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60:123–40 Keywords First published online as a Review in Advance on October 8, 2014 temperature variations, Jensen’s inequality, life history traits, thermal tolerance, climate change The Annual Review of Entomology is online at ento.annualreviews.org This article’s doi:
Oecologia (2007) 152:425–433 DOI 10.1007/s00442-007-0674-6 ECOPHYSIOLOGY Manipulation of parasitoid size using the temperature-size rule:
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Optical measurement of liquid metal temperatures Summary Temperature is one of the most critical process parameters affecting the resulting quality, strength and working properties of a metal casting.
Pyrometer CellaCast PA 83 / PT 183 for non-contact temperature measurement in the casting of molten metals Pyrometer CellaCast PA 83 / PT 183 Pyrometer CellaCast PA 83 / PT 183 Special features • Maintenance-free, wear-free measuring system • Temperature range:
Measuring system CellaCast for non-contact temperature measurement of molten metal Application note Measuring system CellaCast Measuring points in a casting plant 1 Melting furnace 2 Decanting the melt 3 Casting machine 3 Casting from the ladle 1 Electric furnace Cupola furnace 2 Forehearth Transport ladle 3 2 Casting gravity cast Pouring ladle Measurement of molten metal Temperature is one of the most critical process parameters affecting the resulting quality, strength and working properties of a metal casting.
INSPECTION ITEM NORMAL CONDITION (INSPECTION CONDITION) 1 - 41 No.1 injector 13 - 16 Ω [at 20°C (68°F)] 9 - 41 No.2 injector 24 - 41 No.3 injector 2 - 41 No.4 injector 14 - 41 Stepper motor coil (A1) 28 - 41 Stepper motor coil (A2) 15 - 41 Stepper motor coil (B1) 29 - 41 Stepper motor coil (B2) 6 - 41 EGR solenoid 29 - 35 Ω [at 20°C (68°F)] 34 - 41 Evaporative emission purge solenoid 30 - 34 Ω [at 20°C (68°F)] 42 - Body ground PCM ground Continuity (0 Ω) 48 - Body ground PCM ground 26 - 41 Heated oxygen sensor heater (rear) 11 - 18 Ω [at 20°C (68°F)] 35 - 41 Evaporative emission ventilation solenoid 17 - 21 Ω [at 20°C (68°F)] 3 - 41 Heated oxygen sensor heater (front) 4.5 - 8.0 Ω [at 20°C (68°F)] 57 - 64 Intake air temperature sensor 13 - 17 kΩ [when intake air temperature is -20°C (-4°F)] 28 - 33 Ω [at 20°C (68°F)] 5.3 - 6.7 kΩ [when intake air temperature is 0°C (32°F)] 2.3 - 3.0 kΩ [when intake air temperature is 20°C (68°F)] 1.0 - 1.5 kΩ [when intake air temperature is 40°C (104°F)] 0.56 - 0.76 kΩ [when intake air temperature is 60°C (140°F)] 0.30 - 0.42 kΩ [when intake air temperature is 80°C (176°F)] 44 - 57 Engine coolant temperature sensor 14 - 17 kΩ [when engine coolant temperature is -20°C (-4°F)] 5.1 - 6.5 kΩ [when engine coolant temperature is 0°C (32°F)] 2.1 - 2.7 kΩ [when engine coolant temperature is 20°C (68°F)] 0.9 - 1.3 kΩ [when engine coolant temperature is 40°C (104°F)] 0.48 - 0.68 kΩ [when engine coolant temperature is 60°C (140°F)] 0.26 - 0.36 kΩ [when engine coolant temperature is 80°C (176°F)] https://mitsubishitechinfo.com/data/ST41/2003/M2251303/HTML/M13115360086A2.htm 1/13/2012
Unlike visible light, in the infrared world, everything with a temperature above absolute zero emits heat.
Thus, analyzing the performance of air conditioning and temperature distribution of the air conditioned is essential.
Basic Board Mount Pressure Sensors ABP Series—High Accuracy Digital or Analog Output Compensated/Amplified 60 mbar to 10 bar | 6 kPa to 1 MPa | 1 psi to 150 psi Datasheet Basic Amplified Board Mount Pressure Sensors The Basic Amplified ABP Series is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor offering a ratiometric analog or digital output for reading pressure over the specified full scale pressure span and temperature range.
