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“Revolutionary masculinity” is also realized through a rejection of bourgeoisie masculine tropes, while at the same time realizing masculinity through the physical reality of being male.
So not only should women struggle against enslavement with the masculine world but go on their quest for subjectivity by revising the terms of love, autonomy and liberty.
At one pole of this continuum lie what they call fetishistic or rigid masculine representations and at the other pole lie transitional spaces that allow for various renegotiations of masculinity.
________________________________________________________________ verbs of travel = conjugated aller, partir, or voyager + en (masculine) or à (feminine) + transport ALLER PARTIR PRESENT PRESENT VOYAGER PRESENT Je vais Je pars Je voyage Tu vas Tu pars Tu voyages Elle va Elle part Elle voyage Nous allons Nous partons Nous voyageons Vous allez Vous partez Vous voyagez Ils vont Ils partent Ils voyagent ex.
In this formulation we have it assumed as an axiomatic fact that females feel at a disadvantage in this respect of their genital organs, without this being regarded as constituting a problem in itself possibly because to masculine narcissism this has seemed too self evident to n�ed explanation.
WHEN TOMBOY BECOMES A STRATEGIC TERM Lawson Jiang Film 165A: Film, Video, and Gender March 15, 2016 Tomboy is a 2011 French film centers around Laure, a 10yearold’s daily life with her new friends after moving to a new neighborhood with her family. The film begins with an opening scene showing Laure “driving” a car with her father while sitting on his lap. The spectators would have been tricked to believe that Laure is a boy by her boyish haircut and the “adventurous” activity if they have not seen the title prior to the viewing. While the film bears a straightforward title to suggest the theme, I shall declares that it does not necessarily associate Laure with gender nonconformity. The brilliant move made in the film is that it focuses on a prepuberty girl1 as such a character is then wrapped by a layer of vagueness in terms of gender reading. Although it seems to be as offensive to question why does Laure choose to be a tomboy as asking a homosexual person why does he/she choose to be gay or lesbian, the traces I found in the film indeed aroused my curiosity to ask such a question. Moreover, I propose that there is an alternative reading to the film with these evidence I found. Therefore, with no offense, I will be using “she” instead of “he” to refer Laure in this essay, and to investigate if she is a tomboy who refuses her female identity with a specific reason. The reason why Laure loves to behave as a boy is not because of gender nonconformity. What she really fears, as an individual sexed female, is the societal rejections, limitations and restrictions applied on female by the gender binary.2 Laure chooses to be a boy does not mean that she hates her biological sex; rather, she fears to be identified and treated as a girl. The only way to avoid those disadvantages brought on female is to deploy a male identity; a disguise. Therefore, I consider that Laure’s tomboyism is rather an alternative approach for her to be respected and treated equally by the other boys; that 1 Whose bone structure and body shapes are no different to a prepuberty boy. The limitation and restriction that girls should be feminine instead of masculine, and vice versa. 2 being a tomboy can thus be seen as Laure’s strategy to eliminate the binary play among the group of kids she plays with. The first scene is Laure driving with her father. In this scene, Laure makes her first appearance in the film as a boy through the participation of a masculine activity with her boys’ clothing. Driving is often considered as a masculine activity in the traditional sense because it has been constructed by advertisements through the associations between driving, men, mechanics, joy and freedom. Most of the spectators would have already established a sense of affirmation toward Laure’s tomboy identity in the very first scene because the title and the DVD cover had instilled them what should be expected before the first scene is ever revealed; it is inevitable to be “hinted” in such a way as it is never a complete experience to watch a film without knowing the synopsis or — at least — its title. While most of the spectators have established such a mindset toward the film, Tomboy is more than just a film about a tomboy who is presented in the way that she seems to have gender nonconformity. Laure takes on a masculine role with similar physical qualities and fitness as the boys of the same age, while Lisa, her new neighbor, plays the female character in the conventional sense. This does not mean that Lisa is weaker than Laure in anyway because she is identified as a female; as seen in the first game they take turns to play with other boys, Lisa demonstrates similar agility as Laure, and has even let Laure to win the round. Despite the equivalence of body fitness, Lisa tells Mickäel (Laure’s persona) that