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NuclearProliferationandSecurityConcerns 100%

      NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY CONCERNS:   Accurately predicting future state proliferation by looking at various  factors outside the security model.                   Amanda Sewell  Sam Houston State University  September 2016              1  Why do states build nuclear weapons? This is the question that Scott  Sagan attempts to answer by in his research by looking at three different  theory models. In the past, the security concerns of the state were a positive  prediction to whether or not they would develop nuclear weapons, but the  same factors that pressured the states in the past, are no longer present  today. Without these factors, would security still be a reliable indicator?  Sagan argues that focusing only on the security considerations as the cause  of proliferation is “dangerously inadequate”.1  While the security model  accurately explains past cases of nuclear proliferation by states, it would not  be reliable in current times since the factors are no longer the same.  Therefore, if we want to predict which countries might develop nuclear  weapons in the future, underlying security concerns can not be the only area  we pay attention to. Recent proliferation cases have demonstrated that we  must take the other factors that play an important role in states decisions  regarding proliferation. These factors, along with security concerns, may  provide a much more accurate predictor of future proliferation.  First, let’s take a closer look at why the security model has  worked for past cases. Sagan describes the security model as “any state that  seeks to maintain its national security must balance against any rival state  that develops nuclear weapons by gaining access to a nuclear deterrent  itself.” 2 The overwhelming majority of nuclear programs were developed  1 2  Sagan, Scott D. 2012. Why do states build nuclear weapons? Three models in search of a bomb. Pp.54   Ibid. pp 56      2  around WWII and the Cold War. The security model is better at predicting  these  behaviors of superpowers such as Russia and the United States where  there is an imminent threat to state’s security. The nuclear arms race  between the United States and the former Soviet Union provides a case  example of this security model and how it explains behavior towards nuclear  proliferation.  On July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was tested in the New  Mexico Desert.3  Less than a month later, an atomic bomb was dropped on  Hiroshima, Japan. The United States gained military superiority and a need  arose for other states to have acquire similar weaponry for security. “Stallin  wanted to be able to threaten the United States with atomic weapons, just  as the United States was able to threaten the Soviet Union”4   The Soviets  tested their first atomic bomb in 1949 after blueprints were leaked to them  by German physicist, ​Klaus Fuchs, who worked on the first United States  bomb.5   Now that the Soviet Union had comparable weapons, the United  States began tests on new types and designs of bombs in order to regain  their superiority. Each side continued to add to their arsenals as the tensions  rose. There was a verifiable need for the Soviets to gain a nuclear deterrent  to prevent an attack by the United States, thus the security model  accurately explains proliferation decisions by the state.    Davis, Watson. "Background of Atomic Bomb." ​The Science News­Letter 49.25 (1946): 394­395.   Zuberi, Matin. "Stalin and the bomb." ​Strategic Analysis 23.7 (1999): 1133­1153.  5  "Soviets explode atomic bomb ­ Aug 29, 1949 ­ HISTORY.com." 2010. 20 Sep. 2016  <​http://www.history.com/this­day­in­history/soviets­explode­atomic­bomb​>

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/09/21/nuclearproliferationandsecurityconcerns/

