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RB in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 100%

RB in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use https://gostperevod.com/russian/rb РБ - Руководство по безопасности при использовании атомной энергии https://gostperevod.ru/russian/rb RB 001-05 in English - Recommendations to the Report on In-depth Safety Analysis of NPP Power Units under Operation (OUOB AS) https://gostperevod.com/rb-001-05.html RB 002-16 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 'Water chemistry of Nuclear Power Plants' https://gostperevod.com/rb-002-16.html RB 003-98 in English - Requirements to the program of quality assurance at radioactive waste management https://gostperevod.com/rb-003-98.html RB 004-98 in English - Requirements to Certification of Control Systems Important for Nuclear Power Plants Safety https://gostperevod.com/rb-004-98.html RB G-05-039-96 in English - Guidance on the hazard analysis of accidental detonations and determination of parameters of their mechanical operation https://gostperevod.com/rb-g05-039-96.html RB 005-98 in English - Requirements to Certification of Building Structures Important for Safety of Nuclear Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb-005-98.html RB 006-98 in English - Determination of Initial Seismic Soils Vibrations for Design Bases https://gostperevod.com/rb-006-98.html RB 007-99 in English - Accounting of Fast Neutron Fluence on WWER Vessels and Surveillance Specimens for Further Prediction of Vessels Radiation Resource https://gostperevod.com/rb-007-99.html RB 008-99 in English - Safety Ensuring in Radioactive Waste Management of Nuclear Research Installations https://gostperevod.com/rb-008-99.html RB 009-99 in English - Methodology of Vulnerability Assessment of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Installation Physical Protection https://gostperevod.com/rb-009-99.html RB 010-16 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 'Recommendations on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management on Ships and Other Floating Vessels with Nuclear Reactors, and Nuclear Service Ships' https://gostperevod.com/rb-010-16.html RB 010-2000 in English - Safety provision when dealing with radioactive waste of ships and other floating crafts with nuclear reactors and radiation sources https://gostperevod.com/rb010-2000.html RB 011-2000 in English - Safety assessment of shallow ground repositories of radiation wastes https://gostperevod.com/rb-011-2000.html RB 012-04 in English - Report structure and contents on the radiation safety condition at radiation hazardous sites https://gostperevod.com/rb-012-04.html RB 012-2000 in English - Requirements to the contents of the report on the radiation safety condition at radiation hazardous sites of national economy https://gostperevod.com/rb-012RB 013-2000 in English - Requirements to the Contents of an NPP Power Unit Decommissioning Programme https://gostperevod.com/rb-013-2000.html RB 014-2000 in English - Safety Ensuring in Radioactive Waste Management Generated from Mining, Processing and Use of Natural Resources https://gostperevod.com/rb-014RB 015-2000 in English - Requirements to the Composition, Contents and Procedure of Submission to the RF Gosatomnadzor of Information on Safety Status of Ships Nuclear Installations under Operation https://gostperevod.com/rb-015-2000.html RB 016-01 in English - Requirements to Nuclear and Radiation Safety Analysis Report of Removal of Spent Fuel Assemblies during Implementation of “Lepse” Decommissioning Project https://gostperevod.com/rb-016-01.html RB 017-01 in English - Requirements to the Quality Assurance Programme for Removal of Spent Fuel Assemblies during Implementation of “Lepse” Decommissioning Project https://gostperevod.com/rb-017-01.html RB 018-01 in English - Methodology of Neutron Control on External Surface of Pressure Vessels of WWER-type Reactors https://gostperevod.com/rb-018-01.html RB 019-01 in English - Seismic Hazard Evaluation for Sites of Nuclear and Radiation-hazardous Facilities Based on Geodynamic Data https://gostperevod.com/rb-019-01.html RB 020-01 in English - Assessment Methodology of Iodine Combinations Emissions into Atmosphere in the Event of Accident at VVER-1000 Reactor NPPs https://gostperevod.com/rb-020-01.html RB 021-01 in English - Damage rate estimation of nuclear reactor core (for external initial events of natural and man-caused character) https://gostperevod.com/rb-021-01.html RB 021-14 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use “Basic Recommendations to the Preparation of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (Level 1 PSA) for NPP Power Unit in Case of Initiating Events Caused by Impacts of Natural and Man-Induced Origin” https://gostperevod.com/rb-021-14.html RB 022-01 in English - Recommendations to Assessment of Tornado Characteristics in Respect to Nuclear Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb-022-01.html RB 023-02 in English - Recommendations to the Establishment of Acceptance Criteria for Storage and Disposal of the Conditioned Radioactive Waste https://gostperevod.com/rb-023RB 024-02 in English - Recommended practices for the execution of probabilistic safety analysis of nuclear plants of 1 level for internal initiating events (when dealing with a block in the mode of electricity output to the external network) https://gostperevod.com/rb-024-02.html RB 024-11 in English - Provision on General Recommendations to the Development of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (Level 1 PSA) in Case of Internal Initiating Events (for all operational modes of an NPP Unit) https://gostperevod.com/rb-024-11.html RB 025-03 in English - The Contents of the Annual Report of Operating Organization on Status Assessment of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Nuclear Research Installations https://gostperevod.com/rb-025-03.html RB 025-15 in English - The Contents of the Annual Report of Operating Organization on Status Assessment of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Nuclear Research Installations https://gostperevod.com/rb-025-15.html