the boys do not want her to join their soccer games simply because she is a girl; “I don’t have a choice. They say I’m useless,” she explains. As Judith Halberstam notes in her article, “tomboyism tends to be associated with a ‘natural’ desire for the greater freedoms and mobilities enjoyed by boys,3” Laure understands how she would have been treated differently if she did not play as Mickäel in front of the boys, though it is not until Lisa speaks out this prejudice that male’s opinion on one’s ability are heavily based on one’s gender. This also explains Lisa chose to play Truth or Dare other than soccer because she does not want to be labelled as weak and then excluded by the boys. For the first time, the two’s conversation brings up the topic and implies Laure’s belief as a tomboy, which also forecasts the potential extent of tomboyism she will employ later in the film. A couple of days later, Laure is invited to go to swim in a lake. In order to swim with her new friends, Laure finds out her girl swimsuit and trims it to a swim trunk without hesitation. She then stands in front of the floor mirror, carefully placing the handcrafted clay penis into her trunk, then, with a light smile on her face — Laure becomes a boy now. Gender is not sex,4 one’s gender, as Judith Butler declares, is rather an act of performative in the sense that it constitutes as an effect one appears to express.5 Laure’s swim trunk and the clay penis — an obvious symbol of patriarchy — have perfected her Mickäel persona to be a more convincing role in front her friends, or even anyone else other than her family. “Gender is not a property of bodies or something originally existent in human beings,” De Lauretis writes, “but the set of effects produced in bodies, behaviors, and social relations. Gender is a representation [and] the representation of gender is its construction.6 ” De Lauretis’ shares a similar view with Butler, 3 Halberstam, Judith. 1999. “Oh Bondage Up Yours!: Female Masculinity and the Tomboy” In Sissies and Tomboys: Gender Nonconformity and Homosexual Childhood. R ottnek, Matthew, ed. New York: New York University Press: 155. 4 De Lauretis, Teresa. 1987. “The Technology of Gender.” In Technologies of Gender: Essays on Theory, Film and Fiction. Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 5. 5 Butler, Judith. 1993. “Imitation and Gender Insubordination.” In The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader . Abelove, Henry, Michele Aina Baral, and David M. Halperin, eds. New York: Routledge: 314. 6 De Lauretis, Teresa. 1987. “The Technology of Gender”: 3. believing that gender, rather than a mere identification of one’s biological sex, is a set of effects generated by one’s behavior. Moreover, De Lauretis suggests that “Gender is the representation of a relation” which constructs a social relation between “one entity and other entities.7” One is viewed and identified — whether as a male, female, transgender, etc. — by other people, and hence a relation is formed; that is, one’s gender is determined by other people based on one’s behaviors. This suggests that Laure is a boy in front of her friends as everyone (like Lisa, who is fond of and kisses this handsome boy) believes in her Mickäel persona. Therefore, tomboy is more like a term referring to Laure for her family and the spectators who know the truth, while she is a “boygendered” girl who has demonstrated masculinity and other similar qualities to her male counterparts in the narrative world. Although Laure enjoys the boyish behaviors such as imitating to spit and to play soccer topless like other boys, it does not mean that she rejects to be identified as a girl. First, she does not show any sign of disapproval when Lisa suggests to put makeup on her to “make” her like a girl; she does not even wipe off the makeup after leaving Lisa’s home. Moreover, instead of embarrassment or unpleasantness, she smiles shyly when her mother praises her that she looks lovely and great. This also hints that Laure is treated as a “daughter” instead of a “son.” Laure is a tomboy in her parents’ eyes while her tomboyism is tolerated to some extent. Laure’s younger sister, Jeanne, is an opposite to Laure since she has been granted all of the femininity; a girl who has nice and long hair; who likes to wear cute dresses; who likes the color of pink… While Laure’s father is openminded enough to allow her to explore new things freely, such as driving, wearing boy’s clothes, painting her room to blue,8 and sipping beer because “it won’t do any 7 Ibid., 45. A reference to boy’s associated color. 8
Jack Myers’s book The Future of Men should be required reading for every parent rearing sons.” —Contessa Brewer, anchor and correspondent for NBC and MSNBC “Jack Myers envisions a better day when masculine strength is defined by empathy and sensitivity instead of the macho, often sexist, attitudes and behaviors of the past.” —Keith Reinhard, chairman emeritus of DDB Worldwide Communications Group “Jack Myers has proven over and over again that he has an eye for the trends that drive our culture and our industry.
