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ReformEssay1 100%

Reform Essay #1    It is nearly uncontested that the national legislature of the United  States is massively flawed. Seldom is it contested, specifically,  that many of these flaws originate in the structure of the  government. Armchair political theorists the world over note problems  and generate solutions, although it must be said that no two  theorists concur on either the nature of the problems or the optimal  solutions thereof. That said, as an armchair political theorist, it  seems incumbent upon me to spew my ideas across the land.  Before we start, it must be made clear that among the more common  objections to any proposed reform is that the Founders of the United  States did not intend it. Leaving aside the hagiographic  interpretation of American history necessary to believe that they  were infallible and the many successful amendments showing that such  changes as these have had a good track record, so to speak, the  governance available for a largely­agricultural nation of fewer than  four million residents, where the fastest transportation was the  horse and the fastest calculator the abacus, is not the same as the  optimal governance for the present United States, nor will either it  or this be optimal in the America of nearly two and a half centuries  hence.  There seem to be two major schools of thought regarding the purpose  of a legislator. The first, of which the First­Past­The­Post system  is the brainchild, suggests that a legislator’s responsibility is to  the area that elected that representative, and that a legislature  ought to be the meeting­place of the voices chosen to speak for  various communities. The other theory, which begat Proportional  Representation, contends that each representative represents an  ideologically­bound swathe of the population ­ say, one­fourth of one  percent of all voters ­ that votes for a certain ideology shared by  that representative, and that a legislature ought to be the political  views of the nation in a microcosm.   Both schools of thought have their positives and negatives. The  former means that it is possible for beliefs that are common but do  not prevail in any particular community to be silenced. The latter  means that no one legislator is tied to a community, and thus that  the interests of that community go without support. The former means  that a plurality interest or view in individual communities can  become the sole interest or view represented, even if the other views  are similar enough that, banded together, they would outnumber them.  The latter means that legislators who do badly can only be easily  removed by their parties. The former means that interests bound to a  particular area, even if they are despised by the country at large,  can be represented. The latter necessitates large parties and  disadvantages non­partisan but popular candidates. And so on, and so  forth...  It seems likely that no system of government yet designed will both  perfectly represent the political views of the populace and produce  the optimal results for the purposes of good governance, even when  the two are in concord ­ indeed, it is unlikely that any system will  successfully do either one. That said, there are nevertheless  improvements to be made to the present system.  While the former view ­ the view of FPTP ­ is massively prevalent in  the United States government, the alternative also makes good points  and deserves a seat at the table. And what better place than the  Senate, that great Proteus of the government ­ first the voice of the  state legislatures, then that of the people of the various states,  with its elections arrhythmically staggered in an odd 2/3 time  signature. In truth, the states are strange choices for electoral  districts ­ except for a few examples, too small for a viable  regional identity, yet too large for a local one, usually too  heterogenous to represent a specific community or type of community  yet too homogenous to be reasonably competitive, and nowhere near  proportional, with the residents of Wyoming having more than sixty  times the electoral power of an equivalent quantity of Californians.  What better solution than to replace the entire thing with a system  which represents all Americans equally, is founded on a national  identity rather than any smaller one (or, perhaps, if necessary, a  number of regional interests that elect national representatives),  and is exactly as heterogenous or homogenous as the country? Granted,  such a system would be ill­fitting for the end­all and be­all of the  legislature ­ but its consistency of results make it nearly­ideal as  an upper house.  And what of the lower house?  Political factions are fractal. There are two schools of thought  regarding how a district ought to be designed ­ that a district ought  to reflect some kind of natural community, and that a district ought  to be designed so that it changes with the nation. The extent of the  former would be a district filled with homogenous electors, seldom  changing its political affiliation ­ only when the mass views or  party loyalty of the public changed, as in the American South between  1960 and 1972. The latter suggests a legislature that vacillates from  one supermajority to another, according to the vicissitudes of the  electorate amplified to staggering crests and troughs.  The former, it seems self­evident, is a better model for a  legislature founded on representing the wills of individual  constituencies. But while the United States House of Representatives  intends to represent individual constituencies, it is subverted by  gerrymandering and single­member districts, which split natural  communities.  Granted, single­member districts have their advantages. Notably, it  improves minority representation ­ when the Texas House of  Representatives switched over in 1972, African­American members were  elected for the first time since Reconstruction. But that minority  candidates are disadvantaged is not solely the fault of  multiple­member districts ­ after all, they remain disproportionally  uncommon in single­member legislatures. That minority candidates have  been forced to obviate representative democracy means that the forces  that oppose them should be tackled first, but it does not in and of  itself present a reason not to use multi­member districts.  Where, in multi­member and fairly apportioned districts, it could  honestly be said that there are five national representatives for  Houston (or perhaps three from South Houston and two from North  Houston, or some other scheme), in this present system, it can only  be said that there is one district for a swathe of Houston stretching  from Atascocita to Montrose by way of Spring, another for a vaguely  horse­shaped zone between Bush Intercontinental and Downtown Houston,  &c...  But why should representation be dependent on where someone lives ­  in many ways, the least important thing about a person? What common  interests bind a Channelview longshoreman and an affluent Downtown  lawyer, more than they are bound to their compatriots in, say, Los  Angeles? Why should the vote of a company executive in River Oaks  determine who represents a teacher in Bellaire, or vice versa? In  this new world of the Internet ­ of, as one might say, e­democracy ­  why must we be bound to the districts of the past, which divert  untold billions into porkbarrel spending? True, local affairs such as  roads bind them ­ but shouldn’t those be handled by local authorities  anyway? 