RB 026-04 in English - Methodological recommendations for the execution of physical inventory of nuclear materials on nuclear installations and nuclear materials storage facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb-026-04.html RB 027-04 in English - The Contents and Composition of the Report on Results of Comprehensive Examination of an NPP Power Unit for Extension of Its Lifetime https://gostperevod.com/rb-027-04.html RB 028-04 in English - Analysis of Non-compliances of an NPP Power Unit Status with the Requirements of Regulatory Documents in Force https://gostperevod.com/rb-028-04.html RB 029-04 in English - The Contents and Composition of Materials Justifying Residual Life-time of an NPP Power Unit Components for Extension of Its Service Life https://gostperevod.com/rb-029-04.html RB 030-04 in English - Analysis of Operating Experience during Lifetime Extension of an NPP Power Unit https://gostperevod.com/rb-030-04.html RB 031-04 in English - The Content and Composition of Safety Analysis Report in Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning https://gostperevod.com/rb-031-04.html RB 032-04 in English - Basic Recommendations for Implementation of Probabilistic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plant https://gostperevod.com/rb-032-04.html RB 033-04 in English - Scope and Content of the Integrated Survey Report for Ships with Nuclear Reactors during Operating Lifetime Extension https://gostperevod.com/rb-033RB 033-17 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 'Recommendations on the Scope and Content of the Integrated Survey Report for Ships and Other Floating Vessels with Nuclear Reactors, and Nuclear Service Ships during Operating Lifetime Extension' https://gostperevod.com/rb-033-17.html RB 034-05 in English - Recommendations to Recruitment, Training, Proficiency Level Maintaining and Professional Development of Operating Personnel at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb-034-05.html RB 035-05 in English - Composition and content of the report on safety justification of temporary radioactive waste storage facilities formed during the extraction, processing and use of mineral products https://gostperevod.com/rb-035-05.html RB 036-06 in English - Monitoring of Geological and Engineering Conditions for Siting of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb-036-06.html RB 037-06 in English - Analysis of Control Results and Status Assessment in Respect to Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Nuclear Research Installations https://gostperevod.com/rbRB 038-06 in English - Analysis of Checks Results in Respect to Nuclear and Radiation Safety Status of Power Installations of Ships and Vessels under Operation https://gostperevod.com/rb-038-06.html RB 039-07 in English - Safety Ensuring in Transportation of Radioactive Materials (Reference materials to “Safety Rules in Transportation of Radioactive Materials”, NP-053-04) https://gostperevod.com/rb-039-07.html RB 040-09 in English - Design Ratio and Calculation Methodologies for Hydrodynamic and Thermal Performance of Components and Equipment of the Water-cooled Nuclear Power Installations https://gostperevod.com/rb-040-09.html RB 041-07 in English - Guide on Periodic Safety Assessment of a Nuclear Power Unit https://gostperevod.com/rb-041-07.html RB 042-07 in English - Methodology of Categorization of the Sealed Radionuclide Sources by Considering Potential Radiation Hazard https://gostperevod.com/rb-042-07.html RB 043-08 in English - The Content and Composition of Annual Reports in Respect to Nuclear and Radiation Safety Status of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb043-08.html RB 043-13 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 'The Content and Composition of Annual Reports in Respect to Nuclear and Radiation Safety Status of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities' https://gostperevod.com/rb-043-13.html RB 044-09 in English - General Recommendations to the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (Level 2 PSA) for NPPs with WWER-type Reactors https://gostperevod.com/rb-044-09.html RB 045-08 in English - Dynamic Monitoring of Building Structures of Nuclear Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb-045-08.html RB 046-08 in English - Monitoring of Meteorological and Aerological Conditions in the Location Area of Nuclear Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb-046-08.html RB 047-08 in English - Methodology of Assessment the Safety Culture Level at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb-047-08.html RB 047-16 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 'Methodology of Assessment the Safety Culture Level at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities' https://gostperevod.com/rb-047RB 048-09 in English - Life-time Extension of Transportation Packages Designed for Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel https://gostperevod.com/rb-048-09.html RB 049-09 in English - Safety Assessment of Radioactive Waste Management at the Techa Cascade of Reservoirs during Radioactive Waste Processing and Storage https://gostperevod.com/rb-049-09.html RB 050-09 in English - Structure and content of safety justification report for solid radioactive waste storage https://gostperevod.com/rb-050-09.html RB 051-09 in English - Provision on the Development of the Quality Assurance Programmes in Design and Construction of Articles Delivered to Nuclear Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb-051-09.html RB 051-10 in English - Provision on the Development of the Quality Assurance Programmes in Design and Construction of Articles Delivered to Nuclear Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rb-051-10.html RB 052-09 in English - Provision on transfer of nuclear materials to the category of radioactive wastes https://gostperevod.com/rb-052-09.html RB 052-10 in English - Provision on transfer of nuclear materials to the category of radioactive wastes https://gostperevod.com/rb-052-10.html RB 053-10 in English - Provision on the Accuracy Improvement in Respect to Prognostic Assessments of Radiation Characteristics of Environment