PDF Archive search engine
Last database update: 28 November at 17:16 - Around 76000 files indexed.
With hundreds of spectators at each race, there are 2 weekends with a very high spectator count.
A Nihilistic Observation on Ran Lawson Jiang January 15, 2015 TA: Isabelle Carbonell Section D (11:45am) Hoile, Christopher, “‘King Lear’ and Kurosawa's ‘Ran’: Splitting, Doubling, Distancing,” Pacific Coast Philology 22 1/2 (1987). Penn State University Press: 29–34, accessed January 15, 2016, doi:10.2307/1316655. Hoile compares and evaluates the similarities and differences between Shakespeare’s King Lear and Kurosawa’s Ran . Through comparing the plots of the two epic works, Hoile thoroughly presents to whom are interested in discovering the relationship between the two work, such as the character settings and the similaryetdifferent plot structure as he points out that “the test of the three arrows replaces the lovetest in King Lear, but it is not equivalent to it” (p.30). While a majority of the articles found during the research focus on addressing how Kurosawa’s film is similar to King Lear — with detailed analysis of each characters in Ran to their correspondents in King Lear — Hoile brings up something different that makes his work stands out among the rest of the analytical essays, the cinematography of the film. He, however, talks about the cinematography with only a sentence commenting that the camera is “an impassive and literally distant observer” (p.29). Although his comment should include a more elaborate analysis from the cinematographic aspect, the short comment establishes a brand new idea that Ran carries a nihilistic tone throughout the entire film. This notion is also addressed in Roger Ebert’s updated review1 published on his blog in October 1, 2000. Roger Ebert, “Ran Movie Review & Film Summary (1985),” Roger Ebert (blog), October 1, 2000, http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/greatmovieran1985 The notion of Nihilism brought up by Hoile receives a more detailed and interesting interpretation in film critic Roger Ebert’s review. Ebert writes: Roger Ebert, “Ran Movie Review & Film Summary (1985),” Roger Ebert (blog), October 1, 2000, http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/greatmovieran1985. There are two entries of review by Roger Ebert, the first was published in 1985 and the updated was in 2000. 1 Lawson Jiang 1 He [Kurosawa] uses several static cameras to film the action, cutting between them; because his cameras don't dart and whirl, we are not encouraged to think of ourselves as participants but as gods, observing, taking the long view here and then a closeup look. (One shot, of a man holding his own severed arm, no doubt inspired the similar shot in Steven Spielberg’s “Saving Private Ryan.”) Ebert’s observation well matches with Hoile’s view on cinematography; omniscient yet impassive. Ebert argues that the spectators play the role of witness instead of participant through static and medium shots. During the fiveminuteslong battle sequence, a soldier holding his mutilated arm serves as one of the example, whereas Taro and Saburo’s sudden deaths after the two separate battles should be marked as the notable agents representing Kurosawa’s nihilistic thoughts. Taro, who is on his horse, filmed from a lower angle and placed in the middle of the frame, is suddenly killed by an arrow. Taro’s sudden death shocks those who presume him to be the figure of victory after the cruel battle. At the end of the film, Saburo embraces the same destiny just like his eldest brother — killed by an arrow — when riding the horse with his father, Hidetora. Hidetora dies of heart attack soon after he discovers his son’s death. To those who are used to dramatic and the socalled meaningful ending (bad guys fail and die, for example), Ran ends with a tragic yet boring scene. The bads die, so as the good ones. However, Kurosawa’s casual depiction of the characters’ deaths should be considered as an astonishing representation of nihilism. In the nihilistic sense, one should understand and expect that there is no good or bad nor there is meaningful ending for an individual. Death is not worth to be dramaticized. Therefore, the constant use of steady, medium shots and the omitting of closeups in critical moments (such as the death scene) provide a godlike role to the spectators. Yet, a godlike role provides a limited perspective to the spectators that lacks the ability to predict what happens Lawson Jiang 2 next. Instead of predicting what will happen, the spectators can do little but witnessing the incidents on screen. Though the test of the three arrows emphasizes “the breaking of a bond not between the father and his sons but the bond between the sons themselves2”, once the bond between the sons breaks, so does the bond between the father and his sons. Nobody can help but to watch the whole family collapses all because of the sons’ greed