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Pancreatitis is often a starting point of Pancreatic Cancer.
HEAD HEPATO-BILIARY-PANCREATIC SURGERY PHYSIOLOGY Dual Gland a.
The department of Laparoscopic GI, GI Onco surgery and Bariatric surgery in Fortis Healthcare, is one and only department in the whole Delhi city and National Capital Region which has been offering full Spectrum of Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Pancreatic surgery with the aid of invasive techniques.
Laparoscopic Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeries By Dr Pradeep Jain Laparoscopic surgery for Hiatus Hernia and Achalasia Cardia are Gold standard in fundoplication the diaphragmatic hiatus ( opening in the diaphragm ) is tightened and artificial valve is created by wrapping the fundus of stomach around the lower part of esophagus ( food pipe ) http://www.drpradeepjain.in Laparoscopic Pancreatic Surgeries By Dr Pradeep Jain:
Therefore, although NETs are traditionally considered rare, their prevalence is higher than that for gastric, esophageal and pancreatic cancers.
EUS-FNA diagnosis of single pancreatic metastasis of liposarcoma.
Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery) from G.B.Pant Hospital.
Other reasons for this condition consist of genetic defects, exocrine pancreatic defects, and insulin processing mutations to name a few things.
Split by product type, with sales, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into Type I Type II Type III Split by application, this report focuses on sales, market share and growth rate of Peptide Vaccine in each application, can be divided into Prostate Cancer Breast Cancer Gastric Cancer Lung Cancer Pancreatic Cancer Browse Complete Report @ http://www.orbisresearch.com/reports/index/global-peptide-vaccinemarket-trend-and-forecast-to-2021 .
CLINICAL DISORDERS CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES SECTION Acute coronary syndromes I Aneurysm, abdominal aorta I Angina pectoris I Aortic dissection I Aortic regurgitation I Aortic stenosis I Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy I Atrial enlargement, left atrium II Atrial fibrillation I Atrial flutter I Atrial myxoma I Atrial septal defect I Atrium enlargement, right atrium II Atrioventricular dissociation I Bradycardia III Brugada syndrome I Calcifications, cardiac on x-ray II Calcifications, valvular on x-ray II Cardiac death, sudden II Cardiac tamponade I Cardiac tumors II Cardioembolism II Cardiomegaly on chest x-ray III Cardiomyopathy, chemical-induced I Cardiomyopathy, dilated I Cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic I Cardiomyopathy, ischemic, surgical management III Cardiomyopathy, restrictive I Cardiorenal syndrome I Carotid sinus syndrome I Congestive heart failure I Congestive heart failure and cardiomyopathy II Coronary artery disease I Cor pulmonale I Cyanosis II Ejection sound or click II Heart block, second-degree I Heart failure, acute I, II Heart failure, pregnancy II Hypercholesterolemia I Hyperlipoproteinemia, primary I Hypertension I Hypertension, in children II Hypotension III Intraventricular conduction defect (IVCD) I Long QT syndrome I Mesenteric arterial embolism, associated factors II Mitral regurgitation I Mitral stenosis I Mitral valve prolapse I Multifocal atrial tachycardia I Murmur, diastolic III Murmur, systolic III Myocardial infarction I Myocarditis I Orthostatic hypotension I Palpitations III Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia I Patent ductus arteriosus I Patent foramen ovale I Pericardial effusion, malignant III Pericarditis I Pleural effusion, malignant III Pleural effusions, malignancy-associated II Postural hypotension, nonneurologic causes II Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) I Premature ventricular contractions and II ventricular tachycardia Preoperative evaluation I Pulmonary edema I Pulmonary edema, non-cardiogenic II Pulseless electrical activity I Renal artery stenosis I Rib notching on x-ray II Short QT syndrome I Sick sinus syndrome I Syncope I Tachycardia III Tachycardia, narrow complex III Tachycardia, wide complex III Takayasu's arteritis I Takotsubo cardiomyopathy I Tetralogy of Fallot I Thrombotic microangiopathies, diagnosis III Torsades des pointes I Tricuspid regurgitation I Tricuspid stenosis I Valvular heart disease II Venous ulcers I Ventricular septal defect I Ventricular fibrillation I, III Ventricular tachycardia I Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome I DERMATOLOGY Acne vulgaris Actinic keratosis Actinomycosis I I I Alopecia Angioedema Angular cheilitis