mechanic skews masculine, secretary skews feminine (1) I hope he or she find what they’re looking for (f/b.1956) Gender Year of birth Participants non-binary (nb) 1970-2000 58 male (m) 1940-2004 182 female (f) 1940-2004 365 No response 24 TOTAL 629 3P Pronouns for SECRETARY Pronoun N (%) they 240 58.3% she 136 33.0% he/she 18 4.4% he 18 4.4% TOTAL 412 70 Percentage (%) 90 they (m) they (f) they (nb) ▪ “What is your gender?” ▪ Non-binary:
pronouns change and shift for her, so don't get confused when she is also called a he!) -Voice can be masculine, feminine, or gender neutral!
A masculine society – if we follow the logic of the former – is supposed to see both men and women being assertive.
With Symbols and the Interpretation of Dreams Aspects of the Masculine Aspects of the Feminine * The Essential Jung – (1983) Anthony Storr, ed.
Autphag a writer and advocate against the morally aggressive advances of matriarchal socialism of the Celtic modality in their emulations of Nordic anti-darkness in proto-materialistic pseudo-Enlightenment, administratively punished by the B'nai B'ritish state psychiatrically, legally, reputationally, thus, above all else, and politically, and thanks to the small group of acquaintances waiting by her (officially “his”) side, rejuvenated with the spiritual strength to proceed in continuation with this much needed struggle A PRELIMINARY EXPLANATION OF THE HYPERMALE SOLSTICE INSIGNIA-SIGIL Its structural basis is ultimately a Celto-Shamanic cross, akin to the one seen on Stormfront in various capacities, although slightly modified to remove it of overly Christian connotations at the apices of the spokes (originally a miniaturized Christian cross, it is replaced with the masculine sex-symbolic ankh);
Margaret Sullivan ENG 242 5/2/17 Critical Introduction This researched web anthology will include visual and textual examples of the concept of gender within women’s writing and modern literature, television, and comics. The need to explore the societal contradictions that other authors and writers reveal is definitely a personal importance but is also relevant to the subject gender itself. Although the concept of gender is extremely broad, it is necessary to express concern with societal expectations and breaking the unspoken barriers. To help formulate this analysis on gender, it will be divided into things like gender roles, issues, equality, identity, and stereotypes. Critical theory suggests that these concept are far too crucial for society to ignore. Not only does every person perceive gender in stunningly different ways, but many of those perspectives have created controversial topics and have created discussion among scholars. Not only is textual evidence of theses concept important, but also visual content like visual novels or comics can also show phenomenal examples of the list above. How female characters are depicted in comic books and visual texts as well as exploring gender within these different types of texts to also read and visually see these things come alive through art. Many people have dedicated their lives to this dire field of work, so that goes without saying that these types of approaches affect everyone very differently. These ideas are expanding rapidly and there are new theories, thoughts, and views every day. Every female lives a different life, but it is what similar things we go through that drive us to stick as one and stand together. There are many male authors who understand the struggle of living an everyday average life as a woman, who also offer interesting ideas to the table about an already interesting wide social subject. This is all immensely important to help mold a future generation to teach. History, Theory, and Meaning In The Critical Theory of Gender, Elia Ntaousani specifically focuses on gender as a social construct, and suggests that the word “gender” was initially meant to be used as a neutral term, rather than just “male or female”. A term that would eventually create tons of conversation. Ntaousani compares “gender” to “race” in terms of creating a word that can be considered unbiased. However, she also argues that “gender” has often times replaced the word “women” in different forms of literature. To clarify, she considers this a type of objectivity to women, becoming almost a substitute for the word itself, and shows how the misuse of ‘gender’ has the very opposite result of its intention. She explains further by saying that gender is no longer used for its political definition; it has been reinstated by others who are given deluded misinformation of the true usage of the word. She uses the word “class” to show how a term could have “analytical association”. She uses binaries to help interpret this concept, including very obvious things such as “feminine/masculine”, “nature/culture”, and “animal human”. “In other words, gender ’ did not manage to offer the possibility of a new world where the social relations between the sexes would be redesignated; its ‘ usage insists that the world