Contamination and Radiation Exposures for Population and Personnel https://gostperevod.com/rb-053-10.html RB 054-09 in English - Provision on the Content and Composition of the Report on Radiation Safety Conditions in Organizations Operating Radionuclide Sources https://gostperevod.com/rb-054-09.html RB 055-10 in English - Provision on the Development of the Quality Assurance Programmes in Manufacturing of Articles Delivered to Nuclear Facilities https://gostperevod.com/rbRB 056-10 in English - Regulation for the execution of physical inventory of nuclear materials https://gostperevod.com/rb-056-10.html RB 057-10 in English - Provision on Design and Manufacturing of Fuel Elements and Fuel Assemblies with Uranium-Plutonium Fuel (MOX-fuel) https://gostperevod.com/rb-057RB 058-10 in English - Regulation on the structure and contents of safety provision report on sub-surface nuclear waste disposal sites https://gostperevod.com/rb-058-10.html RB 060-10 in English - Provision on Assessment of Fire and Explosion Safety of Technological Processes of Radiochemical Production https://gostperevod.com/rb-060-10.html RB 061-11 in English - Provision on Verification and Review of Software in the Field of “Neutron and Physical Calculations” https://gostperevod.com/rb-061-11.html RB 062-11 in English - Provision on the Structure and Contents of Safety Analysis Report for a Nuclear Research Installation Decommissioning https://gostperevod.com/rb-062RB 063-11 in English - Provision on the Structure and Contents of the Principal Program for a Nuclear Research Installation Decommissioning https://gostperevod.com/rb-063-11.html RB 064-11 in English - Provision on the Structure and Contents of Safety Analysis Report for Radiation Sources https://gostperevod.com/rb-064-11.html RB 065-11 in English - Provision on the data reception procedure on the nuclear material quantity for striking their balance and physical inventory results in the material balance areas https://gostperevod.com/rb-065-11.html RB 066-11 in English - Provision on Application of Mathematical Statistics Methods for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials https://gostperevod.com/rb-066-11.html RB 067-11 in English - Provision on the Contents of Safety Analysis Report for Nuclear Installations of Ships and other Vessels (Structures) and Coastal Infrastructure Objects https://gostperevod.com/rb-067-11.html RB 068-11 in English - Provision on General Recommendations to the Development of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (Level 2 PSA) for NPPs with RBMK-type Reactors https://gostperevod.com/rb-068-11.html RB 069-11 in English - Provision on the Content and Composition of the Report on Effectiveness Assessment of Physical Protection System at Nuclear Facility https://gostperevod.com/rb-069-11.html RB 070-11 in English - Provision on the Content and Composition of the Report on Vulnerabilities Analysis of a Nuclear Facility https://gostperevod.com/rb-070-11.html RB 071-11 in English - Provision on Radioactive Waste Inventory in Organization https://gostperevod.com/rb-071-11.html RB 072-11 in English - Provision on Radioactive Substances Inventory in Organization https://gostperevod.com/rb-072-11.html RB 073-12 in English - Provision on the Content and Composition of the Comprehensive Survey Documentation in Respect to Nuclear Research Installations during Life-time Extension https://gostperevod.com/rb-073-12.html RB 074-12 in English - Provision on Recommendations to Comparison of the Calculated and the Measured Reactivity during Nuclear Safety Substantiation of WWER-type Reactor Installations https://gostperevod.com/rb-074-12.html RB 075-12 in English - Calculation Ratio and Calculation Methodologies of Hydrodynamic and Thermal Characteristics of Components and Equipment of Nuclear Power Facilities with Liquid-Metal Coolant https://gostperevod.com/rb-075-12.html RB 076-12 in English - Safety guide 'General Recommendations for the Development of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (Level 1 PSA) in Case of Initiating Events at a Nuclear Unit Conditioned by On-site Fires and Flooding' https://gostperevod.com/rb-076-12.html RB 077-12 in English - Safety guide 'Data Development and Transfer within the Frames of System on Information Support to State Control of Nuclear Research Installations during Normal Operation' https://gostperevod.com/rb-077-12.html RB 078-12 in English - Safety guide 'Safety Ensuring in the Course of Decommissioning (Closure) of Tailing Ponds' https://gostperevod.com/rb-078-12.html RB 079-12 in English - Safety guide 'Final Survey and Clearance of Nuclear Research Installations from the Federal State Supervision in the Field of the Use of Atomic Energy' https://gostperevod.com/rb-079-12.html RB 080-13 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 'Assessment of the Corrective Measures Effectiveness in Respect to Operational Violations at Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Research Installations and Analysis of Information Regarding NPPs and Nuclear Research Installations Operational Experience Feedback' https://gostperevod.com/rb-080RB 081-13 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 'The Structure and Contents of Report on Comprehensive Engineering and Radiation Survey for Nuclear Power Plant Units Decommissioning' https://gostperevod.com/rb-081-13.html RB 082-13 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 'Investigation and Accounting of Abnormalities in the Course of Materials Accounting and Control at Nuclear Facilities' https://gostperevod.com/rb-082-13.html RB 083-13 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 'Identification of Reasons and Conditions of Requirements Violations in Respect to Safety Ensuring in the Course of the Use of Atomic Energy' https://gostperevod.com/rb-083-13.html RB 084-13 in English - Safety guide on nuclear energy use 'Minimization of the Secondary Contamination of Territories, Communication Routes and Transport Means during Accidents Consequences Elimination at Nuclear Facilities.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/06/14/rb-in-english---safety-guide-on-nuclear-energy-use/

14/06/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

NP in English Rostechnadzor Guidelines Norms Rules Standards 99%

NP standards in English, Federal Standards and Rules in the Field of Atomic Energy Use, Orders of the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service, Ordinances of Gosatomnadzor of Russia, regulatory documents of Rostechnadzor in English https://gostperevod.com/russian/np НП стандарты на английском языке, федеральные нормы и правила в области использования атомной энергии, приказы Федеральной службы по экологическому, технологическому и атомному надзору, постановления Госатомнадзора России, нормативные документы Ростехнадзора в области использования атомной энергии на английском языке https://gostperevod.ru/russian/np NP 001-15 in English - Federal Standards and Rules in the Field of Atomic Energy Use 'General Safety Provisions for Nuclear Power Plants' https://gostperevod.com/np-00115.html NP 002-04 in English - Rules for the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Power Plants https://gostperevod.com/np-002-04.html NP 002-15 in English - Federal Standards and Rules in the Field of Atomic Energy Use 'Rules for the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Power Plants' https://gostperevod.com/np-002-15.html NP 003-97 in English - Requirements to Full-Scope Simulators for Training of NPP Control Room Operators https://gostperevod.com/np-003-97.html NP 004-08 in English - Provision on the Procedure of Investigation and Accounting of Operational Occurrences at Nuclear Power Plants https://gostperevod.com/np-00408.html NP 005-16 in English - Federal Standards and Rules in the Field of Atomic Energy Use 'Provision for the Procedure of Announcement of Emergency, Prompt Information Communication and Arrangement for Emergency Assistance to Nuclear Power Plants in Case of Radiation-Hazardous Situations' https://gostperevod.com/np-005-16.html NP 005-98 in English - Provision for the Procedure of Announcement of Emergency, Prompt Information Communication and Arrangement for Emergency Assistance to Nuclear Power Plants in Case of Radiation-Hazardous Situations https://gostperevod.com/np-005-98.html NP 006-16 in English - Federal Standards and Rules in the Field of Atomic Energy Use 'Requirements to the Contents of Safety Analysis Report for a Nuclear Power Plant with VVER-type Reactor' https://gostperevod.com/np-006-16.html NP 006-98 in English - Requirements to the Contents of Safety Analysis Report for a Nuclear Power Plant with VVER-type Reactor https://gostperevod.com/np-006-98.html NP 007-17 in English - Rules on Safety Ensuring During Industry Reactors Decommissioning https://gostperevod.com/np-007-17.html NP 007-98 in English - Rules on Safety Ensuring During Industry Reactors Decommissioning https://gostperevod.com/np-007-98.html NP 008-04 in English - Nuclear Safety Rules of Critical Test Facilities https://gostperevod.com/np-008-04.html NP 008-16 in English - Federal Standards and Rules in the Field of Atomic Energy Use 'Nuclear Safety Rules of Critical Test Facilities' https://gostperevod.com/np-008-16.html NP 008-98 in English - Nuclear Safety Rules of Critical Test Facilities https://gostperevod.com/np-008-98.html NP 009-04 in English - Nuclear Safety Rules of Research Reactors https://gostperevod.com/np-009-04.html NP 009-17 in English - Nuclear Safety Rules of Research Reactors https://gostperevod.com/np-009-17.html NP 009-98 in English - Nuclear Safety Rules of Research Reactors https://gostperevod.com/np-009-98.html NP 010-16 in English - Federal Standards and Rules in the Field of Atomic Energy Use 'Rules of Design and Operation of NPP Confinement Safety Systems' https://gostperevod.com/np-010-16.html NP 010-98 in English - Rules of Design and Operation of NPP Confinement Safety Systems https://gostperevod.com/np-010-98.html NP 011-99 in English - Requirements on Quality Assurance Program for Nuclear Power Plants https://gostperevod.com/np-011-99.html NP 012-16 in English - Federal Standards and Rules in the Field of Atomic Energy Use 'Safety Rules for Decommissioning of NPP Power Unit' https://gostperevod.com/np-01216.html NP 012-99 in English - Safety Rules for Decommissioning of NPP Power Unit https://gostperevod.com/np-012-99.html NP 013-99 in English - Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/06/14/np-in-english-rostechnadzor-guidelines-norms-rules-standards/

14/06/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

UN and NPT 98%

THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY (NPT) WRITTEN BY OKAFOR MICHAEL UGOCHUKWU TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/11/24/un-and-npt/

24/11/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

NuclearProliferationandSecurityConcerns 98%

      NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY CONCERNS:   Accurately predicting future state proliferation by looking at various  factors outside the security model.                   Amanda Sewell  Sam Houston State University  September 2016              1  Why do states build nuclear weapons? This is the question that Scott  Sagan attempts to answer by in his research by looking at three different  theory models. In the past, the security concerns of the state were a positive  prediction to whether or not they would develop nuclear weapons, but the  same factors that pressured the states in the past, are no longer present  today. Without these factors, would security still be a reliable indicator?  Sagan argues that focusing only on the security considerations as the cause  of proliferation is “dangerously inadequate”.1  While the security model  accurately explains past cases of nuclear proliferation by states, it would not  be reliable in current times since the factors are no longer the same.  Therefore, if we want to predict which countries might develop nuclear  weapons in the future, underlying security concerns can not be the only area  we pay attention to. Recent proliferation cases have demonstrated that we  must take the other factors that play an important role in states decisions  regarding proliferation. These factors, along with security concerns, may  provide a much more accurate predictor of future proliferation.  First, let’s take a closer look at why the security model has  worked for past cases. Sagan describes the security model as “any state that  seeks to maintain its national security must balance against any rival state  that develops nuclear weapons by gaining access to a nuclear deterrent  itself.” 2 The overwhelming majority of nuclear programs were developed  1 2  Sagan, Scott D. 2012. Why do states build nuclear weapons? Three models in search of a bomb. Pp.54   Ibid. pp 56      2  around WWII and the Cold War. The security model is better at predicting  these  behaviors of superpowers such as Russia and the United States where  there is an imminent threat to state’s security. The nuclear arms race  between the United States and the former Soviet Union provides a case  example of this security model and how it explains behavior towards nuclear  proliferation.  On July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was tested in the New  Mexico Desert.3  Less than a month later, an atomic bomb was dropped on  Hiroshima, Japan. The United States gained military superiority and a need  arose for other states to have acquire similar weaponry for security. “Stallin  wanted to be able to threaten the United States with atomic weapons, just  as the United States was able to threaten the Soviet Union”4   The Soviets  tested their first atomic bomb in 1949 after blueprints were leaked to them  by German physicist, ​Klaus Fuchs, who worked on the first United States  bomb.5   Now that the Soviet Union had comparable weapons, the United  States began tests on new types and designs of bombs in order to regain  their superiority. Each side continued to add to their arsenals as the tensions  rose. There was a verifiable need for the Soviets to gain a nuclear deterrent  to prevent an attack by the United States, thus the security model  accurately explains proliferation decisions by the state.    Davis, Watson. "Background of Atomic Bomb." ​The Science News­Letter 49.25 (1946): 394­395.   Zuberi, Matin. "Stalin and the bomb." ​Strategic Analysis 23.7 (1999): 1133­1153.  5  "Soviets explode atomic bomb ­ Aug 29, 1949 ­ HISTORY.com." 2010. 20 Sep. 2016  <​http://www.history.com/this­day­in­history/soviets­explode­atomic­bomb​>