Anthrax Atopic dermatitis Balanitis Basal cell carcinoma Bedbug bite Behçet's disease Bullous pemphigoid Calcifications, cutaneous Candidiasis, cutaneous Chronic Urticaria Contact dermatitis Cutaneous infections, athletes Cutaneous occlusion syndromes Cyanosis, algorithm Dermatitis herpetiformis Discoid lupus Eosinophilic dermatoses Erosions, genitalia Erysipelas Erythema multiforme Erythroderma Eyelid neoplasm Fifth disease (parvovirus infection) Finger lesions, inflammatory Flushing Folliculitis Foot dermatitis Genital lesions or ulcers Granuloma, algorithm Granuloma annulare Granulomatous dermatitides Hand-foot-mouth disease Henoch-Schönlein purpura Herpes simplex Herpes zoster Hidradenitis suppurativa Hyperpigmentation Impetigo Jaundice, neonatal, algorithm Kaposi's sarcoma Kawasaki disease Leg ulcer Leprosy Lichen planus Lichen sclerosus Lichen simplex chronicus Malar eruption Measles (rubeola) Melanoma Melanonychia Molluscum contagiosum Mucormycosis Mycosis fungoides Myositis Nail dystrophy Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis Neurofibromatosis Onycholysis Oral hairy leukoplakia Osler-Rendu-Weber disease Panniculitis Papulosquamous disorders, pediatric patient Paronychia Pediculosis Pemphigus vulgaris Photosensitivity Pinworms Pityriasis rosea Premature graying, scalp hair Pruritus, generalized, clinical algorithm Pruritus vulvae Psoriasis Purpura, nonpalpable Purpura, non-purpuric disorders simulating purpura Purpura, palpable Purpura, palpable, clinical algorithm Pyoderma gangrenosum Pyogenic granuloma Reactive erythema, pediatric patient Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rosacea Roseola Rubella (German measles) Scabies Scarlet fever Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) Skin blisters Smallpox Stevens-Johnson syndrome Sturge-Weber syndrome Tinea capitis Tinea corporis Tinea cruris Tinea pedis Tinea versicolor Toxic epidermal necrolysis I I I I I I I I I I II I I I II III III I I III II I I II II I II III I II III III I II I I I I I III I III I I III I I I I III I I II I I I III III I I III I I I III I I I III I I II III II I II II II III I I III I I I I I I I III I I I I I I I I I Tuberous sclerosis Varicella Venous insufficiency, chronic Venous ulcers Verrucous lesions Vitiligo Warts I I I I II I I ENDOCRINOLOGY Acromegaly Adrenal incidentaloma Adrenal insufficiency Adrenal mass, clinical algorithm Adrenocortical hyperfunction Adrenocortical hypofunction Aldosteronism Androgen excess, reproductive-age woman Anhydrosis Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw Bone density, decreased, generalized Bone density, decreased, localized Bone mass, low Breast, nipple discharge evaluation Calcifications, abdominal, nonvisceral on x-ray Calcifications, adrenal gland on x-ray Calcifications, genital tract, female on x-ray Calcium stones Carcinoid syndrome Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Cushing's disease and syndrome Delayed puberty Diabetes insipidus Diabetes mellitus Diabetic foot Diabetic ketoacidosis Erectile dysfunction Flushing Foot lesion, ulcerating Galactorrhea Gastrinoma Goiter evaluation and management Graves' disease Gynecomastia Hirsutism Hot flashes Hypercalcemia, clinical algorithm Hypercalcemia, laboratory differential diagnosis Hypercalcemia, malignancy-induced Hyperlipoproteinemia, primary Hyperosmolar hyperclycemic syndrome Hyperostosis, cortical bone Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Hypoaldosteronism Hypocalcemia, laboratory differential diagnosis Hypoglycemia Hypogonadism Hypoparathyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Infertility Insulinoma Klinefelter's syndrome Menopause Metabolic syndrome Myxedema coma Osteoporosis Osteoporosis, secondary causes Paget's disease of the bone Pancreatic islet cell tumors Paraneoplastic syndromes Pheochromocytoma Pituitary adenoma Pituitary region tumors Polycystic ovary syndrome Premenstrual dysphoric disorder Primary ovarian insufficiency Prolactinoma Pseudohermaphroditism Rickets Sexual dysfunction Sexual precocity, female breast development Sexual precocity, female pubic hair development Sexual precocity, male Sheehan's syndrome Short stature Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis Thyroid nodule Thyroid, painful, clinical algorithm Thyroiditis Thyromegaly Thyrotoxic storm Turner's syndrome I III I III II II I II II I II II II III II II II II I I I I I I I I I III II I I III I I I I IV II II I I II I I I II II I I I I I I I I I I I II I III I I I II I I I I III I III III III III I III I I III I II I I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Amebiasis