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TurnCounterHowto 100%

Setting up the turn counter    Analog triggers  Analog triggers convert analog signals into digital signals using the cRIO’s FPGA. In order to  make the turn counter work, we use an analog trigger to create a digital signal when the  potentiometer “wraps around” from 0° to 360° or 360° to 0°.     Code sample (creating an analog trigger):     AnalogTrigger​  _analogTrigger ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTrigger​ (​ channel​ );    Analog trigger outputs  The analog trigger can send outputs in a number of different modes. The two most useful to us  here are Rising Pulse and Falling Pulse. Rising Pulse sends a pulse of digital signal when the  analog signal changes from a value below the minimum voltage you’ve set (hereafter called the  “lower threshold”) to a value above the maximum voltage you’ve set (the “upper threshold”).  Falling Pulse sends a pulse when the signal changes from a value above the upper threshold to  one below the lower threshold. One of these should pulse whenever you hit the potentiometer’s  discontinuity; which one indicates the direction the wheel pod is turning.    Code sample (creating analog trigger outputs):    AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerFalling ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kFallingPulse​ );    AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerRising ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kRisingPulse​ );    Creating the counter  To create a turn counter, we need to count the digital pulses of the analog trigger outputs. When  one pulses, we should increment the counter; when the other pulses, we should decrement it.  Which is which depends on your setup.     Code sample (creating the turn counter):    Counter​  _turnCounter ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ Counter​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpDownCounterMode​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpSource​ (​ _analogTriggerRising​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ setDownSource​ (​ _analogTriggerFalling​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ start​ ();    The filter, setting the sample rate and threshold voltages  Although the potentiometer’s discontinuity normally looks like a straight vertical line of voltage, it  isn’t; it’s a very steep, not­quite­vertical line. Thus, when crossing it, there’s a chance that one of  the voltages sampled by the analog trigger will be on that line, which really messes things up.  Luckily, you can enable a filter on the analog trigger’s input that samples three points and  rejects the one closest to average. In this way, so long as no more than one sampled point in a  row lies on the discontinuity and the surrounding points are below / above the lower / upper  threshold voltages, the crossing will still be detected. We need to set the sample rate low  enough that no more than one point can lie on the line.     This graph shows a closeup of the potentiometer’s discontinuity. In theory, so long as the  sample rate is slower than the 520 Hz displayed, no more than one point should lie along the  line. In practice, I found a huge margin of error beneficial; I went with 50 Hz. However, set the  sample rate too low and you run into another problem: the time between samples may be so  great that the times when the signal is above the upper threshold or below the lower threshold  are missed completely. When you lower the sample rate, you need to lower your upper  threshold and raise your lower threshold; doing this too much can result in false positives from  things like signal noise. In order to ensure that the value above the upper threshold isn’t missed,  the difference between the potentiometer’s real maximum voltage and the upper threshold must  be at least equal to the time between samples (in my case, 0.02 seconds) times the maximum  rate of change of the voltage. The same must be true of the difference between the  potentiometer’s real minimum voltage and the lower threshold. I wound up using a  “real­threshold” voltage difference of 0.6V. To get false positives, the two thresholds have to be  pretty close; once again, big safety margins are your friend.    Code sample (enabling input filtering):    _analogTrigger​ .​ setFiltered​ (​ true​ );    Code sample (setting the thresholds):    double​  _sensingVoltageDifference ​ =​  ​ 0.6;  _analogTrigger​ .​ setLimitsVoltage​ (​ minVoltage ​ +​  _sensingVoltageDifference​ ,​  maxVoltage ​ ­  _sensingVoltageDifference​ );    Code sample (setting the sample rate):    int​  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE ​ =​  ​ 1;  int​  ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE ​ =​  ​ 50​ ;​  ​ //Hz  AnalogModule​  ​ module​  ​ =​  ​ (​ AnalogModule​ )​  ​ Module​ .​ getModule​ (​ ModulePresence​ .​ ModuleType​ .​ kAnalog​ ,  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE​ );  module​ .​ setSampleRate​ (​ ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE​ );    Computing the new degree measurement  The end goal of this is to create a potentiometer that reads beyond 360°. To get this reading,  simply multiply the turn count by 360° and add the wheel’s current heading.    Code sample (reading the new degree measurement):    double​  heading ​ =​  ​ (((​ voltage ​ ­​  _minVoltage​ )​  ​ *​  ​ (​ 360.0​  ​ /​  _maxVoltage​ )))​  ​ %​  ​ 360.0;  double​  degrees ​ =​  heading ​ +​  ​ (​ _turnCounter​ .​ get​ ()​  ​ *​  ​ 360.0​ );      Putting it all together  Here’s my final code. I don’t know if things need to be in this order (as opposed to the order  presented above) but it certainly works for me.         // Constants //  private​  ​ static​  ​ final​  ​ int​  ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE ​ =​  ​ 50;  private​  ​ static​  ​ final​  ​ int​  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE ​ =​  ​ 1​ ;    private​  ​ static​  ​ final​  ​ double​  _sensingVoltageDifference ​ =​  ​ 0.6;    // Global fields //  private​  ​ AnalogTrigger​  _analogTrigger;  private​  ​ Counter​  _turnCounter;  private​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerFalling;  private​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​  _analogTriggerRising;    // In potentiometer's constructor //  _analogTrigger ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTrigger​ (​ channel​ );  _analogTrigger​ .​ setFiltered​ (​ true​ );  _analogTrigger​ .​ setLimitsVoltage​ (​ minVoltage ​ +​  _sensingVoltageDifference​ ,​  maxVoltage ​ ­  _sensingVoltageDifference​ );  _analogTriggerFalling ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kFallingPulse​ );  _analogTriggerRising ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ AnalogTriggerOutput​ (​ _analogTrigger​ ,  AnalogTriggerOutput​ .​ Type​ .​ kRisingPulse​ );    AnalogModule​  ​ module​  ​ =​  ​ (​ AnalogModule​ )​  ​ Module​ .​ getModule​ (​ ModulePresence​ .​ ModuleType​ .​ kAnalog​ ,  DEFAULT_ANALOG_MODULE​ );  module​ .​ setSampleRate​ (​ ANALOG_SAMPLE_RATE​ );      _turnCounter ​ =​  ​ new​  ​ Counter​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpDownCounterMode​ ();  _turnCounter​ .​ setUpSource​ (​ _analogTriggerRising​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ setDownSource​ (​ _analogTriggerFalling​ );  _turnCounter​ .​ start​ ();    // getDegrees() function //  double​  heading ​ =​  ​ (((​ voltage ​ ­​  _minVoltage​ )​  ​ *​  ​ (​ 360.0​  ​ /​  _maxVoltage​ )))​  ​ %​  ​ 360.0;  double​  degrees ​ =​  heading ​ +​  _offsetDegrees ​ +​  ​ (​ _turnCounter​ .​ get​ ()​  ​ *​  ​ 360.0​ );​  ​ //I have an  "offset" that allows me to compensate for potentiometers that aren't installed exactly  straight   