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/02/06/reformessay1/

06/02/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

IMP December 7 2015 94%

This IMP profile is based on votes in the 98th Legislature starting in early February right up to the Thanksgiving/deer hunting break.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/12/10/imp-december-7-2015/

10/12/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Toetsing loting voorstel “democratie.nu” 2018 10 08 92%

Paul Nollen democratie.nu vzw Intercameral Relations in a Bicameral Elected and Sortition Legislature – Pierre-Etienne Vandamme, Vincent Jacquet, Christoph Niessen, John Pitsys &

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/10/23/toetsing-loting-voorstel-democratienu-2018-10-08/

23/10/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

statementdenial 92%

In 2011, the Texas Legislature enacted Senate Bill 14 (SB14).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/02/07/statementdenial/

07/02/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Blaisdell - 1959 - The Electoral College 91%

The Manner of Choosing Electors From the outset, and to this day, the manner of choosing its State's Electors was left to each State legislature.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/11/24/blaisdell-1959-the-electoral-college/

24/11/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

FiledVerifiedPetition IDX 101880-2015 90%

Defendants do not have the legal authority to define Virtual Currencies and therefore to regulate it without the express mandate from the New York State Legislature.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/10/17/filedverifiedpetition-idx-101880-2015/

17/10/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

finished volume one 89%

Provided, however, that the legislature may, from time to time, by statute provide that a valid verdict, in civil cases, may be based on the votes of a specified number of the jury, not less than five-sixths thereof.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/02/12/finished-volume-one/

12/02/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

MakeAmericaSafeAgain 88%

Vo​ 2 In some conservative states, the Legislature may give bias towards some groups compared to others.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/04/03/makeamericasafeagain/

03/04/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

180624 Letter - Regarding Connexus and Brandt Industries development in Wascana Park 88%

In the 1913 high-minded Mawson plan for this beautiful park, which was never fully realized, the Lieutenant Governor was to reside across the lake from the East Wing of the Legislature.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/07/06/untitled-pdf-document/

06/07/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

Chronicle 86%

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/12/18/chronicle/

18/12/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

2015 Dean Document Week 3 84%

The Florida Legislature continued to work in Tallahassee this week.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/03/20/2015-dean-document-week-3/

