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EXPLORING UNKNOWN SPACES VIA NERVES OF COVERINGS MAITHREYA SITARAMAN Abstract.
neurotropic viruses are characterized by their affinity for invading neural tissue, especially afferent sensory nerves .
Autonomic nervous system تعالو ناخد نظرة سرٌعة على تقسٌمة ال Nervous systemاالول Nervous system Central Nervous System Spinal cord (spinal )nerves 31 Peripheral Nervous System Brain (cranial )nerves 12 Afferent division Somatic Nervous system Efferent division Autonomic Nervous system Sympathetic Parasympathetic الجهاز العصبً بٌنقسم لجزئٌن اللً هما الجهاز العصبً المركزي CNSو ده بٌتكون من المخ و الحبل الشوكً و الجزء التانً هو الجهاز العصبً الطرفً PNSو ده بٌتكون من مجموعة من ال gangliaو ال Neurons ال afferent divisionده اللً بٌاخد المعلومات من اجزاء الجسم المختلفة وٌودٌها للمخ ال efferent divisionده اللً بٌاخد المعلومات من ال CNSوٌودٌها للجسم ال PNSبنقسمه لنوعٌن جزء جسدي و ده احنا بنتحكم فٌه و بنسمٌه Somatic nervous system و بٌكون واصل بالعضالت االرادٌة skeletal muscles الجزء التانً بٌشتغل لوحده و اسمه الجهاز العصبً الذاتً ANSوبٌكون متصل بالعضالت الالارادٌة smooth musclesو ده بٌتكون من sympatheticو parasympathetic 1|Page Autonomic و الSomaticهناخد مقارنة صغٌرة بٌن ال Somatic Nervous system 1.
FRACTURES IN CHILDREN Dr.
10 Joints and ligaments of shoulder girdle and upper extremity (284-288, Netter 440-446) Spinal nerves, brachial plexus (594-600,602-611,616-620) (Lab Quiz I - in class) Peripheral circulation (general) (488-498) WEEK 7 Oct.
Circumcision destroys all the ridged band and typically all, or most, of the frenulum. The foreskin contains a concentration of fine touch nerves called Meissner's corpuscles. To know what these nerves feel like, first lightly scratch the back of your hand.
I have fellowship training in a plastic surgery unit for soft tissue injury management of the hand including use of local, rotational and neurovascular island tissue flaps and microsurgical repair of small vessels and nerves.
o Fibrinogen (Factor I) o Factor VII o Factor VIII o Factor X famotidine) Metoclopramide o increases gastric motility and lower esophageal sphincter tone, and has central antiemetic effects ANATOMY OF LABOR PAIN Pain Pathways During Labor Pain in the 1st stage of labor o from uterine contractions and cervical dilatation o Visceral pain – dull, diffuse, periodic o Pain intensity is related to the strength of uterine contraction T11 – T12 (latent 2nd stage – somatic pain o well-localized, sharp, constant o Pain results from distention of birth canal, vulva and perineum by the fetal head o Pain is mediated by the Posterior roots of S2 – S4 nerves Anesthetic Implications • Effectiveness of Pudendal Nerve • Epidural coverage of S2-S4 Pain Pathways Factors that may influence the perception of labor pain duration of labor maternal pelvic anatomy and fetal size use of oxytocin parity participation in childbirth preparation classes fear and anxiety about childbirth attitudes and experiences of pain coping mechanisms Anesthesia Goals Satisfactory pain relief Non-interference with labor Minimal risk to either mother of fetus Provision of satisfactory conditions for delivery Early interaction between mother and newborn Anesthesia for Labor and Vaginal Delivery Psychologic and Non -pharmacologic techniques Parenteral agents Inhalational Regional anesthetic techniques Non-Pharmacologic Techniques Labor Analgesia Lamaze Hypnosis Biofeedback Muscle therapy TENS Sterile water blocks Acupuncture Therapeutic touch Massage therapy Muscle tension release Reflexology Accupressure Hydrotherapy Herbal cocktails Aromatherapy Parenteral Agents • Opioids o Meperidine (Demerol) o Fentanyl o Morphine o Nalbuphine • Sedatives / Tranquilizers o Phenothiazines o Benzodiazepines o Dissociative medications (Ketamine) • Intravenous Anesthetics o Barbiturates o Propofol Inhalational Analgesia Pudendal Block o o o o o o Provides adequate analgesia for spontaneous delivery and outlet forceps delivery injection of local anesthetic on both sides of the vagina.
Endocrinology and Metabolic Processes Regulation Athletic Success via Biochemical Supplementation ● ● ● Author: Eva Date: 20160130 Rev: 1.2.1 Note : This is a work in progress for my own purposes. It is currently evolving. Resources are listed in brackets with source links at the end of the document. If otherwise not noted/bracketed, the writing is from the author’s own contextual knowledge. Conclusions are bolded where deemed relevant to a topic. A Quick Intro to Endocrinology and Metabolism Prior to getting into any concepts or useful conclusions there are several background terms and elements that the reader should be familiar with. We’ll start with fundamentals and touch on several core elements before introducing the cyclical elements of endocrinology and the metabolic cycle. These terms, concepts, and cycles are essential to understanding how one’s diet and hormonal balances are controlled by diet, which in turn defines how our physical form is capable of performance, growth, decline, and overall change. Fundamental Terms The following terms will come up occasionally throughout this document and, as such, one would benefit from knowing the context around them prior to continuing. Endogenous Originating from within an organism, not attributable to any external or environmental factor. eg: biologically produced estrogen created by the ovaries. Exogenous Originating from outside an organism, caused by an agent or organism outside the body. eg: hormone replacement medication taken by injection. MacroNutrients The combined requirements of base nutrition required to sustain healthy human existence. There are three primary macronutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate.  Macronutrients are defined as a class of chemical compounds which humans consume in the largest quantities (must be above a threshold amount) and which provide humans with the bulk of energy.  CNS, The Central Nervous System The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for the entire nervous system, and control all the workings of your body. PSN, The Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord. These nerves form the communication network between the CNS and the body parts. The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system consists of nerves that go to the skin and muscles and is involved in conscious activities. The autonomic nervous system consists of nerves that connect the CNS to the visceral organs such as the heart, stomach, and intestines. It mediates unconscious activities. Endocrinology A branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones. It is also concerned with the integration of developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or behavioral activities of metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sleep, digestion, respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception caused by hormones. Metabolism The set of lifesustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These enzymecatalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. Pharmacokinetics Sometimes described as what the body does to a drug, refers to the movement of drug into, through, and out of the body the time course of its absorption, bioavailability, tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion.  Endocrinology: Communication and Message Relays The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs. The major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid, parathyroid, hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. The Role of Hormones in Endocrinology Hormones are the body’s signaling molecules that are used to communicate between organs and tissues. They regulate physiological and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood. The particulars of each hormone are covered in the section titled “Neurotransmitters, Hormones, and Histamines”. An Overview of Hormonal Biosynthesis Receptors In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule usually found embedded within the plasma membrane surface of a cell that receives chemical signals from outside the cell.
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