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/05/25/turncounterhowto/

25/05/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Translating SB75 letters (for May 2016) (1) 98%

The numerical distinctions are for threshold and non-threshold languages, not for ranking or prioritizing among the thresholds.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/05/31/translating-sb75-letters-for-may-2016-1/

31/05/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

JDIT-2015-0216-013 97%

A linear relationship between thresholds and volumes was observed for volumes up to 10 mL.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/05/30/jdit-2015-0216-013/

29/05/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

TRC SC 95%

The static approach is based on pre-specified spatiotemporal thresholds while the dynamic approach is based on shockwave principles.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/04/26/trc-sc/

26/04/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

Widget Config 95%

Alert Thresholds (Submenu).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/09/08/widget-config/

08/09/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

HIOKI 3174 ENG 91%

A break in the lead is determined to have occurred when the contact check measurement voltage falls outside the range defined by the upper and lower thresholds.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/12/24/hioki-3174-eng/

24/12/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

ThresholdLauncherToolkit 2pg 90%

p. 1 of 3 Threshold Launcher Toolkit:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/10/20/thresholdlaunchertoolkit-2pg/

20/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

ELEMENTS the PSYCHOPHYSICS-01-English-Gustav Theodor Fechner 90%

Details on the size and dependence of the thresholds in the various sensory areas 1) Intensive threshold a) Light and color b) Sound and pitch.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2019/02/06/elements-the-psychophysics-01-english-gustav-theodor-fechner/

06/02/2019 www.pdf-archive.com

15 P 254-priyagupta Mar16 89%

Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics ISSN:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/09/25/15-p-254-priyagupta-mar16/

25/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

ThresholdLauncherToolkit 88%

p. 1 of 5 Threshold Launcher Toolkit:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/10/20/thresholdlaunchertoolkit/

20/10/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

MAP 87%

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/09/11/map/

11/09/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

CM6502S 86%

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/10/18/cm6502s/

17/10/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

11 553-937-1-SM 84%

Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics ISSN:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/09/25/11-553-937-1-sm/

25/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Addendum Encyclopedia Project 84%

This question is asking if there were any permanent 15dB or greater shifts in thresholds between 500-6000 Hz while the veteran was in military service.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/09/29/addendum-encyclopedia-project/

29/09/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Report 82%

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/02/17/report/

17/02/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

43063697.PDF 82%

P46:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/04/13/43063697/

13/04/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

WT7510 79%

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/12/25/wt7510/

25/12/2013 www.pdf-archive.com

C0371015018 77%

A sending of these messages is usually based on the long-term CINR (Carrier to Noise plus Interface Ratio) of BSs and depends on two thresholds:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2013/11/13/c0371015018/

13/11/2013 www.pdf-archive.com