21/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

NuclearProliferationandSecurityConcerns-AmandaSewell (3) 99%

      NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY CONCERNS:   Accurately predicting future state proliferation by looking at various  factors outside the security model.                   Amanda Sewell  Sam Houston State University  Political Science 5367­International Relations  September 2016              1  Why do states build nuclear weapons? This is the question that Scott  Sagan attempts to answer by in his research by looking at three different  theory models. In the past, the security concerns of the state were a positive  prediction to whether or not they would develop nuclear weapons, but the  same factors that pressured the states in the past, are no longer present  today. Without these factors, would security still be a reliable indicator?  Sagan argues that focusing only on the security considerations as the cause  of proliferation is “dangerously inadequate”.1  While the security model  accurately explains past cases of nuclear proliferation by states, it would not  be reliable in current times since the factors are no longer the same.  Therefore, if we want to predict which countries might develop nuclear  weapons in the future, underlying security concerns can not be the only area  we pay attention to. Recent proliferation cases have demonstrated that we  must take the other factors that play an important role in states decisions  regarding proliferation. These factors, along with security concerns, may  provide a much more accurate predictor of future proliferation.  First, let’s take a closer look at why the security model has  worked for past cases. Sagan describes the security model as “any state that  seeks to maintain its national security must balance against any rival state  that develops nuclear weapons by gaining access to a nuclear deterrent  itself.” 2 The overwhelming majority of nuclear programs were developed  1 2  Sagan, Scott D. 2012. Why do states build nuclear weapons? Three models in search of a bomb. Pp.54   Ibid. pp 56      2  around WWII and the Cold War. The security model is better at predicting  these  behaviors of superpowers such as Russia and the United States where  there is an imminent threat to state’s security. The nuclear arms race  between the United States and the former Soviet Union provides a case  example of this security model and how it explains behavior towards nuclear  proliferation.  On July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was tested in the New  Mexico Desert.3  Less than a month later, an atomic bomb was dropped on  Hiroshima, Japan. The United States gained military superiority and a need  arose for other states to have acquire similar weaponry for security. “Stallin  wanted to be able to threaten the United States with atomic weapons, just  as the United States was able to threaten the Soviet Union”4   The Soviets  tested their first atomic bomb in 1949 after blueprints were leaked to them  by German physicist, ​Klaus Fuchs, who worked on the first United States  bomb.5   Now that the Soviet Union had comparable weapons, the United  States began tests on new types and designs of bombs in order to regain  their superiority. Each side continued to add to their arsenals as the tensions  rose. There was a verifiable need for the Soviets to gain a nuclear deterrent  to prevent an attack by the United States, thus the security model  accurately explains proliferation decisions by the state.    Davis, Watson. "Background of Atomic Bomb." ​The Science News­Letter 49.25 (1946): 394­395.   Zuberi, Matin. "Stalin and the bomb." ​Strategic Analysis 23.7 (1999): 1133­1153.  5  "Soviets explode atomic bomb ­ Aug 29, 1949 ­ HISTORY.com." 2010. 20 Sep. 2016  <​http://www.history.com/this­day­in­history/soviets­explode­atomic­bomb​>

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/09/21/nuclearproliferationandsecurityconcerns-amandasewell-3/

21/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

UN and NPT 92%

THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY (NPT) WRITTEN BY OKAFOR MICHAEL UGOCHUKWU TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/11/24/un-and-npt/

24/11/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Skeletal Muscle - From Myogenesis to Clinical Relations 92%

This precise coordination of complex stem cell responses throughout adult life is regulated by evolutionally conserved signaling networks that cooperatively direct and control (1) the breakage of stem cell quiescence, (2) cell proliferation and self-renewal, (3) cell expansion and prevention of premature differentiation and finally, (4) the acquisition of terminal cell fate.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/07/06/skeletal-muscle-from-myogenesis-to-clinical-relations/

06/07/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

ASH 2011.Jessica McDaniel 90%

Lenalidomide is a potent immunomodulating agent and hematopoietic response has been linked to increased lymphocyte infiltration in the bone marrow and improved T cell and NK cell proliferation/function.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2011/12/06/ash-2011-jessica-mcdaniel/

06/12/2011 www.pdf-archive.com

JDIT-2016-0906-024 88%

Particularly, proliferation or concomitant inflammatory processes associated with bone remodeling in enchondroma are discussed and related to 11C-choline uptake.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/05/30/jdit-2016-0906-024/

30/05/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

austin waterproofing tricks to prevent1664 85%

Even micro-cracks could cause a capillary impact that can draw water in ·Dark Environments - Lack of light in dark and damp places are perfect circumstances for the proliferation of molds and mildew, as in comparison with areas inside reach of natural gentle ·Foundations that Trigger Water to Accumulate - In case your houses shouldn't have correct foundation grading, water from the surroundings can accumulate in the areas proper subsequent to your foundations, which is able to eventually seep by means of the partitions and into your properties The right way to Prevent Molds and Mildew The next are basic Austin waterproofing suggestions that can assist you forestall the proliferation of molds and mildew in your homes.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/12/01/austin-waterproofing-tricks-to-prevent1664/

01/12/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

JDIT-2018-0210-030 85%

Alternative nucleoside-based probes that are less prone to non-specific effects have have therefore been developed for imaging tumour proliferation to use alongside [18F]FDG [44,47], the most successful being 3ꞌ-deoxy-3ꞌ-[18F]fluoro-L-thymidine ([18F]FLT) (3) [48].