that drives them to divide their father’s “spoils like dogs tearing at a carcass.” In the end, the nihilistic reading of Ran is a story about an old lord decides to abdicate which triggers a series of catastrophes, eventually lead to a chaotic3 dividing and the downfall of his clan. Mitsuhiro Yoshimoto, Kurosawa: Film Studies and Japanese Cinema (AsiaPacific : culture, politics, and society) (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000), Chapter 28. Yoshimoto comments Kurosawa as a “‘magnificent yet tragic genius’ who makes a gargantuan effort to present dynamic and perfect images on the screen4” due to the “extreme generalization and abstraction” of Ran . Yoshimoto, just like Ebert and Hoile, holds a similar observation: The scarcity of closeups and the extensive use of long shots render even principal characters abstract figures and, by preventing the spectators’ identification with them, create the sense of detachment that positions the spectators as distant observers of a drama of massive destruction. Sue, Jiro’s wife, is supposedly beautiful, yet without a closeup of her face, the spectators are not allowed to judge whether there is any validity in the statement asserting her beauty. Hoile, Christopher, “‘King Lear’ and Kurosawa's ‘Ran’: Splitting, Doubling, Distancing,” Pacific Coast Philology 22 1/2 (1987). Penn State University Press: 29–34, accessed January 15, 2016, doi:10.2307/1316655. Hoile 3 The title of the film, Ran , means “chaos” in Japanese. 4 Masumura Yaszo, “Sodai ni shite hiso na tensai,” in Kurosawa Akira shusei, vol 1, 626. Originally published in Kinema junpo, part 2 (May 1974). 2 Lawson Jiang 3 Yoshimoto believes that Kurosawa’s focus on decor and sets “transforms the film into a transparent surface without any depth… without any illusion of psychological depth.” Consequently, Ran , in his perspective, is a film with mere visual surface that lacks detailed depiction of the characters. What makes a generic commentary on a film is to comment with a notion of “indepth portraying of character(s) makes a good movie,” which is coincidentally similar to the belief that superhero films ought to be packaged with a dark tone that expose the superhero’s dark side due to the commercial success of the Dark Knight Trilogy5. The idea of “darker tone means a more mature plot means a better film” triggers a flood of superhero productions with a universal tone in recent years, which has formularized the taste of the audience to appreciate only grimmer films. Similarly, the compulsive belief of determining a film by only the character depiction eliminates the possibility of reading a film with an alternative philosophical doctrine. Ran could be less comprehensive in characters as Yoshimoto notes; however, it is a masterpiece in representing nihilism as it conveys a strong sense of helplessness of being a mere observer. Christopher Nolan’s The Dark Knight Trilogy , in which consisted of Batman Begins (2005), The Dark Knight (2008), and The Dark Knight Rises (2012), emphasizes the selfexploration and change of Batman (played by Christian Bale) from an ordinary millionaire to a hero enforcing vigilante justice. The commercial success of the series establishes a new genre of films; superhero movies. The dark tone of the trilogy, therefore, has been seen and adapted as a model of superhero movies by the production companies. Superhero movies with darker tone has become more welcomed in recent years, such as Iron Man 3 (2013), Man of Steel (2013), Captain America: Civil War (2016) and Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016). Collider’s interview with Russo Brothers on their upcoming Captain America regarding the tone of the film can be found on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=imIj_6uLQ4 5 Lawson Jiang 4
WHEN TOMBOY BECOMES A STRATEGIC TERM Lawson Jiang Film 165A: Film, Video, and Gender March 15, 2016 Tomboy is a 2011 French film centers around Laure, a 10yearold’s daily life with her new friends after moving to a new neighborhood with her family. The film begins with an opening scene showing Laure “driving” a car with her father while sitting on his lap. The spectators would have been tricked to believe that Laure is a boy by her boyish haircut and the “adventurous” activity if they have not seen the title prior to the viewing. While the film bears a straightforward title to suggest the theme, I shall declares that it does not necessarily associate Laure with gender nonconformity. The brilliant move made in the film is that it focuses on a prepuberty girl1 as such a character is then wrapped by a layer of vagueness in terms of gender reading. Although it seems to be as offensive to question why does Laure choose to be a tomboy as asking a homosexual person why does he/she choose to be gay or lesbian, the traces I found in the film indeed aroused my curiosity to ask such a question. Moreover, I propose that there is an