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Bio 2 100%

 acquire energy anabolism ‫عمليات البناء‬  Use energy catabolism ‫عمليات الهدم‬ chemical ‫ انها عبارة عن مجموعة من الـ‬metabolism ‫المفهوم العام لكلمة‬ ‫ الوحيد فـ‬catalyst ‫ هى الـ‬enzymes ‫ والـ‬enzymes ‫ بتحفزها الـ‬reaction biochemistry ‫الـ‬ catabolism or anabolism ‫ سواء‬cell ‫ بتستغلها الـ‬energy ‫التفاعالت دى بتنتج‬ ‫وده بيتم فـ صورة‬ Synthesis , storage , degradation and eliminatin of substanes 2-Metabolic pathway "


FitnessEndocrinologyMetabolicProcessesRegulation1.2.1 98%

Endocrinology and Metabolic Processes Regulation  Athletic Success via Biochemical Supplementation  ● ● ● Author: Eva  Date: 2016­01­30  Rev: 1.2.1    Note​ : This is a work in progress for my own purposes. It is currently evolving. Resources are listed in  brackets with source links at the end of the document. If otherwise not noted/bracketed, the writing is  from the author’s own contextual knowledge. Conclusions are bolded where deemed relevant to a  topic.    A Quick Intro to Endocrinology and Metabolism  Prior to getting into any concepts or useful conclusions there are several background terms  and elements that the reader should be familiar with. We’ll start with fundamentals and touch  on several core elements before introducing the cyclical elements of endocrinology and the  metabolic cycle. These terms, concepts, and cycles are essential to understanding how one’s  diet and hormonal balances are controlled by diet, which in turn defines how our physical  form is capable of performance, growth, decline, and overall change.    Fundamental Terms  The following terms will come up occasionally throughout this document and, as such, one  would benefit from knowing the context around them prior to continuing.    Endogenous  Originating from within an organism, not attributable to any external or environmental factor.  eg: biologically produced estrogen created by the ovaries.    Exogenous  Originating from outside an organism, caused by an agent or organism outside the body. eg:  hormone replacement medication taken by injection.    MacroNutrients  The combined requirements of base nutrition required to sustain healthy human existence.  There are three primary macronutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. [1] Macronutrients  are defined as a class of chemical compounds which humans consume in the largest  quantities (must be above a threshold amount) and which provide humans with the bulk of  energy. [31]    CNS, The Central Nervous System  The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal  cord serve as the main "processing center" for the entire nervous system, and control all the  workings of your body.    PSN, The Peripheral Nervous System  The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that branch out from the brain and  spinal cord. These nerves form the communication network between the CNS and the body  parts. The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided into the somatic nervous system  and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system consists of nerves that go  to the skin and muscles and is involved in conscious activities. The autonomic nervous  system consists of nerves that connect the CNS to the visceral organs such as the heart,  stomach, and intestines. It mediates unconscious activities.    Endocrinology  A branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its  specific secretions known as hormones. It is also concerned with the integration of  developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or  behavioral activities of metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sleep,  digestion, respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, reproduction, and  sensory perception caused by hormones.    Metabolism  The set of life­sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These  enzyme­catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their  structures, and respond to their environments.    Pharmacokinetics  Sometimes described as what the body does to a drug, refers to the movement of drug into,  through, and out of the body ­ the time course of its absorption, bioavailability, tissue  distribution, metabolism, and excretion. [52]  Endocrinology: Communication and Message Relays  The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the  circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs. The major endocrine glands  include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid, parathyroid,  hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands.    The Role of Hormones in Endocrinology  Hormones are the body’s signaling molecules that are used to communicate between organs  and tissues. They regulate physiological and behavioral activities, such as digestion,  metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation,  stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood. The particulars of each  hormone are covered in the section titled “Neurotransmitters, Hormones, and Histamines”.    An Overview of Hormonal Biosynthesis        Receptors  In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule usually found embedded within the plasma membrane surface of a cell that receives chemical signals from outside the cell.


MDMA pdf 97%

While there is good evidence that CYP2D6 is the primary metabolic pathway for MDMA, hydroxlyation is possible at all 3 ring positions.


