04/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

Engelsk resume - The Demonstrations School Projects-3 97%

The Demonstrations School Projects THE DEMONSTRATIONS SCHOOL PROJECTS From 2013-2015 the National Agency for IT and Learning has worked together with three universities, seven university colleges, 28 primary and lower secondary schools in Denmark and approximately 515 teachers and nursery teachers in a major effort to create insight into how, when and why IT can enhance student1 learning.


22/06/2016 www.pdf-archive.com