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After the addition of deuterated internal standards the sample was hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide and directly submitted to HS-SPME.
Setting up the turn counter Analog triggers Analog triggers convert analog signals into digital signals using the cRIO’s FPGA. In order to make the turn counter work, we use an analog trigger to create a digital signal when the potentiometer “wraps around” from 0° to 360° or 360° to 0°. Code sample (creating an analog trigger): AnalogTrigger _analogTrigger = new AnalogTrigger ( channel ); Analog trigger outputs The analog trigger can send outputs in a number of different modes. The two most useful to us here are Rising Pulse and Falling Pulse. Rising Pulse sends a pulse of digital signal when the analog signal changes from a value below the minimum voltage you’ve set (hereafter called the “lower threshold”) to a value above the maximum voltage you’ve set (the “upper threshold”). Falling Pulse sends a pulse when the signal changes from a value above the upper threshold to one below the lower threshold. One of these should pulse whenever you hit the potentiometer’s discontinuity; which one indicates the direction the wheel pod is turning. Code sample (creating analog trigger outputs): AnalogTriggerOutput _analogTriggerFalling = new AnalogTriggerOutput ( _analogTrigger , AnalogTriggerOutput . Type . kFallingPulse ); AnalogTriggerOutput _analogTriggerRising = new AnalogTriggerOutput ( _analogTrigger , AnalogTriggerOutput . Type . kRisingPulse ); Creating the counter To create a turn counter, we need to count the digital pulses of the analog trigger outputs. When one pulses, we should increment the counter; when the other pulses, we should decrement it. Which is which depends on your setup. Code sample (creating the turn counter): Counter _turnCounter = new Counter (); _turnCounter . setUpDownCounterMode (); _turnCounter . setUpSource ( _analogTriggerRising ); _turnCounter . setDownSource ( _analogTriggerFalling ); _turnCounter . start (); The filter, setting the sample rate and threshold voltages Although the potentiometer’s discontinuity normally looks like a straight vertical line of voltage, it isn’t; it’s a very steep, notquitevertical line. Thus, when crossing it, there’s a chance that one of the voltages sampled by the analog trigger will be on that line, which really messes things up. Luckily, you can enable a filter on the analog trigger’s input that samples three points and rejects the one closest to average. In this way, so long as no more than one sampled point in a row lies on the discontinuity and the surrounding points are below / above the lower / upper threshold voltages, the crossing will still be detected. We need to set the sample rate low enough that no more than one point can lie on the line. This graph shows a closeup of the potentiometer’s discontinuity. In theory, so long as the sample rate is slower than the 520 Hz displayed, no more than one point should lie along the line. In practice, I found a huge margin of error beneficial; I went with 50 Hz. However, set the sample rate too low and you run into another problem: the time between samples may be so great that the times when the signal is above the upper threshold or below the lower threshold are missed completely. When you lower the sample rate, you need to lower your upper threshold and raise your lower threshold; doing this too much can result in false positives from things like signal noise. In order to ensure that the value above the upper threshold isn’t missed, the difference between the potentiometer’s real maximum voltage and the upper threshold must be at least equal to the time between samples (in my case, 0.02 seconds) times the maximum rate of change of the voltage. The same must be true of the difference between the potentiometer’s real minimum voltage and the lower threshold. I wound up using a “realthreshold” voltage difference of 0.6V. To get false positives, the two thresholds have to be pretty close; once again, big safety margins are your friend. Code sample (enabling input filtering): _analogTrigger . setFiltered ( true ); Code sample (setting the thresholds): double _sensingVoltageDifference = 0.6; _analogTrigger . setLimitsVoltage ( minVoltage + _sensingVoltageDifference , maxVoltage _sensingVoltageDifference ); Code sample (setting the sample rate): int DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE = 1; int ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE = 50 ; //Hz AnalogModule module = ( AnalogModule ) Module . getModule ( ModulePresence . ModuleType . kAnalog , DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE ); module . setSampleRate ( ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE ); Computing the new degree measurement The end goal of this is to create a potentiometer that reads beyond 360°. To get this reading, simply multiply the turn count by 360° and add the wheel’s current heading. Code sample (reading the new degree measurement): double heading = ((( voltage _minVoltage ) * ( 360.0 / _maxVoltage ))) % 360.0; double degrees = heading + ( _turnCounter . get () * 360.0 ); Putting it all together Here’s my final code. I don’t know if things need to be in this order (as opposed to the order presented above) but it certainly works for me. // Constants // private static final int ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE = 50; private static final int DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE = 1 ; private static final double _sensingVoltageDifference = 0.6; // Global fields // private AnalogTrigger _analogTrigger; private Counter _turnCounter; private AnalogTriggerOutput _analogTriggerFalling; private AnalogTriggerOutput _analogTriggerRising; // In potentiometer's constructor // _analogTrigger = new AnalogTrigger ( channel ); _analogTrigger . setFiltered ( true ); _analogTrigger . setLimitsVoltage ( minVoltage + _sensingVoltageDifference , maxVoltage _sensingVoltageDifference ); _analogTriggerFalling = new AnalogTriggerOutput ( _analogTrigger , AnalogTriggerOutput . Type . kFallingPulse ); _analogTriggerRising = new AnalogTriggerOutput ( _analogTrigger , AnalogTriggerOutput . Type . kRisingPulse ); AnalogModule module = ( AnalogModule ) Module . getModule ( ModulePresence . ModuleType . kAnalog , DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE ); module . setSampleRate ( ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE ); _turnCounter = new Counter (); _turnCounter . setUpDownCounterMode (); _turnCounter . setUpSource ( _analogTriggerRising ); _turnCounter . setDownSource ( _analogTriggerFalling ); _turnCounter . start (); // getDegrees() function // double heading = ((( voltage _minVoltage ) * ( 360.0 / _maxVoltage ))) % 360.0; double degrees = heading + _offsetDegrees + ( _turnCounter . get () * 360.0 ); //I have an "offset" that allows me to compensate for potentiometers that aren't installed exactly straight
the input signal is captured by writing it into such a shift register, each sample is converted into a charge packet.
Materials and methods Sample collective Between 1986 and 2004, 631 stone-fruit spirits submitted to the CVUA Karlsruhe were analysed for ethyl carbamate.
The spectra were measured using a FTIR interferometer, which is purpose-built for the analysis of alcoholic beverages and includes an injection unit for liquids with automatic thermostating of the sample.
331 5.1 The Sampling Distribution for a Sample Average .
After adding deuterated internal standards, the sample was hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide and directly submitted to HS-SPDE.
Apart from the actual content of EC in the sample, additional information was available from the FTIR spectra.
The optimal sample preparation for foods containing cinnamon was investigated and found to be cold extraction of 15 g sample with 50 mL of methanol (80%, v/v) for 30 min using magnetic stirring.
The sample from the JP-30, although in the same micron range of the other samples, displayed less desirable defects, manifested in the unevenness in grind consistency and the erratic shapes of the particles.
“How is that possible?” The sample gets prepared for DNA sequencing.
Sample Types/ Documentations: Sample Type: Sample ID:
Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) is based on the distribution of analytes between the sample, the headspace above the sample and a coated fused-silica fibre.