of women is part of the world of men, created in and by it.” This is part of the history as gender as a social construction. There is very interesting sub-concept with gender that involves women in animated/live action movies, tv shows, video games, and comics. “Trinity Syndrome” refers to female characters who are very interesting and complicated, but most importantly have a lot of potential. However, the story surpasses this excellent character and the story virtually gives them nothing to do. This absolutely has to do with gender because typically there is a male protagonist; then an alluring female character is introduced with nothing but her personality (not really a “backstory”). A personality is an extremely important role in characters because that makes them who they are; it gives them something to identify with. However, when a character is loosely shown based on how they act, is this fair? Fictional and nonfictional characters must “deal” with this. A problematic example of this would be when females are categorized as loud, strong, or outspoken they are usually considered mean and rude. If this were a male character being described as such, he would be considered to be strong while having leadership characteristics. In an article titled We’re Losing All our Strong Female Characters to Trinity Syndrome by Tasha Robinson, she gives strong examples from commonly-known movies to help others understand her claim. In the beginning of this text, she gives credit to the people who seemingly care enough to push forward a strong female lead in many different things. She talks about the importance of having a female character and how there has been a “cultural push” to have female characters become confident and capable, and also starring a main role. The author of this article suggests an interesting outlook on how the term “strong female character” can actually be almost against what it is literally intending to say. That expression has been dissected and shown to do more harm than good in a lot of different ways. In a great read titled “I hate Strong Female Characters” by Sophia Mcdougall, although it seems misleading, the very first few lines are incredibly accurate. “Sherlock Holmes gets to be brilliant, solitary, abrasive, Bohemian, whimsical, brave, sad, manipulative, neurotic, vain, untidy, fastidious, artistic, courteous, rude, a polymath genius. Female characters get to be Strong.” She shows that men characters can have an infinite amount of synonyms describing them, and female characters merely get “strong”. She says that typically, men characters are assumed to be strong due to the societal thoughts on masculinity. The Trinity Syndrome is “more than a marketing term than a meaningful goal”. Visual Examples Currently in this era, there are countless examples that could be used to help further define gender and its importance in literature of all forms. Starfire, a character originally from the famous comic “Teen Titans” is an absolutely great example of a feminist icon in comics. From the very moment Starfire was a mere thought, she was sexualized. She is initially introduced as a sexy alien who is extremely naive and culturally unaware with a small hint of anger. She has been described as a “male fantasy.” On the other hand, once the audience actually has a chance to read, see, and watch Starfire’s actions and dialogue, she becomes so much more than just that. In the animated TV show version of Teen Titans, Starfire’s stories come to life and her character is able to express her true self and the way she was written way more effectively. Regardless, in either of those ways, the audience progressively sees through stories and character development that Starfire is arguable the strongest female superhero. Not to say she is a “strong female lead” but she proves her mental and physical strength to not only her team, but the readers as well. Starfire is proven to be physically strongest out of her entire team, thanks to her super strength alien powers. Being mentally strong is a large portion of Starfire’s entire character and backstory; the women of her planet were usually captured and chosen to live out their days as servants. In multiple different universes of the Teen Titans, Starfire eventually becomes the leader of the Teen Titans. This is remarkably relevant to gender because when one thinks of a “strong character” a common thought is frequently something like “Superman” or “The Hulk”-- two very masculine characters. Starfire shatters our culture’s notion that women should be submissive, fragile, or perhaps simply not as strong as other characters. She is not pure or innocent; she embraces her sexuality and gender without ever having to distinctly say it through confident dialogue and actions.
All [cis] men should be masculine.” What are the implications of an either/or approach to gender?
fall winter 2013/ 2014 Masculine details on feminine forms, well-defined thick heels, raw edges.
Though master is a masculine word, this mastery is feminine.