alternative reading to the film with these evidence I found. Therefore, with no offense, I will be using “she” instead of “he” to refer Laure in this essay, and to investigate if she is a tomboy who refuses her female identity with a specific reason. The reason why Laure loves to behave as a boy is not because of gender nonconformity. What she really fears, as an individual sexed female, is the societal rejections, limitations and restrictions applied on female by the gender binary.2 Laure chooses to be a boy does not mean that she hates her biological sex; rather, she fears to be identified and treated as a girl. The only way to avoid those disadvantages brought on female is to deploy a male identity; a disguise. Therefore, I consider that Laure’s tomboyism is rather an alternative approach for her to be respected and treated equally by the other boys; that 1 Whose bone structure and body shapes are no different to a prepuberty boy. The limitation and restriction that girls should be feminine instead of masculine, and vice versa. 2 being a tomboy can thus be seen as Laure’s strategy to eliminate the binary play among the group of kids she plays with. The first scene is Laure driving with her father. In this scene, Laure makes her first appearance in the film as a boy through the participation of a masculine activity with her boys’ clothing. Driving is often considered as a masculine activity in the traditional sense because it has been constructed by advertisements through the associations between driving, men, mechanics, joy and freedom. Most of the spectators would have already established a sense of affirmation toward Laure’s tomboy identity in the very first scene because the title and the DVD cover had instilled them what should be expected before the first scene is ever revealed; it is inevitable to be “hinted” in such a way as it is never a complete experience to watch a film without knowing the synopsis or — at least — its title. While most of the spectators have established such a mindset toward the film, Tomboy is more than just a film about a tomboy who is presented in the way that she seems to have gender nonconformity. Laure takes on a masculine role with similar physical qualities and fitness as the boys of the same age, while Lisa, her new neighbor, plays the female character in the conventional sense. This does not mean that Lisa is weaker than Laure in anyway because she is identified as a female; as seen in the first game they take turns to play with other boys, Lisa demonstrates similar agility as Laure, and has even let Laure to win the round. Despite the equivalence of body fitness, Lisa tells Mickäel (Laure’s persona) that the boys do not want her to join their soccer games simply because she is a girl; “I don’t have a choice. They say I’m useless,” she explains. As Judith Halberstam notes in her article, “tomboyism tends to be associated with a ‘natural’ desire for the greater freedoms and mobilities enjoyed by boys,3” Laure understands how she would have been treated differently if she did not play as Mickäel in front of the boys, though it is not until Lisa speaks out this prejudice that male’s opinion on one’s ability are heavily based on one’s gender. This also explains Lisa chose to play Truth or Dare other than soccer because she does not want to be labelled as weak and then excluded by the boys. For the first time, the two’s conversation brings up the topic and implies Laure’s belief as a tomboy, which also forecasts the potential extent of tomboyism she will employ later in the film. A couple of days later, Laure is invited to go to swim in a lake. In order to swim with her new friends, Laure finds out her girl swimsuit and trims it to a swim trunk without hesitation. She then stands in front of the floor mirror, carefully placing the handcrafted clay penis into her trunk, then, with a light smile on her face — Laure becomes a boy now. Gender is not sex,4 one’s gender, as Judith Butler declares, is rather an act of performative in the sense that it constitutes as an effect one appears to express.5 Laure’s swim trunk and the clay penis — an obvious symbol of patriarchy — have perfected her Mickäel persona to be a more convincing role in front her friends, or even anyone else other than her family. “Gender is not a property of bodies or something originally existent in human beings,” De Lauretis writes, “but the set of effects produced in bodies, behaviors, and social relations. Gender is a representation [and] the representation of gender is its construction.6 ” De Lauretis’ shares a similar view with Butler, 3 Halberstam, Judith. 1999. “Oh Bondage Up Yours!: Female Masculinity and the Tomboy” In Sissies and Tomboys: Gender Nonconformity and Homosexual Childhood. R ottnek, Matthew, ed. New York: New York University Press: 155. 4 De Lauretis, Teresa. 1987. “The Technology of Gender.” In Technologies of Gender: Essays on Theory, Film and Fiction. Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 5. 5 Butler, Judith. 1993. “Imitation and Gender Insubordination.” In The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader . Abelove, Henry, Michele Aina Baral, and David M. Halperin, eds. New York: Routledge: 314. 6 De Lauretis, Teresa. 1987. “The Technology of Gender”: 3. believing that gender, rather than a mere identification of one’s biological sex, is a set of effects generated by one’s behavior. Moreover, De Lauretis suggests that “Gender is the representation of a relation” which constructs a social relation between “one entity and other entities.7” One is viewed and identified — whether as a male, female, transgender, etc. — by other people, and hence a relation is formed; that is, one’s gender is determined by other people based on one’s behaviors. This suggests that Laure is a boy in front of her friends as everyone (like Lisa, who is fond of and kisses this handsome boy) believes in her Mickäel persona. Therefore, tomboy is more like a term referring to Laure for her family and the spectators who know the truth, while she is a “boygendered” girl who has demonstrated masculinity and other similar qualities to her male counterparts in the narrative world. Although Laure enjoys the boyish behaviors such as imitating to spit and to play soccer topless like other boys, it does not mean that she rejects to be identified as a girl. First, she does not show any sign of disapproval when Lisa suggests to put makeup on her to “make” her like a girl; she does not even wipe off the makeup after leaving Lisa’s home. Moreover, instead of embarrassment or unpleasantness, she smiles shyly when her mother praises her that she looks lovely and great. This also hints that Laure is treated as a “daughter” instead of a “son.” Laure is a tomboy in her parents’ eyes while her tomboyism is tolerated to some extent. Laure’s younger sister, Jeanne, is an opposite to Laure since she has been granted all of the femininity; a girl who has nice and long hair; who likes to wear cute dresses; who likes the color of pink… While Laure’s father is openminded enough to allow her to explore new things freely, such as driving, wearing boy’s clothes, painting her room to blue,8 and sipping beer because “it won’t do any 7 Ibid., 45. A reference to boy’s associated color. 8
Creators Spectators People that originate content.
As the floats were lining up behind the scenes, many of the spectators were gathering and lining the streets of the parade route hours before the start of the parade.
A $3 dollar donation is asked for spectators in order to enter into the People’s Choice Award Category judging.
I will demand that my child treat other players, coaches, officials and spectators with respect regardless of race, creed, color, sex or ability.
• Control or reduce the risk of those hazards As outlined in this Safety Manual, safety is a shared responsibility by all OVA Staff, RIM Park staff, Officials, Competitors, volunteers and spectators.
The Tournament Director will designate the opposite sideline for the spectators.
CRUISE SHIP/DECK QUOITS - DAY Spectators watch on as Alf lines up his final quoit throw.
THE HOLDER HEREBY ASSUMES ALL RISK OF INJURY RESULTING FROM, OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE EVENT, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE RISK OF BEING HIT BY A HOCKEY PUCK, HOCKEY STICK, BASKETBALL, TENNIS BALL, FOOTBALL, OR ANY OTHER PIECE OF EQUIPMENT BEING USED FOR THE EVENT, OR BY A PLAYER OR OTHER PARTICIPANT, AND THE RISK OF INJURY DUE TO THE NEGLIGENCE OR MISCONDUCT OF OTHER SPECTATORS, AND AGREES THAT STAPLES CENTER, MICROSOFT THEATER, L.A.
Stringing • • • El Conquistador Tennis-520.544.1781 Tucson Racquet Club - 520.795-6960 Reffkin Tennis Center-520.791.4896 Gate Cards • • Heat • • • • Gate cards will be used to identify players for spectators and allow officials to document incidences including code violations, overrules, how many times they went on court, and positive feedback.
The 2013 event was not without some serious The Canadian Harvard Association Aerobatic Team will be problems that left spectators one of the featured performers at the 2014 Lehigh Valley Airshow.
Car Parking Parking will be available free of charge to all runners and spectators on the evening of the race.
At the event players and spectators will need to sign in with AAU and receive credentials before they are permitted to enter the venue.
Psychoanalysis and Culture, Media, Groups, Politics Number 62, September 2011 Something to do with a girl named Marla Singer 112 offered male spectators more possibility for such renegotiations than do recent films;
Moms of 5th graders are invited to be spectators only between 8:30-9 pm during the 5th grade recognition ceremony.
The Order of Asclepius participated in the event through vital signs taking for both the participants and the spectators in the day-long affair.