20/03/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

temporary-platform-committee-report 83%

We strongly urge the Texas Legislature ignore, oppose, refuse, and nullify any federal mandated legislation which infringes upon the states10th Amendment Right.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/06/05/temporary-platform-committee-report/

05/06/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

Rio Grande International Trade Day - Concurrent Resolution 83%

now, therefore, be it RESOLVED, That the 85th Legislature of the State of Texas hereby urge importance the of United trade States between Congress Texas and to recognize Mexico and the foster international commerce;

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/03/18/rio-grande-international-trade-day-concurrent-resolution/

18/03/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

COMPLAINT 82%

RCW 9.68A.005 explains that “The legislature 24 finds that the prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse of children constitutes a government 25 objective of surpassing importance.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/04/07/complaint/

07/04/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

soroskooptbrussel 79%

Introduction Purpose This mapping provides the Open Society European Policy Institute and the Open Society network intelligence on Members of the 8th European Parliament likely to support Open Society values during the 2014–2019 legislature.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/11/28/soroskooptbrussel/

28/11/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

NH Climate Change News - April 9, 2017 78%

Climate-Related Bills in the NH Legislature Week of April 9 – April 16, 2017 Vol.1 No.7 Nearly Half A Million U.S.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/04/12/nh-climate-change-news-april-9-2017/

12/04/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

ny-corruption 78%

This package of reforms may be helpful to you, and to the legislature, in crafting comprehensive reforms to address public corruption in our state and to restore ordinary New Yorkers’ faith in our political system.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/12/04/ny-corruption/

04/12/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

Petition for Rehearing 78%

The decision of the court improperly invades the power of the legislature to legislate, by judicially adding windshields to the definition of “equipment” which must be maintained “in good working order” and “in safe mechanical condition.” That is a strained and unreasonable interpretation of the statute and was clearly adopted solely for the purpose of affirming the conviction in this case at the expense of recognized rights to be free from unlawful searches and seizures.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/04/01/petition-for-rehearing/

01/04/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

2011 Freedom Index South Dakota JBS Final 77%

86th South Dakota Legislature (Year 2011) How your State Legislators voted on the "Top Ten"

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2011/11/15/2011-freedom-index-south-dakota-jbs-final/

15/11/2011 www.pdf-archive.com

Final Draft (Offline Submission) 77%

The third objective is to evaluate whether or not the legislature have got such definition right, i.e.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/10/20/final-draft-offline-submission/

20/10/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

UPSC ISS IES 77%

(a) A candidate for the Indian Economic Service must have obtained a post Graduate Degree in Economics/Applied Economics/ Business Economics/ Econometrics from a University incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other educational Institutes established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as University under Section 3 of the University Grants commission Act, 1956 or a Foreign University approved by the Central Government from time to time.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/02/24/upsc-iss-ies/

24/02/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Scottish Home Rule Debate - Guelph University Papers 76%

— To promote the establishment of a Legislature sitting in Scotland, purely Scottish questions, and with an Executive Government responsible to it^and the Crown.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/10/17/scottish-home-rule-debate-guelph-university-papers/

17/10/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Prop Guide 2016 74%

Public Display of Legislative Bills Prohibits legislature from passing any bill until it has been in print and published for 72 hours prior to vote.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/10/15/prop-guide-2016/

15/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Chapter 1 73%

competition between lawyers and judge Civil Law embodies a legal tradition in which statutes passed by the legislature are the only recognized source of law.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/03/01/chapter-1/

01/03/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

Guide 71%

➢ We have a full list of Laws and their affects (See the guides section of the Guardian forums for more information.) ➢ Whether or not a law you attempt to put through the Legislature passes is dependent on how many seats in the Legislature your political party holds.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2012/01/23/guide/

23/01/2012 www.pdf-archive.com