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Bio 2 100%

Introduction 1-Metabolism All the controlled enzyme –mediated chemical reaction by which the cell :

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/10/03/bio-2/

03/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

FitnessEndocrinologyMetabolicProcessesRegulation1.2.1 98%

Endocrinology and Metabolic Processes Regulation  Athletic Success via Biochemical Supplementation  ● ● ● Author: Eva  Date: 2016­01­30  Rev: 1.2.1    Note​ : This is a work in progress for my own purposes. It is currently evolving. Resources are listed in  brackets with source links at the end of the document. If otherwise not noted/bracketed, the writing is  from the author’s own contextual knowledge. Conclusions are bolded where deemed relevant to a  topic.    A Quick Intro to Endocrinology and Metabolism  Prior to getting into any concepts or useful conclusions there are several background terms  and elements that the reader should be familiar with. We’ll start with fundamentals and touch  on several core elements before introducing the cyclical elements of endocrinology and the  metabolic cycle. These terms, concepts, and cycles are essential to understanding how one’s  diet and hormonal balances are controlled by diet, which in turn defines how our physical  form is capable of performance, growth, decline, and overall change.    Fundamental Terms  The following terms will come up occasionally throughout this document and, as such, one  would benefit from knowing the context around them prior to continuing.    Endogenous  Originating from within an organism, not attributable to any external or environmental factor.  eg: biologically produced estrogen created by the ovaries.    Exogenous  Originating from outside an organism, caused by an agent or organism outside the body. eg:  hormone replacement medication taken by injection.    MacroNutrients  The combined requirements of base nutrition required to sustain healthy human existence.  There are three primary macronutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. [1] Macronutrients  are defined as a class of chemical compounds which humans consume in the largest  quantities (must be above a threshold amount) and which provide humans with the bulk of  energy. [31]    CNS, The Central Nervous System  The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal  cord serve as the main "processing center" for the entire nervous system, and control all the  workings of your body.    PSN, The Peripheral Nervous System  The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that branch out from the brain and  spinal cord. These nerves form the communication network between the CNS and the body  parts. The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided into the somatic nervous system  and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system consists of nerves that go  to the skin and muscles and is involved in conscious activities. The autonomic nervous  system consists of nerves that connect the CNS to the visceral organs such as the heart,  stomach, and intestines. It mediates unconscious activities.    Endocrinology  A branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its  specific secretions known as hormones. It is also concerned with the integration of  developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or  behavioral activities of metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sleep,  digestion, respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, reproduction, and  sensory perception caused by hormones.    Metabolism  The set of life­sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These  enzyme­catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their  structures, and respond to their environments.    Pharmacokinetics  Sometimes described as what the body does to a drug, refers to the movement of drug into,  through, and out of the body ­ the time course of its absorption, bioavailability, tissue  distribution, metabolism, and excretion. [52]  Endocrinology: Communication and Message Relays  The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the  circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs. The major endocrine glands  include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid, parathyroid,  hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands.    The Role of Hormones in Endocrinology  Hormones are the body’s signaling molecules that are used to communicate between organs  and tissues. They regulate physiological and behavioral activities, such as digestion,  metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation,  stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood. The particulars of each  hormone are covered in the section titled “Neurotransmitters, Hormones, and Histamines”.    An Overview of Hormonal Biosynthesis        Receptors  In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule usually found embedded within the plasma membrane surface of a cell that receives chemical signals from outside the cell.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/02/02/fitnessendocrinologymetabolicprocessesregulation1-2-1/

02/02/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

MDMA pdf 97%

Metabolism The human cytochrome CYP450 is responsible for the metabolism of MDMA.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/01/31/mdma-pdf/

31/01/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

葉振聲 95%

As an Intern in Veterans General Hospital-Taipei 1974-1975 As an Internist since 1975 up to now As an Endocrinologist since 1980 Fellow, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA July 1982-June 1983 Present Appointment :

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/04/26/untitled-pdf-document/

26/04/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

report 7cookingtricks 92%

FREE REPORT Quick &

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/11/19/report-7cookingtricks/

