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All enzymes that might have entered the digestive system from the duodenum, including trypsin, a pancreatic protease enzyme that breaks protein down into amino acid molecules, are still launched and will continue on their work as usual.
Materials and methods Reagents Dulbecco's modiﬁed Eagle's medium (DMEM), fetal bovine serum, Hanks’ buffer, paraformaldehyde, trypan blue stain, glutamine, trypsin–EDTA, penicillin, and streptomycin were purchased from Paneco (Moscow, Russia).
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2 points = 1 mark (c) Deficiency disease Scurvy   (d) Reason for a daily supply Vitamin C cannot be stored in the body or Vitamin C is water soluble so is easily lost from the body 1 well-explained statement = 1 mark © Cambridge International Examinations 2012  Page 5 4 Mark Scheme GCE O LEVEL – October/November 2012 Syllabus 6065 Paper 12 (a) Digestion in the small intestine in the duodenum – trypsin – from pancreatic juice – converts protein to (peptones)/peptides/polypeptides bile – stored in gall bladder – made by liver – emulsifies fat – breaks fat into small droplets – increases surface area lipase – converts fats to glycerol and fatty acids amylase – in pancreatic juice – converts starch to maltose in the ileum – erepsin – from intestinal juice – converts (peptones)/peptides/polypeptides to amino-acids lipase – completes breakdown of fat to glycerol and fatty acids maltase – converts maltose to glucose lactase – converts lactose to glucose and galactose sucrase – converts sucrose to glucose and fructose (At least four points from each part of the small intestine.) 12 points:
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Digestion stomach rennin - clots milk pepsin - converts proteins to peptides / polypeptides / peptones duodenum trypsinogen - from pancreatic juice mixes with enterokinase - to form trypsin converts proteins to peptides / polypeptides / peptones ileum erepsin - from intestinal juice converts peptides / polypeptides / peptones to amino acids Absorption walls of ileum - lined with villi - finger-like projections increase surface area walls of villi are one cell thick - supplied with blood capillaries - amino acids absorbed into blood capillaries - dissolve in blood join blood circulation - Guidance for Examiners R milk as given in question Any 4 at 1 mark each.
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2 points = 1 mark © Cambridge International Examinations 2012  Page 3 2 Mark Scheme GCE O LEVEL – October/November 2012 Syllabus 6065 Paper 11 (a) Digestion and absorption of protein in the stomach – rennin – clots milk – in small children – pepsin – in presence of acid/HCl – converts protein to peptones/peptides/polypeptides – in the duodenum – enterokinase – in pancreatic juice – converts trypsinogen to trypsin – converts protein to peptones/peptides/polypeptides – in the ileum – erepsin – from intestinal juice – converts proteins to amino-acids – absorbed in villi – into blood capillaries – then into circulatory system – to liver (must be at least 2 points on absorption) 12 points:
Trypsin – Cleaves after(c-terminal) Arginine(R) and Lysine(K), unless followed by proline.
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Page 2 Mark Scheme GCE O LEVEL – May/June 2008 Syllabus 6065 Paper 01 Section A 1 (a) Balanced diet contains all nutrients (1 mark) in correct proportion/amount (1 mark)  (b) (i) carbon – hydrogen – oxygen – nitrogen – phosphorus – sulphur (4 × 1 point) (2 points = 1 mark)  (ii) Functions of protein growth/body building repair maintenance energy enzymes/hormones/antibodies (4 × 1 mark)  (iii) HBV protein Contains all essential amino acid/indispensable amino acids  (iv) meat – fish – cheese – milk – eggs – soya (4 × 1 point) (2 points = 1 mark)  (v) LBV protein Lacks at least one essential amino acid/indispensable amino acid or one EAA/IAA is found in poor supply  (vi) cereals – pulses – nuts (or 1 named example from group) (2 × 1 point) (2 points = 1 mark)  (vii) Digestion and absorption of protein in stomach – rennin – clots milk – HCI – pepsin – from gastric juice converts proteins to peptones/peptides/polypeptides – in duodenum – trypsin – from pancreatic juice – converts proteins to peptones/peptides/polypeptides – in ileum – erepsin – from intestinal juice – converts peptides to amino acids – absorbed into blood capillaries – in villi – (10 × 1 point – at least 1 point on absorption) (2 points = 1 mark)  (c) (i) Functions of calcium formation/maintenance of bones/teeth muscle function function of nerves blood clotting (3 × 1 mark)  (ii) milk – cheese – bones of canned fish e.g.
Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM), fetal bovine serum (FBS), phosphate buffered saline (PBS), amphotericin B, gentamicin and 0.25 % trypsin/EDTA were from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA).
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In the duodenum, the enzyme trypsin, produced by the pancreas continues to convert protein to peptones / peptides / polypeptides.
The medium was aspirated off and the adherent cells trypsinized with 1 ml of 1 Trypsin–EDTA solution (GIBCO) for 10 min.
After treating Propulse™ with various enzymes, such as alcalase, trypsin and pepsin, researchers have been able to identify and isolate bioactive protein peptides with potential antihypertensive properties.
Gel pieces were then rehydrated at 4uC for 15 min in a digestion buffer containing 50 mM NH4HCO3 and 12.5 ng/ml of trypsin (modified, sequencing grade, Promega, Charbonnie`res, France).
Chromosomes were analyzed by G-banding with trypsin and Wright’s stain (GT W) by the Clinical Cytogenetics Laboratory, Stanford Health Services (RPE clones) and the Cytogenetics Laboratory, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (BJ clones).
Subculturing was done when 90% of conﬂuence was reached, after trypsin-EDTA treatment (Invitrogen).
trypsin as enzyme with one allowed miscleavage, carbamidomethylation of cysteins as ﬁxed modiﬁcation and methionine oxidation as variable modiﬁcations.
protein extract digested with trypsin (V511A, Promega) to visualise a digested protein proﬁle.