Babesiosis Bite wounds Bites and stings, arachnids Bites and stings, insect I I I I I Bites, snake Botulism Burns Colorado tick fever Contact dermatitis Diarrhea, acute Ehrlichiosis Electrical injury Envenomation, marine Food poisoning, bacterial Frostbite Giardiasis Heat exhaustion and heat stroke High-altitude sickness Hypothermia Leishmaniasis Leptospirosis Lyme disease Malaria Microsporidosis Mushroom poisoning Psittacosis Rabies Radiation exposure Rocky Mountain spotted fever Salmonellosis Shigellosis Tapeworm infestation Tetanus Tularemia Vaccinations for international travel West Nile virus infection GASTROENTEROLOGY Abdominal compartment syndrome Abdominal pain, chronic lower Abdominal pain, nonsurgical causes Achalasia Acute colonoic pseudo-obstruction Acute liver failure Alcoholic hepatitis Anal abscess and fistula Anorectal fistula Anorexia Appendicitis Ascariasis Ascites Autoimmune hepatitis Bacterial overgrowth, small intestine Barrett's esophagus Bile duct, dilated Bleeding, gastrointestinal, algorithm Bleeding, rectal Bleeding, variceal Budd-Chiari syndrome Calcifications, liver on x-ray Calcifications, pancreas on x-ray Calcifications, spleen on x-ray Celiac disease Cholangitis Cholecystitis Cholelithiasis Cholera Chronic pancreatitis Cirrhosis Cirrhosis, primary biliary Colic, acute abdominal Colorectal cancer Colostridium difficile infection Constipation, adult patient Constipation, algorithm Crohn's disease Cryptosporidium infection Cyclic vomiting syndrome Delayed passage of meconium Diarrhea, acute Diarrhea, acute watery and bloody Diarrhea, chronic Diarrhea, chronic, in patients with HIV infection, algorithm Diarrhea, infectious Diarrhea, non-infectious Diverticular disease (diverticulosis, diverticulitis) Dumping syndrome Dyspepsia Dyspepsia, nonulcerative Dysphagia, oropharyngeal Echinococcosis Epigastric pain Epiploic appendagitis Esophageal tumors Esophageal varices Esophagitis Familial adenomatous polyps and Gardner's syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome Food poisoning, bacterial Functional gallbladder disorder I I I I I III I I III I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I V I I II II I I I I II I II I I I I II I II III II III I II II II I I I I I I I I II I I II III I I I II III II III III II II I I III I II I II I I I II I I I I Gastric cancer Gastric dilatation Gastric emptying, delayed Gastrinoma Gastritis Gastroenteritis Gastroesophageal reflux disease Giardiasis Gilbert's disease Glossitis Glossodynia Helicobacter pylori infection Hematemesis Hemochromatosis Hemoperitoneum Hemoptysis Hemorrhoids Hepatic encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis, acute Hepatitis B Hepatitis B prophylaxis Hepatitis C Hepatitis, viral Hepatomegaly, algorithm Hepatomegaly, by shape of liver Hepatopulmonary syndrome Hepatorenal syndrome Hiatal hernia Hookworm Hypergastrinemia Hypersplenism, associated conditions Hypoglycemia Incontinence, fecal Irritable bowel syndrome Ischemia, colon Jaundice, classification Jaundice in the adult patient Jaundice, neonatal Jaundice, neonatal, algorithm Lactose intolerance Large bowel stricture Liver abscess Liver disease, pregnancy Liver lesions, benign Lynch syndrome Malabsorption Malabsorption algorithm Mallory-Weiss tear Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Nutrition assessment and intervention in cancer patient Odynophagia Pancreatic calcifications Pancreatic cancer (exocrine) Pancreatitis, drug-induced Peptic ulcer disease Perianal pain Peritonitis, secondary Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and other polyposis syndromes Pinworms Pneumatosis intestinalis in neonate and older child Portal hypertension Portal vein thrombosis Primary sclerosing cholangitis Pruritus ani Rectal mass, palpable Rectal prolapse Retropharyngeal abscess Shigellosis Short bowel syndrome Small bowel masses Small bowel obstruction Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth Small intestine ulceration Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Tapeworm infestation Toxic megacolon Traveler's diarrhea Tropical sprue Typhoid fever Ulcerative colitis Vitamin deficiency (hypovitaminosis) Whipple's disease Wilson's disease Zenker's (pharyngoesophageal) diverticulum GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS Abruptio placentae Acute fatty liver of pregnancy Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein elevation Bleeding, early pregnancy Bleeding neonate Bleeding, vaginal Bone mineral density, increased Breast cancer I II II I I I I I I I II I II I II I I I I II I V I III III II I I I I II II II II I III II I II III I II I II II I II III I I III II II I II I II I I I II I I I I II I I I I II I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I II III III III II I Breastfeeding difficulties Breast, nipple discharge evaluation Breast, radiologic evaluation Breast, routine screen or palpable mass evaluation Breech birth Cervical cancer Cervical dysplasia Cervical insufficiency Cervical polyps Cervicitis Chancroid Chlamydia genital infections Condyloma acuminatum Contraception Cystitis, acute Delayed passage of meconium Dysfunctional uterine bleeding Dysmenorrhea Dyspareunia Dysuria and/or urethral/vaginal discharge Eclampsia Ectopic pregnancy Emergency contraception Endometrial cancer Endometriosis Endometritis Erosions, genitalia Fibrocystic breast disease Genital lesions or ulcers, algorithm Gonococcal urethritis Gonorrhea Granuloma inguinale Groin masses Heart failure, pregnancy HELLP syndrome Herpes simplex Hot flashes Hyperemesis gravidarum Hypogonadism Immunizations during pregnancy Incontinence (urinary) Infertility Lymphogranuloma venereum Mastitis Mastodynia Meigs' syndrome Menopause Menorrhagia Molar pregnancy Nipple lesions Nongonococcal urethritis Ovarian cancer Ovarian neoplasm, benign Over-the-counter medications in pregnancy Paget's disease of the breast Pelvic abscess Pelvic inflammatory disease Pelvic mass, algorithm Pelvic organ prolapse (uterine prolapse) Pelvic pain, causes in women Pelvic pain, reproductive-age woman Perirectal abscess Placenta previa Polycystic ovary syndrome Postpartum depression Postpartum hemorrhage Preeclampsia Premature labor Premature rupture of membranes Premenstrual dysphoric disorder Premenstrual syndrome Primary ovarian insufficiency Pruritus, pregnant patient Pruritus vulvae Rh incompatibility Sexual assault Sexual dysfunction Sexual dysfunction in women Sheehan's syndrome Spontaneous miscarriage Syphilis Thrombocytopenia, in pregnancy Toxic shock syndrome Urinary tract infection Uterine fibroids Uterine malignancy Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy Vaginal discharge, algorithm Vaginal fistulas Vaginal malignancy Vaginal prolapse Vaginismus Vaginitis, estrogen-deficient Vaginitis, fungal Vaginitis, prepubescent Vaginitis, Trichomonas Vaginosis, bacterial Vulvar cancer III III III III I I I I I I I I I I III II I I I III I I I I I I II I III I I I II II I I I I III V I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I III I II III I I I I I I I I I I I III I, II I I III I, II I I I II I I I I I III I I III I I I I I I I HEMATOLOGY/ONCOLOGY Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Acute myelogenous leukemia Anemia, algorithm Anemia, aplastic Anemia, aplastic due to drugs and chemicals Anemia, hemolytic Anemia, hypochromic Anemia, inflammatory Anemia in newborn Anemia, iron deficiency Anemia, macrocytic Anemia, microcytic Anemia, pernicious Anemia with reticulocytosis Anemia, sideroblastic Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome Astrocytoma Atypical lymphocytosis, heterophil negative, infectious causes Basal cell carcinoma Bladder cancer Bleeding, congenital disorder Bleeding neonate Bleeding time (modified Ivy method) Bone marrow failure syndromes, inherited Bone tumor, primary malignant Brain metastases Brain neoplasm Brain neoplasm, benign Brain neoplasm, glioblastoma Breast cancer Carcinoid syndrome Cervical cancer Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Chronic myelogenous leukemia Chylothorax Cobalamin deficiency Colorectal cancer Conjunctival neoplasm Craniopharyngioma Cryoglobulinemia Deep vein thrombosis Disseminated intravascular coagulation Endometrial cancer Erythrocytosis Erythrocytosis, acquired Esophageal tumors Eyelid neoplasm Felty's syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome Fever and neutropenia, pediatric patient Fever, non-infectious causes Folate deficiency Gastric cancer Gastrinoma Groin masses Hairy cell leukemia Head and neck, soft tissue masses HELLP syndrome Hemolysis, mechanical Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Hemophilia Hemoptysis Henoch-Schönlein purpura Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Hepatocellular carcinoma Histiocytosis X Hodgkin's lymphoma Hypercalcemia, malignancy-induced Hypercoagulable state Hypercoagulable state, associated disorders Hypereosinophilic syndrome Hypersplenism Hypersplenism, associated conditions Immune thrombocytopenic purpura Insulinoma Intraocular neoplasm Iron overload Kaposi's sarcoma Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome Laryngeal carcinoma Lead poisoning Liver lesions, benign Lung cancer, occupational causes Lung neoplasms, primary Lymphadenopathy, generalized, algorithm Lymphocytes Lymphocytosis, atypical Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin Macrothrombocytopenia, inherited Meigs' syndrome Melanoma Meningioma Menorrhagia Mesothelioma, malignant Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance I I III I, II II I II I III I III III I III I I I II I I III III IV II I I I I I I I I I I I II II I II I I I I I II III I II I I III II II I I II I II I II I I I I I I I I II I II I I II I I II II I I I I II II I III IV II I II I I I I I I Monocytosis Mononucleosis, monospot negative Multiple myeloma Mycosis fungoides Myelodysplastic syndrome Nephroblastoma Neuroblastoma Neutropenia Neutropenia with decreased marrow reserve Neutrophilia Nutrition assessment and intervention in cancer patient Ovarian cancer Ovarian neoplasm, benign Paget's disease of the breast Pancreatic cancer (exocrine) Pancreatic islet cell tumors Pancytopenia Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Pericardial effusion, malignant Pheochromocytoma Pigmenturia Pituitary adenoma Pituitary region tumors Pleural effusion, malignant Pleural effusions, malignancy-associated Polycythemia Polycythemia, algorithm Polycythemia, relative versus absolute Polycythemia vera Priapism Primary myelofibrosis Prolactinoma Prostate cancer Pulmonary infiltrates, immunocompromised host Pure red cell aplasia Purpura, nonpalpable Purpura, non-purpuric disorders simulating purpura Purpura, palpable Renal cell adenocarcinoma Reticulocyte count Retinoblastoma Rh incompatibility Salivary gland neoplasms Sickle cell disease Sideroblastic anemia Spine tumor Splenomegaly, algorithm Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly Splenomegaly, children Squamous cell carcinoma Superior vena cava syndrome Testicular cancer Thalassemias Thrombocytopenia, differential diagnosis Thrombocytopenia, inherited disorders Thrombocytopenia, in pregnancy Thrombocytosis Thrombosis or thrombotic diathesis Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura Thyroid carcinoma Transfusion reaction, hemolytic Tumor lysis syndrome Tumor markers elevation Uterine malignancy Vaginal malignancy Von Hippel-Lindau disease Von Willebrand's disease Vulvar cancer Waldenström's macroglobulinemia INFECTIOUS DISEASES Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Actinomycosis Acute bronchitis Amebiasis Anaerobic infections Anal abscess and fistula Ascariasis Aspergillosis Aspiration, oral contents Atypical lymphocytosis, heterophil negative, infectious causes Babesiosis Bacterial overgrowth, small intestine Bacterial pneumonia Balanitis Bedbug bite Bite wounds Blastomycosis Botulism Brain abscess Breast abscess Brucellosis Candidiasis, cutaneous Candidiasis, invasive II II I I I I I II II II III I I I I III II II I I III I II I II III II II III II I I I I I II I II II II I IV I I I I I III III II II I I I I II II II I II I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I II I I III II I II I I I I I I I I I I I Cat-scratch disease Cavernous sinus thrombosis Cellulitis Cervicitis Chagas' disease Chancroid Childhood and adolescent immunizations Chlamydia genital infections Cholangitis Cholecystitis Cholera Clostridium difficile infection Coccidioidomycosis Colorado tick fever Condyloma acuminatum Conjunctivitis Cryptococcosis Cryptosporidium infection Cysticercosis Cytomegalovirus infection Diarrhea, infectious Diphtheria Ear pain Echinococcosis Ehrlichiosis Empyema Encephalitis, acute viral Endocarditis, infective Endocarditis prophylaxis Endometritis Eosinophilic fasciitis Eosinophilic pneumonias Epididymitis Epidural abscess Epiglottitis Epstein-Barr virus infection Erysipelas Esophagitis Fever and infection in high-risk patient without obvious source Fever and neutropenia, pediatric patient Fever of undetermined origin Fifth disease (parvovirus infection) Filariasis Folliculitis Food poisoning, bacterial Foot lesion, ulcerating Genital lesions or ulcers Giardiasis Gingivitis Gonococcal urethritis Granuloma inguinale Granulomatous dermatitides Groin masses Hand-foot-mouth disease Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome Healthcare-associated infection (HAIs) Helicobacter pylori infection Hepatitis A Hepatitis, acute Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis, viral Herpangina Herpes simplex Herpes zoster Histoplasmosis HIV cognitive dysfunction HIV:
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Gassan Al-Quzwini (Iraq) Emergancy whipples Procedure for Massive upper GIT bleeding with locally advance pancreatic head tumor Moayad K.
The net is extensive testimonies of men and women who were being sent residential home to die, or supposedly had incurable cancers like pancreatic most cancers who applied Protocel, or a few other choice treatment method and have been remedied.
CF-related pancreatic insufficiency tends to result in delayed growth and wasting of the human body from malnutrition (Wilson and Pencharz 1998).
Most common cause of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in patients <30 years of age :
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2 points = 1 mark (c) Deficiency disease Scurvy   (d) Reason for a daily supply Vitamin C cannot be stored in the body or Vitamin C is water soluble so is easily lost from the body 1 well-explained statement = 1 mark © Cambridge International Examinations 2012  Page 5 4 Mark Scheme GCE O LEVEL – October/November 2012 Syllabus 6065 Paper 12 (a) Digestion in the small intestine in the duodenum – trypsin – from pancreatic juice – converts protein to (peptones)/peptides/polypeptides bile – stored in gall bladder – made by liver – emulsifies fat – breaks fat into small droplets – increases surface area lipase – converts fats to glycerol and fatty acids amylase – in pancreatic juice – converts starch to maltose in the ileum – erepsin – from intestinal juice – converts (peptones)/peptides/polypeptides to amino-acids lipase – completes breakdown of fat to glycerol and fatty acids maltase – converts maltose to glucose lactase – converts lactose to glucose and galactose sucrase – converts sucrose to glucose and fructose (At least four points from each part of the small intestine.) 12 points:
Direct toxic eﬀects of D-lactate in the brain are suspected.77,79 Jejuno-ileostomy patients have the highest risk of developing D-lactic acidosis and accompanying encephalopathy because they usually have some degree of carbohydrate malabsorption.81,82 Procedures as mild as stomach stapling may lead to D-lactic acidosis.73 Precipitating factors include use of antibiotics83 and medium-chain triglycerides.84 Carbohydrate malabsorption associated with pancreatic insuﬃciency can also induce D-lactic acidosis.85 Elevated levels of D-lactate were found in blood samples of 13 of 470 randomly selected hospitalized patients.86 Studies in cattle have conﬁrmed that increases in D-lactate following overloading of grain in the diet corresponded to growth of Lactobacilli rather than coliform bacteria.87 The speciﬁcity and sensitivity of urinary D-lactate has led to the test being proposed for routine diagnosis of bacterial infections.88 D-lactate has also been reported to be a marker for diagnosis of acute appendicitis,89 and for diﬀerentiating perforated from simple appendicitis.90 Whatever the origin, patients are managed with antibiotics and probiotics,91 including Saccharomyces boulardii.71 During acidotic episodes in patients with shortbowel syndrome, 24-hour urinary excretion of D-lactate can rise to levels above 600 mcg/mg creatinine, far higher Page 299 Copyright © 2008 Thorne Research, Inc.
Gemcit abine Plus R115777 in Chemonaive Patient s w it h Ad vanced Pancreatic Cancer Janssen-Ortho Dr.
Cancer o Bladder cancer o Breast cancer o Colon and rectal cancer o Kidney (renal cell) cancer o Lung cancer o Pancreatic cancer · Category 3: