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IMMUTABILITY & AUDITABILITY: THE CRITICAL ELEMENTS IN PROPERTY RIGHTS REGISTRIES Abhishek Dobhal, Matthew Regan email@example.com Paper prepared for presentation at the “2016 WORLD BANK CONFERENCE ON LAND AND POVERTY” The World Bank Washington DC, March 1418, 2016 Copyright 2016 by author(s). All rights reserved. Readers may make verbatim copies of this document for noncommercial purposes by any means, provided that this copyright notice appears on all such copies. 1 Abstract Epigraph is a blockchain backed property rights management system. Purposebuilt to be a governmentgrade system of record for property rights that is (i) trustworthy/secure (ii) auditable and (iii) ubiquitously accessible. Especially relevant to developing countries that lack a sociopolitical foundation of tradition and trust. Epigraph has identified a recipe of technology assets and methodologies that utilizes blockchain technology to offer an original yet pragmatic solution to an old and chronic problem. A land and property administration registry built using a blockchain backbone creates immutable operational and financial processes, which can secure trillions of dollars in assets; resulting in an enormous social, economic and political impact globally by fulfilling the need for transparency and accountability. Key Words: Auditability, Blockchain, Immutability, Property Registry, Software as a Service (SaaS) 2 Introduction Epigraph introduces a new technology stack for securing property rights that represents a natural convergence of our physical and digital landscape. Establishing a trustworthy, reliable property rights registry is challenging in developing economies due to many competing (and often unethical) interests. This is especially true in the short term, when a foundation and tradition of trust are absent. True immutability and auditability, beyond the reach of actors involved in operating, governing and manipulating a property registry, have proven elusive to date. However, a system that embraces and achieves these critical success factors has the potential to disrupt property rights registration in developing countries and thereby significantly improve the lives of property owners and the economies in which they live and work. Traditional property registry software projects, generally started with the best of intentions, have routinely failed to bring about the change they promised their constituents. The failure of these systems to effect change can be traced to design flaws that ultimately leave them opaque to would be auditors while making the information they store overly pliable. Added to these shortcomings is the massive capital expenditure incurred to build and maintain these systems. Together, these factors lead to a software platform that never becomes the system of record, but has cost the government, its creditors and its citizens millions of dollars, and often years of missed opportunities. Unlike these traditional software implementations, which are backed by a purely centralized data store, Epigraph’s platform records its data using Factom, an open source, decentralized ledger secured by the Bitcoin blockchain. Factom’s immutable ledger allows Epigraph to write property registry information, which once written, cannot be erased. Guaranteed immutability opens the door to a software architecture that enables and ensure auditability, as data that cannot be modified can safely be made accessible without the risk of illicit changes. Epigraph then delivers this solution via a mobilefriendly, SaaS (Software as a Service) architecture, eliminating the costly capital expenditures typically required to launch and operate a property registry, while putting the application quite literally in the hands of those who need it. Game changed. 3 The Importance of Trustworthy Property Registries Systems for securing and managing property rights and land tenure have failed to keep pace with the demand for land itself. Land is the most valuable resource, particularly in developing countries, where a large portion of the population depends on it for their livelihood and where few viable alternative instruments for storing wealth exist. As the population around the world grows, people move to cities in search of better opportunities, significantly growing the demand for land. As a result of rising demand, land continues to become more scarce and valuable. Increasing globalization and the need to secure sources of food and fuel are also leading investors from around the world to developing countries in search of available land. Inferior administrative infrastructure and antiquated practices leave the door open for infringement of rights, particularly of the poor and vulnerable groups that own small parcels of land. In the best case scenario legitimate transactions are delayed, and in the worst case land is misappropriated. Security of tenure is essential for people to feel confident about their rights to property now and in the future (Latorre, 2015). Many international organizations have focused on securing property rights through effective land administration, with the view that it is one of the tenets of supporting growth activities in . developing countries (MCKechnie, n.d.). Land rights enforced by proper registration, and welldefined rules and regulations, benefit developing countries by: 1.