An important aspect of simulated annealing is the creation of a temperature schedule, which controls the likeliness of traversing poor solutions during the search for the optimal one.
The hypothesis is tested that, if a cold period is interrupted by a return to a higher temperature for a short time, a physiological recovery is possible and may lead to higher survival.
20mV Applications Small-signal contacts Motors, solenoids, choke coils, transformers, wire harnesses RM3545 Compact fuses, airbag inflator, RM3545 compact magnetic components (EMC filters, ferrite beads) Multi-contact resistance measurement (motor and transformer windings) RM3545 RM3544 Contacts, wire harnesses, relay contacts, switches RM3545 RM3544 Fuses, resistors, heaters, wires, welds RM3545 RM3544 Conductive rubber, paint RM3545 RM3544 RM3545-02 General specifications RESISTANCE METER RM3544 RESISTANCE METER RM3545 0.00μΩ to 1200MΩ Measurement types (4-terminal direct current) 0.000 mΩ to 3.5 MΩ 3 Temperature measurement, Temperature correction (TC), comparator, judgment sound setting, auto hold 3 3 Low power resistance measurement (LP) N/A 3 Temperature rise (Temperature conversion (ΔT) N/A 3 Offset voltage compensation (OVC) N/A 3 D /A output N/A 3 RM3545-02 :
(5) While energy storage is an important factor, vulnerability to chill-injury is supposed to be the primary factor regulating survival at low temperature.
www.elsevier.com/locate/jtherbio A model for the time–temperature–mortality relationship in the chill-susceptible beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus, exposed to ﬂuctuating thermal regimes H.
www.elsevier.com/locate/ecoenv Combined eﬀect of temperature and ammonia on molecular response and survival of the freshwater crustacean Gammarus pulex MARK ⁎ Y.
DIRECTLY ROASTED, INDIRECTLY SEARED Direct grilling means that the meat is placed directly above the heat source and therefore gets a lot of temperature:
KEY WORDS low temperature, cold hardiness, survival, water relations, fat reserves OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE responses of insects to low temperatures has progressed substantially (Ramløv 2000, Sinclair et al.
Cold storage Parasitoids Low temperature Phenotypic plasticity Fitness a b s t r a c t Storage at low temperature is a valuable method for increasing the shelf-life of natural enemies such as insect parasitoids.
email@example.com Abstract We performed linear multivariate regression analysis using available estimates of natural and anthropogenic influences and the observed surface temperature records from 1900 to 2012.
Applications Probes suited to manual measurement on production lines Motors, solenoids, choke coils, transformers, wire harnesses Contacts, wire harnesses, relay contacts, switches 4 -TERMINAL LEAD L2104 CLIP TYPE LEAD L2101 Conductive rubber, paint Fuses, resistors, heaters, wires, welds PIN TYPE LEAD L2102 Large motors, large transformers PIN TYPE LEAD L2103 Probes suited to DC measurement of the chassis and bodies of large equipment Temperature rise tests (Motors, choke coils, transformers) 4 -TERMINAL LEAD 9453 CLIP TYPE LEAD L2107 PIN TYPE LEAD 9465-10 Vehicle grounding lines, conductivity of aircraft fuselages PIN TYPE LEAD 9772 LARGE CLIP TYPE LEAD 9467 A Full Line-up of HIOKI Resistance Meters to Suit Your Measurement Range 0.1μΩ 0.01μΩ 0.01μΩ 0.1μΩ 1μΩ RM3544/RM3544-01 RM3548 RM3545 1.2kΩ RM3543 RM3542 1kΩ 3.5MΩ 3.5MΩ 1200MΩ 120MΩ DSM-8104 3 ×1016Ω 3 Robust specifications in a compact package RESISTANCE METER RM3544/RM3544-01 High-accuracy bench-top resistance meter for both manual operation and integration with automatic lines Basic accuracy :
Determine when the sensors are subjected to the same conditions if any differences exist in the temperature measurments.