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/09/21/nuclearproliferationandsecurityconcerns/

21/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

NuclearProliferationandSecurityConcerns-AmandaSewell (3) 98%

      NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY CONCERNS:   Accurately predicting future state proliferation by looking at various  factors outside the security model.                   Amanda Sewell  Sam Houston State University  Political Science 5367­International Relations  September 2016              1  Why do states build nuclear weapons? This is the question that Scott  Sagan attempts to answer by in his research by looking at three different  theory models. In the past, the security concerns of the state were a positive  prediction to whether or not they would develop nuclear weapons, but the  same factors that pressured the states in the past, are no longer present  today. Without these factors, would security still be a reliable indicator?  Sagan argues that focusing only on the security considerations as the cause  of proliferation is “dangerously inadequate”.1  While the security model  accurately explains past cases of nuclear proliferation by states, it would not  be reliable in current times since the factors are no longer the same.  Therefore, if we want to predict which countries might develop nuclear  weapons in the future, underlying security concerns can not be the only area  we pay attention to. Recent proliferation cases have demonstrated that we  must take the other factors that play an important role in states decisions  regarding proliferation. These factors, along with security concerns, may  provide a much more accurate predictor of future proliferation.  First, let’s take a closer look at why the security model has  worked for past cases. Sagan describes the security model as “any state that  seeks to maintain its national security must balance against any rival state  that develops nuclear weapons by gaining access to a nuclear deterrent  itself.” 2 The overwhelming majority of nuclear programs were developed  1 2  Sagan, Scott D. 2012. Why do states build nuclear weapons? Three models in search of a bomb. Pp.54   Ibid. pp 56      2  around WWII and the Cold War. The security model is better at predicting  these  behaviors of superpowers such as Russia and the United States where  there is an imminent threat to state’s security. The nuclear arms race  between the United States and the former Soviet Union provides a case  example of this security model and how it explains behavior towards nuclear  proliferation.  On July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was tested in the New  Mexico Desert.3  Less than a month later, an atomic bomb was dropped on  Hiroshima, Japan. The United States gained military superiority and a need  arose for other states to have acquire similar weaponry for security. “Stallin  wanted to be able to threaten the United States with atomic weapons, just  as the United States was able to threaten the Soviet Union”4   The Soviets  tested their first atomic bomb in 1949 after blueprints were leaked to them  by German physicist, ​Klaus Fuchs, who worked on the first United States  bomb.5   Now that the Soviet Union had comparable weapons, the United  States began tests on new types and designs of bombs in order to regain  their superiority. Each side continued to add to their arsenals as the tensions  rose. There was a verifiable need for the Soviets to gain a nuclear deterrent  to prevent an attack by the United States, thus the security model  accurately explains proliferation decisions by the state.    Davis, Watson. "Background of Atomic Bomb." ​The Science News­Letter 49.25 (1946): 394­395.   Zuberi, Matin. "Stalin and the bomb." ​Strategic Analysis 23.7 (1999): 1133­1153.  5  "Soviets explode atomic bomb ­ Aug 29, 1949 ­ HISTORY.com." 2010. 20 Sep. 2016  <​http://www.history.com/this­day­in­history/soviets­explode­atomic­bomb​>

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