Are we witnessing a dishonest election? A between state comparison based on the used voting procedures of the 2016 Democratic Party Primary for the Presidency of the United States of America Axel Geijsel Tilburg University – The Netherlands Rodolfo Cortes Barragan Stanford University – U.S.A. June 7, 2016 “You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time.” Abraham Lincoln “No one has yet figured out a straightforward method of ensuring that one of the most revered democratic institutions – in this case, electing a U.S. president – can be double checked for fraud, particularly when paperless evoting systems are used.” Larry Greenemeier, Scientific American Summary Statement Given the stakes in the outcome of the American presidential elections, ensuring the integrity of the electoral process is of the utmost importance. Are the results we are witnessing in the 2016 primary elections trustworthy? While Donald Trump enjoyed a clear and early edge over his Republican rivals, the Democratic contest between former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Senator Bernard Sanders has been far more competitive. At present, Secretary Clinton enjoys an apparent advantage over Sanders. Is this claimed advantage legitimate? We contend that it is not, and suggest an explanation for the advantage: States that are at risk for election fraud in 2016 systematically and overwhelmingly favor Secretary Clinton. We provide converging evidence for this claim. First, we show that it is possible to detect irregularities in the 2016 Democratic Primaries by comparing the states that have hard paper evidence of all the placed votes to states that do not have this hard paper evidence. Second, we compare the final results in 2016 to the discrepant exit polls. Furthermore, we show that no such irregularities occurred in the 2008 competitive election cycle involving Secretary Clinton against President Obama. As such, we find that in states wherein voting fraud has the highest potential to occur, systematic efforts may have taken place to provide Secretary Clinton with an exaggerated margin of support. Different outcomes in primary states with paper trails and without paper trails Data procurement : Given the potential that the underlying voting number has been corrupted, we had to restrict our analysis to a proxy: the percentage of delegates won by Secretary Clinton and Senator Sanders. To group states according to the accountability of the vote, we used Ballotpedia and created two groups. First, there are 18 states that feature voting procedures wherein the accuracy of electoral results of a primary ballot vote are backed by a paper trail. Second, there are 13 states that do not have such a paper trail. Analysis : The [ data ] show a statistically significant difference between the groups. States without paper trails yielded higher support for Secretary Clinton, (M = 65.13%, SD = no paper trail no = 10.41%) than states with paper trails (M = 48.53%, SD = = 16.00%), t(29) paper trail paper trail paper trail = 3.21, P = 0.003, d = 1.19 [Figure 1]. As such, the potential for election fraud in voting procedures is strongly related to enhanced electoral outcomes for Secretary Clinton. In the Appendix, we show that this relationship holds even above and beyond alternative explanations, including the prevailing political ideology and the changes in support over time. Supplemental analysis on caucus states: Does the pattern seen in ballot states occur in caucus states? By the very nature of caucusing procedures, caucus results are generally thought to be more trustworthy. However, in the current Democratic caucusing cycle, Iowa and Nevada had caucuses widely alleged to have involved a considerable level of voter suppression and potential fraud. We examined the [ data ] and found that these two states had far higher support for Secretary Clinton, [M = 54.71%, SD = = 3.44%] than the other caucus fraud allegations fraud allegation states, [M = 31.61%, SD = = 9.98%], t (11) = 3.13, P = no fraud allegations no fraud allegations independentmeans 0.009, d = 3.10. Anomalies exist between exit polls and final results Data procurement : We obtained exit poll data from a database kept by an expert on the American elections. Analysis : On the overall, are the exit polls different from the final results? Yes they are. The data show lower support for Secretary Clinton in exit polls than the final results would suggest, [M exit = 54.38%, SD = = 13.95%; M = 57.52%, SD = = 13.87%], t (23) = 3.49, P = exit final final dependentmeans 0.002, d = 0.71. While an effect size of 0.71 is quite substantial, and suggests a considerable difference between exit polls and outcomes, we expected that this difference would be even more exaggerated in states without paper voting trails. Indeed, the effect size in states without paper voting trails is considerably larger: 1.50, and yields more exaggerated support for the Secretary in the hours following the exit polls [M = 62.93%, SD = = 8.80%; M = 65.68%, exit exit final SD = = 9.52%], t (9) = 4.68, P < 0.001. In contrast, the effect size is much smaller final dependentmeans in states with paper trails, [M = 48.28%, SD = = 13.94%; M = 51.69%, SD = = exit exit final final 13.77%], t (13) = 2.27, P = 0.04, d = 0.58. dependentmeans Irregularities are unique to 2016 To show that the pattern of votes may suggest a systematic effort to undercut Senator Sanders, we must show that no such patterns were in place in similar elections. Given that Secretary Clinton lost to President Obama in 2008, their data is a natural control and the best possible point of comparison for the 2016 data. Thus, as we did for 2016, we tabulated the percentage of delegates won in each state by (then Senator) Hillary Clinton. The data show that, contrary to the 2016 data, there is no evidence that primary states without paper trails favored Senator Clinton in 2008, P = 0.38. As such, the patterns of 2016 are different from their best point of comparison. Conclusion Are we witnessing a dishonest election? Our first analysis showed that states wherein the voting outcomes are difficult to verify show far greater support for Secretary Clinton. Second, our examination of exit polling suggested large differences between the respondents that took the exit polls and the claimed voters in the final tally. Beyond these points, these irregular patterns of results did not exist in 2008. As such, as a whole, these data suggest that election fraud is occurring in the 2016 Democratic Party Presidential Primary election. This fraud has overwhelmingly benefited Secretary Clinton at the expense of Senator Sanders. Figure 1. Percent of support for Clinton and Sanders by state voting paper trail status. Appendix, Supplemental Analyses, and References
In this paper, we seek a trustworthy external signal that both the slave and master can observe, so that they can measure directly the one-way transmission times.
Kothrade, Ryan Leverson, Quinn Lipinski, Thaddeus Lipinski, Warren Logsdon, Blaine Meece, Noah Nagle, David Paris, Christopher Plaxe, Jack Riley, Collin Robinson, Tyler Ruggles, Evan Schwecke, Kevin Stover, Jake Williams-Harris, Christopher Scout Oath and Scout Law Scout Oath On my honor I will do my best to do my duty to God and my Country to obey the Scout Law to help other people at all times to keep myself physically strong, mentally awake and morally straight Scout Law A Scout Is Trustworthy Loyal Helpful Friendly Courteous Kind Obedient Cheerful Thrifty Brave Clean Reverent AGENDA Flag Ceremony Friends of Scouting presentation- Jim Shlidt Previous outings presentation- Wyatt Jettie Outings include Torrent Falls- David Lazer Blaze Lock-In- Thad Klondike Derby- Thomas Riffle and Shotgun- Noah National Jamboree presentation- Wes Robinson
I O TRUSTWORTHY PROPERTY REGISTRIES THE POWER TO UNLOCK TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS BIG PROBLEMS PROPERTY REGISTRIES LACK A F O U N D AT I O N A N D T R A D I T I O N O F T R U S T E S TA B L I S H I N G T R U S T HOW DO WE BUILD A TRUST WORTHY REGISTRY BETTER SECURITY TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY STRICT CHANGE CONTROLS FACILITATING ACCESS CONTEXTUAL ADAPTATION EASE OF USE LOWER ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS NEW RECIPE COMBINING NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO S O LV E O L D P R O B L E M S BLOCKCHAIN SAAS MOBILE DATA
Personal Qualities Abstract Accepting Achieving Adjusting Adventurous Affectionate Ambitious Articulate Artistic Assertive Attractive Aware Eager Efficient Encouraging Energetic Enterprising Entertaining Enthusiastic Expressive Objective Observant Open Minded Optimistic Orderly Organized Original Outgoing Tactful Talented Thorough Thoughtful Tireless Tolerant Trusting Truthful Fairminded Flexible Forceful Friendly Painstaking Patient Perceptive Persuasive Poised Pragmatic Precise Productive Professional Progressive Unique Unpretentious Balanced Calm Carefree Caring Charismatic Charming Cheerful Clever Commanding Committed Compassionate Concrete Confident Congenial Conscientious Conservative Considerate Consistent Cooperative Cordial Courageous Creative Critical Curious Dedicated Deliberate Dependable Determined Diligent Disciplined Distinctive Doer Dynamic Reliability Gentle Genuine Goaldirected Goodnatured Graceful Gracious Happy Helpful Humane Humorous Idealistic Imaginative Independent Industrious Innovative Inquisitive Insightful Intelligent Intense Intuition Inventive Investigative Knowledgeable Leader Listener Logical Methodical Motivated Questioning Quick Rational Realistic Reasonable Reassuring Receptive Relaxed Reliable Resourceful Respective Rigorous Selfconfident Selfcontrolled Sense of humor Sensitive Serious Sincere Skillful Sociable Spontaneous Steady Stimulating Straightforward Strong Supportive Sympathetic Verbal Vigorous Warm Wise Zestful Accountable Accurate Attendance (good) Capable Committed Concerned Consistent Conscientious Cooperative Dependable Honest Judgment (good) Loyal Patient Precise Prompt Punctual Reliable Selfcontrolled Selfreliant Steady Straight forward Trustworthy Work Habits Able to work with others Accepting of criticism Active Alert Appearance (neat) Attentive to details Attitude (positive) Balanced Capable Competent Creative Enthusiastic Efficient Exact Flexible Friendly Genuine Gets along well with others Hardworking Innovative/Initiating Persistent Resourceful Team player Thorough
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