19/11/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

cleanse clutch 86%

METABOLISM. ... FORMULATED FUEL METABOLISM, AND LEAN MUSCLE.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/04/23/cleanse-clutch/

23/04/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

ThrinaxodonFinal 85%

Drew Lyons  Micah Mansfield  Animal Design Project #1    Thrinaxodon    Thrinaxodon, a synapsid cynodont, was a small, mammal­like reptile that lived  253 million years ago in the late Permian. It disappeared during the extinction event 245  million years ago at the end of the ​Olenekian portion of the Triassic​ period. The  discovery of Thrinaxodon was important as a transitional fossil in the evolution of  mammals.    Cladogram showing the relationship of Thrinaxodon to mammals (Botha and  Chinsamy, 2005).    Fossils of Thrinaxodon were found in modern day South Africa and Antarctica,  providing strong evidence that Thrinaxodon once roamed an area that combined these  land masses because the physiology of Thrinaxodon suggests it could neither swim  long distances nor fly.  Current day separation of fossils by a vast ocean helped  scientists understand plate tectonics and the existence of a supercontinent called  Pangea.    Pangea: Image taken ​http://www.metafysica.nl/wings/wings_3a.html​.  The inserted  black box shows the location where Thrinaxodon fossils were found and where it likely  lived during the Late Permian and Early Triassic periods.    Thrinaxodon was 30 to 50 cm in length, 10 cm tall, had a large, flat head and  legs somewhat characteristic of fossorial animals that splayed out slightly from the  torso, creating a 15 cm wide stance.  Indentations in fossils of its skull provide strong  evidence that Thrinaxodon had whiskers.  Whiskers are a very beneficial adaptation for  predators at night because it would allow the animal to better sense its surroundings in  low light conditions, giving it a competitive advantage over its prey and other predators  that compete for similar resources.  If it had whiskers then there may have been fur as  well, indicating that it was homeothermic since fur functions to insulate the animal from  the outside conditions, so the animal’s temperature is being driven more by internal  processes.  Being one of the earliest mammal­like organisms with fur, it was most likely  less dense than the fur modern mammals have (prehistoric­wildlife.com, 2011).    Thrinaxodon had many mammalian­like adaptations that in ways allowed it to  function in similar ways as modern day mammals, suggesting it was a distant ancestor  of mammals.  Key morphological innovations allowed for increased metabolic rates and  its survival through the Permian­Triassic extinction event.  These included features in  Thrinaxodon’s skeleton such as the addition of lumbar vertebrae on the spine and the  shortening of thoracic vertebrae, one additional occipital condyle, the presence of a  masseteric fossa, and a hardened secondary palate.  The segmentation of the spine  allowed for increased weight bearing and movement in the lower back.  Segmentation,  in combination with the absence of ribs in the lower abdomen, suggests the presence of  a diaphragm.  The ribs now form a chest cavity that houses the lungs and provides an  attachment surface for the diaphragm, which allows for increased respiration efficiency  and minimum energy expenditure due to breathing (Cowen, 2000).  The addition of an  occipital condyle functioned to increase articulation with the atlas vertebrae and  permitted more movement, which allowed it to be more aware of its surroundings and  potential predators. The masseteric fossa presented a larger surface area for muscle  attachment on the dentary bone to make chewing and processing food more efficient,  which in turn leads to a faster metabolism.  One of the most important adaptations,  especially for carnivores, is the presence of the hardened secondary palate that allowed  for breathing through the nose while chewing, which is important in order to take down  struggling prey or chew for a longer period of time while still maintaining the ability to  breathe (prehistoric­wildlife.com, 2011).  Thrinaxodon also possesses the beginnings of  a brain case, which is shown by the epipterygoid bone expanding to alisphenoid­like  proportions, as well as nasal turbinates, which are “convoluted bones in the nasal cavity  that are covered by olfactory sense organs” (Cynodontia).  The teeth of Thrinaxodon  display the mammalian traits of thecodontia (teeth present in the socket of the dentary)  and differentiated teeth.  In its tooth differentiation, the three cusped post canines that  Thrinaxodon was named after were important so it could thoroughly chew its food and  decrease the time of digestion.  This also suggests a faster metabolism that was more  like modern mammals, as well as an important evolutionary step towards the  tribosphenic molar (Estes, 1961).  Due to this increased metabolism, Thrinaxodon was  eurythermic, meaning it was able to function in a broad range of temperatures, and was  essentially homeothermic.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/09/02/thrinaxodonfinal/

02/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

TheRedTeaDetox-Free 84%

Metabolism: ... 58 What Affects Metabolism?

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/04/18/theredteadetox-free/

18/04/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

RNase E Poster AMGEN 83%

The RNA degradosome is a multi-enzyme complex present in most bacteria that is involved in RNA metabolism, degradation of messenger RNA, processing of structural RNA and, consequently, post-transcriptional control of gene expression.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/01/07/rnase-e-poster-amgen/

07/01/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

JDIT-2015-0301-014 83%

The effects of anti-diabetic drugs on glucose metabolism and activation of brown adipose tissue as a preventative measure or treatment for obesity and diabetes have been investigated using [18F]FDG PET.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/05/30/jdit-2015-0301-014/

30/05/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

K Abelak MDO Poster lq 82%

• We concentrate on homology modelling and docking analysis of CYP2J2 specific to binding and metabolism of AA.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/10/02/k-abelak-mdo-poster-lq/

02/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

11 81%

The gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays an important role in the “first pass metabolism” of ethanol (FPM).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/03/01/11-104/

01/03/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

Acetaldehyde FCT 4402 81%

www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchemtox The role of acetaldehyde outside ethanol metabolism in the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/08/07/acetaldehyde-fct-4402/

07/08/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

BMR and TDEE 79%

BRM and TDEE Step 1:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/09/07/bmr-and-tdee/

07/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

conferene post 79%

The cell metabolism decreases and switches to anaerobic regime.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/08/22/conferene-post/

22/08/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Dieting done right 78%

DIETING DONE RIGHT.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/11/29/dieting-done-right/

29/11/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

lec2 78%

bacteria have high rate of metabolism.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/11/16/lec2/

16/11/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

devin.may 78%

Name: Devin Pearson Group ID:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/05/10/devin-may/

10/05/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

eBook How To Break Free From Our Sitting Culture 76%

Imagine no more back pain, more productivity and energy, a higher metabolism and hips and shoulders that no longer feel tight and knotted.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/03/10/ebook-how-to-break-free-from-our-sitting-culture/

10/03/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Heart Failure - Dr. Acosta 76%

It could still be salvageable through therapy such as beta blockers and revascularization, since the cells has not still loss the cell membrane and mitochondrial integrity and still exhibit preserved glucose metabolism and contractile reserve.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/11/21/heart-failure-dr-acosta/

21/11/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

m140008 73%

Eight categories, namely- 1) amino acid transport and metabolism 2) translation and ribosomal biogenesis 3) carbohydrate transport @2014, GNP and metabolism 4) energy production and conversion 5) DNA replication/recombination and repair 6) nucleotide transport and metabolism 7) transcription and 8) coenzyme metabolism, comprise 70% of the core genome where the first two categories (amino acid transport and metabolism, and transcription and ribosomal biogenesis) with highest number of genes representing 13% and 12% of the core genome respectively.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/07/27/m140008/

27/07/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

ER1225 73%

Dieter Hoelzer (Frankfurt) 17:00-17:15 17:15-17:20 Precision diagnosis for tailored therapy Discussion Jcan-Pierrc Bourquin (Zurich) 17:20-17:35 17:35-17:40 Metabolism, disposition, and toxicity of ALL drugs Discussion Mary Rolling (Memphis) 17:40-17:55 17:55-18:00 Adolescents and young adults Discussion Josep-Maria Ribera (Barcelona) 18:00-18:15 18:15-18:20 Older patients Discussion Nicola Gokbuget (Frankfurt) 18:20-18:27 Richard Burt (London) 18:27-18:30 Commonly used chemotherapy drugs differentially determine microenvironment-mediated protection, via mitochondrial transfer, to B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia cells Discussion 18:30 -18:50 Panel discussion 19:00-20:30 Mentored poster walks and welcome get-together - Biology poster walk:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2019/05/07/er1225/

07/05/2019 www.pdf-archive.com