葉振聲 95%

Hormone and Metabolic Research 1989;21:261-6.


report 7cookingtricks 92%

Karine Losier ©2011 And Beyond, Metabolic Cooking.


cleanse clutch 86%



ThrinaxodonFinal 85%

Drew Lyons  Micah Mansfield  Animal Design Project #1    Thrinaxodon    Thrinaxodon, a synapsid cynodont, was a small, mammal­like reptile that lived  253 million years ago in the late Permian. It disappeared during the extinction event 245  million years ago at the end of the ​Olenekian portion of the Triassic​ period. The  discovery of Thrinaxodon was important as a transitional fossil in the evolution of  mammals.    Cladogram showing the relationship of Thrinaxodon to mammals (Botha and  Chinsamy, 2005).    Fossils of Thrinaxodon were found in modern day South Africa and Antarctica,  providing strong evidence that Thrinaxodon once roamed an area that combined these  land masses because the physiology of Thrinaxodon suggests it could neither swim  long distances nor fly.  Current day separation of fossils by a vast ocean helped  scientists understand plate tectonics and the existence of a supercontinent called  Pangea.    Pangea: Image taken ​​.  The inserted  black box shows the location where Thrinaxodon fossils were found and where it likely  lived during the Late Permian and Early Triassic periods.    Thrinaxodon was 30 to 50 cm in length, 10 cm tall, had a large, flat head and  legs somewhat characteristic of fossorial animals that splayed out slightly from the  torso, creating a 15 cm wide stance.  Indentations in fossils of its skull provide strong  evidence that Thrinaxodon had whiskers.  Whiskers are a very beneficial adaptation for  predators at night because it would allow the animal to better sense its surroundings in  low light conditions, giving it a competitive advantage over its prey and other predators  that compete for similar resources.  If it had whiskers then there may have been fur as  well, indicating that it was homeothermic since fur functions to insulate the animal from  the outside conditions, so the animal’s temperature is being driven more by internal  processes.  Being one of the earliest mammal­like organisms with fur, it was most likely  less dense than the fur modern mammals have (prehistoric­, 2011).    Thrinaxodon had many mammalian­like adaptations that in ways allowed it to  function in similar ways as modern day mammals, suggesting it was a distant ancestor  of mammals.  Key morphological innovations allowed for increased metabolic rates and  its survival through the Permian­Triassic extinction event.  These included features in  Thrinaxodon’s skeleton such as the addition of lumbar vertebrae on the spine and the  shortening of thoracic vertebrae, one additional occipital condyle, the presence of a  masseteric fossa, and a hardened secondary palate.  The segmentation of the spine  allowed for increased weight bearing and movement in the lower back.  Segmentation,  in combination with the absence of ribs in the lower abdomen, suggests the presence of  a diaphragm.  The ribs now form a chest cavity that houses the lungs and provides an  attachment surface for the diaphragm, which allows for increased respiration efficiency  and minimum energy expenditure due to breathing (Cowen, 2000).  The addition of an  occipital condyle functioned to increase articulation with the atlas vertebrae and  permitted more movement, which allowed it to be more aware of its surroundings and  potential predators. The masseteric fossa presented a larger surface area for muscle  attachment on the dentary bone to make chewing and processing food more efficient,  which in turn leads to a faster metabolism.  One of the most important adaptations,  especially for carnivores, is the presence of the hardened secondary palate that allowed  for breathing through the nose while chewing, which is important in order to take down  struggling prey or chew for a longer period of time while still maintaining the ability to  breathe (prehistoric­, 2011).  Thrinaxodon also possesses the beginnings of  a brain case, which is shown by the epipterygoid bone expanding to alisphenoid­like  proportions, as well as nasal turbinates, which are “convoluted bones in the nasal cavity  that are covered by olfactory sense organs” (Cynodontia).  The teeth of Thrinaxodon  display the mammalian traits of thecodontia (teeth present in the socket of the dentary)  and differentiated teeth.  In its tooth differentiation, the three cusped post canines that  Thrinaxodon was named after were important so it could thoroughly chew its food and  decrease the time of digestion.  This also suggests a faster metabolism that was more  like modern mammals, as well as an important evolutionary step towards the  tribosphenic molar (Estes, 1961).  Due to this increased metabolism, Thrinaxodon was  eurythermic, meaning it was able to function in a broad range of temperatures, and was  essentially homeothermic.


arsenic poster 3 84%

This presents a global health concern as research has found correlations between arsenic exposure and disorders such as cancer, heart disease and the metabolic syndrome.


RNase E Poster AMGEN 83%

The complex consists of enzymes RNase E, PNPase, RNA helicase B and metabolic enzymes Enolase in E.


JDIT-2015-0301-014 83%

Import is usually the prevailing direction of transport for providing metabolic fuel, especially in proliferating cells.


11 81%

The stomach is metabolic barrier against of the ethanol and its metabolites but simultaneously alone is exposed to the influence of alcohol.


Acetaldehyde FCT 4402 81%

metabolic acetaldehyde was not regarded.


Dr Obeid Phosphorus-Qatar (1) 79%

Food Science American University of Beirut Lebanon Energy Balance Equation Intake Hunger Satiety Nutrient Absorption Expenditure Metabolic Rate Physical Activity Thermogenesis Energy Balance EI - EE = 100 kcal/day 40kg 12kg 8kg 4kg Year 1 Year 2 Time Year 3 Year 10 Daily Energy Intake Inter-meal Interval Meal Size Meal Number Satiety Satiation Factors affecting food intake CNS Factors Circulating Factors Sensory Stimulation Digestive Factors (GI Factors) Hepatic Factors Food Intake Neurological Factors Eating Environment Hormonal Factors Metabolic factors Habits Beliefs


BMR and TDEE 79%

Calculate your Basel Metabolic Rate (BMR).


conferene post 79% Results Metabolic changes caused by sudden oxygen delivery cutt-off are followed by accumulation of specific metabolites affecting force of heart muscle contraction.


Dieting done right 78%

Calculating your resting metabolic rate (RMR) Your resting metabolic rate is the number of calories your body needs to be able to complete its basic daily functions.


lec2 78%

Increase in metabolic rate 3.


devin.may 78%

Fat also serves the important function of storing and releasing energy (fat) in response to metabolic demands.


eBook How To Break Free From Our Sitting Culture 76%

Prolonged sitting causes your body to begin shutting down at the metabolic level.


Heart Failure - Dr. Acosta 76%

infection) Conditions associated with increased metabolic demand Pregnancy, px with HF are not advised to get pregnant because the heart cannot cope with the metabolic demands of pregnancy Thyrotoxicosis Excessive physical activity  Administration of drug with negative inotropic properties or fluid retaining properties NSAIDS and steroids  Alcohol Upon cessation of alcohol intake there is a dramatic improvement NYHA Classification of HF  Class I:


Sugar ORIG 75%

2) ______ Metabolic syndrome 3) ______ Fructose b) A network of nerves and responses and responses in the brain that make people feel good when something good happens (eg:


m140008 73%


ER1225 73%

Jean Soulier (Paris) 14:20-14:35 14:35-14:40 TCR and T-ALL Discussion Elizabeth Macintyrc (Paris) 14:40-14:55 Jan Cools (Leuven) 14:55-15:00 Targeting oncogenic NOTCH 1 signaling in T-ccll acute lymphoblastic leukemia Discussion 15:00-15:15 15:15-15:20 IL7R AND PTEN Discussion Joao Barata (Lisbon) 15:20-15:35 15:35-15:40 JAK/STAT signaling in T-ALL Discussion Pieter Van Vlierbcrghe (Ghent) 15:40-15:55 Deletion 6q impairs ribosomal and mitochondrial functions Jean Soulier (Paris) to drive leukemia progression in T-ALL Discussion 15:55-16:00 16:07-16:10 The nucleotide kinase Nadk constitutes a metabolic vulnerability o f NOTCH1-driven T-ALL Discussion 16:10-16:30 Panel discussion 16:30-17:00 Coffee Break 16:00-16:07 Etienne De Braekeleer (Cambridge) 2 SESSION III - INDIVIDUAL MANAGEMENT OF ALL Chair: