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2012 Teets et al 2013 PNAS 98%

Gene expression changes in response to dehydration indicated up-regulation of cellular recycling pathways including the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome and autophagy, with concurrent down-regulation of genes involved in general metabolism and ATP production.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/07/07/2012-teets-et-al-2013-pnas/

07/07/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Bio 2 98%

Introduction 1-Metabolism All the controlled enzyme –mediated chemical reaction by which the cell :

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/10/03/bio-2/

03/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

2018 Colinet & Renault Exp Gerontol 97%

Maintaining life is viewed as the ability to maintain the level of metabolites from intermediate metabolism within discrete and functional ranges (Mishur and Rea, 2012).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/01/09/2018-colinet-renault-exp-gerontol/

09/01/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

2012 Colinet et al Funct Ecol 96%

Regulation of metabolism by changes in mitochondrial number and capacities often take place during cold acclimation (e.g.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/07/07/2012-colinet-et-al-funct-ecol/

07/07/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

FitnessEndocrinologyMetabolicProcessesRegulation1.2.1 96%

Endocrinology and Metabolic Processes Regulation  Athletic Success via Biochemical Supplementation  ● ● ● Author: Eva  Date: 2016­01­30  Rev: 1.2.1    Note​ : This is a work in progress for my own purposes. It is currently evolving. Resources are listed in  brackets with source links at the end of the document. If otherwise not noted/bracketed, the writing is  from the author’s own contextual knowledge. Conclusions are bolded where deemed relevant to a  topic.    A Quick Intro to Endocrinology and Metabolism  Prior to getting into any concepts or useful conclusions there are several background terms  and elements that the reader should be familiar with. We’ll start with fundamentals and touch  on several core elements before introducing the cyclical elements of endocrinology and the  metabolic cycle. These terms, concepts, and cycles are essential to understanding how one’s  diet and hormonal balances are controlled by diet, which in turn defines how our physical  form is capable of performance, growth, decline, and overall change.    Fundamental Terms  The following terms will come up occasionally throughout this document and, as such, one  would benefit from knowing the context around them prior to continuing.    Endogenous  Originating from within an organism, not attributable to any external or environmental factor.  eg: biologically produced estrogen created by the ovaries.    Exogenous  Originating from outside an organism, caused by an agent or organism outside the body. eg:  hormone replacement medication taken by injection.    MacroNutrients  The combined requirements of base nutrition required to sustain healthy human existence.  There are three primary macronutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. [1] Macronutrients  are defined as a class of chemical compounds which humans consume in the largest  quantities (must be above a threshold amount) and which provide humans with the bulk of  energy. [31]    CNS, The Central Nervous System  The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal  cord serve as the main "processing center" for the entire nervous system, and control all the  workings of your body.    PSN, The Peripheral Nervous System  The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that branch out from the brain and  spinal cord. These nerves form the communication network between the CNS and the body  parts. The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided into the somatic nervous system  and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system consists of nerves that go  to the skin and muscles and is involved in conscious activities. The autonomic nervous  system consists of nerves that connect the CNS to the visceral organs such as the heart,  stomach, and intestines. It mediates unconscious activities.    Endocrinology  A branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its  specific secretions known as hormones. It is also concerned with the integration of  developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or  behavioral activities of metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sleep,  digestion, respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, reproduction, and  sensory perception caused by hormones.    Metabolism  The set of life­sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These  enzyme­catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their  structures, and respond to their environments.    Pharmacokinetics  Sometimes described as what the body does to a drug, refers to the movement of drug into,  through, and out of the body ­ the time course of its absorption, bioavailability, tissue  distribution, metabolism, and excretion. [52]  Endocrinology: Communication and Message Relays  The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the  circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs. The major endocrine glands  include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid, parathyroid,  hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands.    The Role of Hormones in Endocrinology  Hormones are the body’s signaling molecules that are used to communicate between organs  and tissues. They regulate physiological and behavioral activities, such as digestion,  metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation,  stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood. The particulars of each  hormone are covered in the section titled “Neurotransmitters, Hormones, and Histamines”.    An Overview of Hormonal Biosynthesis        Receptors  In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule usually found embedded within the plasma membrane surface of a cell that receives chemical signals from outside the cell.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/02/02/fitnessendocrinologymetabolicprocessesregulation1-2-1/

02/02/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

2013 Foray et al CBP 95%

Cold tolerance increases through the accumulation of metabolites with an assumed cryoprotective function and the depression of metabolites involved in energy metabolism.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/07/07/2013-foray-et-al-cbp/

07/07/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

MDMA pdf 95%

Metabolism The human cytochrome CYP450 is responsible for the metabolism of MDMA.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/01/31/mdma-pdf/

31/01/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

2018 Enriquez et al Front Physiol 95%

A recent transcriptomic study suggested that cold tolerance of winter morphs is associated with an upregulation of genes involved in carbohydrates’ metabolism (Shearer et al., 2016).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/11/07/2018-enriquez-et-al-front-physiol/

07/11/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

葉振聲 93%

As an Intern in Veterans General Hospital-Taipei 1974-1975 As an Internist since 1975 up to now As an Endocrinologist since 1980 Fellow, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA July 1982-June 1983 Present Appointment :

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/04/26/untitled-pdf-document/

26/04/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

2019 Enriquez & Colinet Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 92%

Metabolic pathway analyses indicated a remodeling of various processes, including purine metabolism and aminoacyl tRNA biosynthesis.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2019/07/09/2019-enriquez--colinet-am-j-physiol-regul-integr-comp-physiol/

09/07/2019 www.pdf-archive.com

2012 Colinet et al PLOS One 90%

A large set of proteins were modulated during diapause and these were involved in various functions such as remodeling of cytoskeleton and cuticle, stress tolerance, protein turnover, lipid metabolism and various metabolic enzymes.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/07/07/2012-colinet-et-al-plos-one/

07/07/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

2013 Colinet et al Metabolomics 90%

Rearing on high-sugar doses induced system-wide metabolic alteration associated with carbohydrate metabolism imbalance, a developmental delay and a fresh mass reduction.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/07/07/2013-colinet-et-al-metabolomics/

07/07/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

report 7cookingtricks 90%

FREE REPORT Quick &

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/11/19/report-7cookingtricks/

19/11/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

2014 Colinet Renault CBP-A 88%

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/07/07/2014-colinet-renault-cbp-a/

07/07/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

2007 Colinet et al. IBMB 86%

The reduced mortality under FTR was associated with up-regulation of several proteins playing key roles in energy metabolism (glycolysis, TCA cycle, synthesis and conversion of ATP), protein chaperoning (Hsp70/Hsp90), and protein degradation (proteasome).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/07/07/2007-colinet-et-al-ibmb/

07/07/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

2020 Henry et al CBP A 84%

melanogaster, and thereby affect both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism (Ridley et al., 2012;

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2020/01/06/2020-henry-et-al-cbp-a/

06/01/2020 www.pdf-archive.com

cleanse clutch 84%

METABOLISM. ... FORMULATED FUEL METABOLISM, AND LEAN MUSCLE.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/04/23/cleanse-clutch/

23/04/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

2018 Colinet et al JEB 83%

doi:10.1242/jeb.164806 Loss of ion homeostasis Restoration of ion gradients Loss of metabolic homeostasis Restoration of metabolic homeostasis Cell death Dysfunctional membranes and bound enzymes Accumulation of toxic compounds ATP deficiency Metabolic (enzyme) inhibition Alteration of membranes Unfolding of proteins Boost of energy metabolism Detoxification Protective (stabilizing) solutes Protein chaperoning Restoration of membrane properties DNA damage Cytoskeleton disassembly CLT/cold injury zone Cytoskeleton remodeling FTR recovery period (e.g.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/08/24/2018-colinet-et-al-jeb/

24/08/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

ThrinaxodonFinal 83%

Drew Lyons  Micah Mansfield  Animal Design Project #1    Thrinaxodon    Thrinaxodon, a synapsid cynodont, was a small, mammal­like reptile that lived  253 million years ago in the late Permian. It disappeared during the extinction event 245  million years ago at the end of the ​Olenekian portion of the Triassic​ period. The  discovery of Thrinaxodon was important as a transitional fossil in the evolution of  mammals.    Cladogram showing the relationship of Thrinaxodon to mammals (Botha and  Chinsamy, 2005).    Fossils of Thrinaxodon were found in modern day South Africa and Antarctica,  providing strong evidence that Thrinaxodon once roamed an area that combined these  land masses because the physiology of Thrinaxodon suggests it could neither swim  long distances nor fly.  Current day separation of fossils by a vast ocean helped  scientists understand plate tectonics and the existence of a supercontinent called  Pangea.    Pangea: Image taken ​http://www.metafysica.nl/wings/wings_3a.html​.  The inserted  black box shows the location where Thrinaxodon fossils were found and where it likely  lived during the Late Permian and Early Triassic periods.    Thrinaxodon was 30 to 50 cm in length, 10 cm tall, had a large, flat head and  legs somewhat characteristic of fossorial animals that splayed out slightly from the  torso, creating a 15 cm wide stance.  Indentations in fossils of its skull provide strong  evidence that Thrinaxodon had whiskers.  Whiskers are a very beneficial adaptation for  predators at night because it would allow the animal to better sense its surroundings in  low light conditions, giving it a competitive advantage over its prey and other predators  that compete for similar resources.  If it had whiskers then there may have been fur as  well, indicating that it was homeothermic since fur functions to insulate the animal from  the outside conditions, so the animal’s temperature is being driven more by internal  processes.  Being one of the earliest mammal­like organisms with fur, it was most likely  less dense than the fur modern mammals have (prehistoric­wildlife.com, 2011).    Thrinaxodon had many mammalian­like adaptations that in ways allowed it to  function in similar ways as modern day mammals, suggesting it was a distant ancestor  of mammals.  Key morphological innovations allowed for increased metabolic rates and  its survival through the Permian­Triassic extinction event.  These included features in  Thrinaxodon’s skeleton such as the addition of lumbar vertebrae on the spine and the  shortening of thoracic vertebrae, one additional occipital condyle, the presence of a  masseteric fossa, and a hardened secondary palate.  The segmentation of the spine  allowed for increased weight bearing and movement in the lower back.  Segmentation,  in combination with the absence of ribs in the lower abdomen, suggests the presence of  a diaphragm.  The ribs now form a chest cavity that houses the lungs and provides an  attachment surface for the diaphragm, which allows for increased respiration efficiency  and minimum energy expenditure due to breathing (Cowen, 2000).  The addition of an  occipital condyle functioned to increase articulation with the atlas vertebrae and  permitted more movement, which allowed it to be more aware of its surroundings and  potential predators. The masseteric fossa presented a larger surface area for muscle  attachment on the dentary bone to make chewing and processing food more efficient,  which in turn leads to a faster metabolism.  One of the most important adaptations,  especially for carnivores, is the presence of the hardened secondary palate that allowed  for breathing through the nose while chewing, which is important in order to take down  struggling prey or chew for a longer period of time while still maintaining the ability to  breathe (prehistoric­wildlife.com, 2011).  Thrinaxodon also possesses the beginnings of  a brain case, which is shown by the epipterygoid bone expanding to alisphenoid­like  proportions, as well as nasal turbinates, which are “convoluted bones in the nasal cavity  that are covered by olfactory sense organs” (Cynodontia).  The teeth of Thrinaxodon  display the mammalian traits of thecodontia (teeth present in the socket of the dentary)  and differentiated teeth.  In its tooth differentiation, the three cusped post canines that  Thrinaxodon was named after were important so it could thoroughly chew its food and  decrease the time of digestion.  This also suggests a faster metabolism that was more  like modern mammals, as well as an important evolutionary step towards the  tribosphenic molar (Estes, 1961).  Due to this increased metabolism, Thrinaxodon was  eurythermic, meaning it was able to function in a broad range of temperatures, and was  essentially homeothermic.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/09/02/thrinaxodonfinal/

02/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

TheRedTeaDetox-Free 83%

Metabolism: ... 58 What Affects Metabolism?

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/04/18/theredteadetox-free/

18/04/2018 www.pdf-archive.com