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/02/21/jdit-2018-0210-030/

21/02/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

3147.full 84%

The current paper provides a broad description of the MCF-7 cell line, including the molecular profile, proliferation, migration, invasion, spheroid formation, its involvement in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and its interaction with the mesenchymal stem cells.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/07/25/3147-full/

25/07/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

TWQ Fall2015 Kroenig-Volpe 84%

printing will Fortunately, the proliferation potential of render obsolete AM has not yet fully materialized, so the United States can still lead an international many of the tools effort to prevent an AM-enabled cascade of for spotting illicit nuclear weapons proliferation before it is too late.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/04/04/twq-fall2015-kroenig-volpe/

04/04/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

2011 LSU Skin Cancer 83%

This method effectively reduced oxidative injury and proliferation without interfering with apoptosis.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/01/24/2011-lsu-skin-cancer/

24/01/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

eaan1230.full 82%

Government Works INTRODUCTION After moderate liver injury or resection, the liver regenerates efficiently through hepatocyte proliferation (1, 2).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/08/30/eaan1230full/

30/08/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

Influences of users and art 79%

Morrison Hallie Morrison DIGPO 31 March 2014 Influences of Users and Art in the Age of Digital Proliferation In the Age of Digital Proliferation, I am fascinated with the success human users of digital domains create for the invention of the Internet, today.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/05/12/influences-of-users-and-art/

12/05/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

A major introduction to Cediranib maleate 78%

Cediranib maleate inhibits VEGF-stimulated proliferation with IC50 of 0.4 nM.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/04/20/a-major-introduction-to-cediranib-maleate/

20/04/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Creative BioMart Provides Quality FLT-3 Proteins for the Science Community 78%

Flt-3 is known as a cell surface receptor for cytokine FLT-3 ligand and regulates differentiation, proliferation and survival of hematopoietic progenitor cells and of dendritic cells.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2019/09/04/untitled-pdf-document-1/

04/09/2019 www.pdf-archive.com

2010 Ohio State Bypass Graft 78%

Results showed that HSV cultured ex vivo exhibit ~3-fold increase in proliferation, and ~3.6–fold NU increase in intimal area relative to freshly isolated HSV.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/01/24/2010-ohio-state-bypass-graft/

24/01/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

343707456-Internet-Porn-The-Meaning-Crisis 75%

One of her key pieces of evidence is the proliferation of internet pornography — a modern phenomenon that "disadvantages"

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/04/01/343707456-internet-porn-the-meaning-crisis/

01/04/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

dp8679 75%

Proliferation of the Internet has made pornography an increasingly low-cost substitute.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/12/22/dp8679/

22/12/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

milk-consumption-acne[1] 75%

after binding to its receptor in various tissues, it induces cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/02/20/milk-consumption-acne-1/

20/02/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

What is SKU Rationalization and Why is Everybody Doing it 75%

From Proliferation to SKU Rationalization Create PDF in your applications with the Pdfcrowd HTML to PDF API PDFCROWD There are more SKUs today than ever, especially in the retail sector.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2019/10/17/what-is-sku-rationalization-and-why-is-everybody-doing-it/

17/10/2019 www.pdf-archive.com

Atomenergoproekt BN-800 NPP 74%

yy optimization of the closed-loop fuel cycle as a basis of nuclear energy production in future and development of non-proliferation strategies;

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/08/18/atomenergoproektbn-800npp/

18/08/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

Genetic architecture 73%

Pre-organic or Master Chromosome We have seen that before beginning to be developed the organs of an alive being it is necessary previously the proliferation of common or mother cells so that later on, and starting from these common cells, each one of the being's organs can be developing.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/10/14/genetic-architecture/

14/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

systems-03-00045 72%

The growing proliferation of management systems standards (MSSs), and their individualized implementation, is a real problem faced by organizations.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/08/16/systems-03-00045/

16/08/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

Ngo Muller (2000) 71%

The digit IV bifurcation response involved a reorganization of distal prechondrogenic cells to form two digit tips and this occurred without altering cell proliferation or apoptosis in the responsive cells.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/05/09/ngo-muller-2000/

09/05/2015 www.pdf-archive.com