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VowelPaper 100%

The Balancing of Vowel Inventories Introduction Figure 1 – The IPA Vowel Chart A vowel is defined by Merriam-Webster as “one of a class of speech sounds in the articulation of which the oral part of the breath channel is not blocked and is not constricted enough to cause audible friction (Vowel).” There are over 7000 confirmed languages discovered so far on the planet, and every single one of them contains vowels (How Many Languages).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/03/21/vowelpaper/

21/03/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

شرح stress 96%

the vowel sound in many lightly pronounced unaccented syllables in words‬‬ ‫‪of more than one syllable.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ال‪ schwa‬؟‬ ‫ﻨﻄﻖ ﻛـ‪ vowel‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‪,‬‬ ‫ال‪ُschwa‬ﺗَ‬ ‫داﺋﻤﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺸﺪد ﻋﻠﻰ ال‪ vowel‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ,‬واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻵﺧﺮ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ ال‪ vowel‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً‬ ‫أي ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻄﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ً‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‪ , pencil :‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ‪ pen‬ﻣﺸﺪد ‪ ,‬واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ‪ cil‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ‬ ‫] ‪[ pens∂l‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﺑﻨﺒﺮة أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟـ‪ vowel‬اﻟﺬي ﻧﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً‬ ‫ﺟﺪا ﻫﻮ ﻋﺎدة ال‪schwa .‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ اﻟـ‪stress :‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ أﻣﻮر ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ً‪:‬‬ ‫أوﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎك ﻧﻮﻋﺎن ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ‪Syllables:‬‬ ‫( ‪Heavy Syllables‬ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺛﻘﻴﻠﺔ )‬ ‫( ‪Light Syllables‬ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ (‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ أو ﺛﻘﻴﻞ؟!‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎك ﺷﺮوط ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ اﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1‬ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺛﻘﻲل‬‫وال ‪vowel‬اﻟﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ ‪long vowels and diphthongs :‬‬ ‫‪2-‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪1 consonants‬‬ ‫أﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ اﻟﺨﻔﻴﻔﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1‬ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺧﻔﻲف‬‫وﻫﻮ‪ :‬ال‪short vowels‬‬ ‫‪2-‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺼﻮت واﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ال ‪consonants‬ﻻ أﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬه اﻷﻣﺮ اﻷول اﻟﺬي ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪ :‬أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫____________________________________‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ اﻟﻤﻘﺎطع‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎك ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺎت ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫اوﻻ ‪ante :‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪pen :‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ult:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ‪ultimalte = ult :‬‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ = ‪penultimate = pen‬‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ = ‪untepenultimate = ante‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ذﻟﻚ ً‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺪا‪.‬‬ ‫___________________________‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪة وﺿﻊ ال‪Stress‬‬ ‫ً ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻧﻌﺮف ﻫﻞ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ أﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ‪verb‬أو اﺳﻢ ‪noun ,‬‬ ‫أوﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ أن ﻧﺤﺪد ﻧﻮع اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻧﺘﺒﻊ اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل‪:‬‬ ‫ً‪ :‬ﻧﺤﺪد ﻧﻮع اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ = ‪Ult :‬‬ ‫أوﻻ‬ ‫إن ﻛﺎن ً‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺎ ) ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ‪ -‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑـ ‪consonant‬واﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ( ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺴﻨﻀﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال = ‪pen‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻢة‬ ‫أﻣﺎ إن ﻛﺎن ﺛﻘﻴً‬ ‫ﻼ ) ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺛﻘﻴﻞ ‪ -‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ واﺣﺪ ‪consonant ) :‬‬ ‫ﻓﺴﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ‪syllables‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻄﺎة‪:‬‬ ‫‪1‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال = ‪ult‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪2‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال = ‪ante‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬا ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺳﻤﺎء‪:‬‬ ‫ً ‪ :‬ﺳﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫أوﻻ‬ ‫إن ﻛﺎن ﻋﺪدﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال‪ stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال‪ = pen‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫إن ﻛﺎن أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ال‪ vowel‬اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﻓﻲ ال‪ult :‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬إن ﻛﺎن ﺛﻘﻴﻞ ) أي ‪ long vowel‬أو ‪ :

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/02/22/stress/

22/02/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Using Qedavian Script 92%

As for the font I’ve created to be used on the computer (which hopefully I’ll be able to make accessible) utilize symbol keys to make vowels, not the vowel keys themselves.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/08/18/using-qedavian-script/

18/08/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Conlang 89%

2.1.2 Velar k (k) S (s) Vowels Close Close-Mid Open 2.1.3 Postalveolar Front i (i) e (e) Near-Front Back u (u) o (o) a (a) Double Vowels Every vowel can be duplicated to form vowels that are double the length of the vowel sonically.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/04/06/conlang/

06/04/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

Audhrinn v023 89%

CONSONANTS Letter Sound Value(s) b Usually /b/, but in sb(r) /sp(r)/ d Usually /d/, but in sd(r) /st(r)/ dh Usually /ð/, but word-finally /θ/, in dhr /θr/ and in sdh(r) /sθ(r)/ f Always /f/ fh Always /v/ g Usually /g/, but in ng /nx/ (never /ŋ/ or /ŋg/) and in sg(r) /sx(r)/ gh Usually /ɣ/, but effectively silent in word-final positions h Word-initially and between two vowels /h/ Otherwise modifies a preceding consonant (d, f or g) k Always /k/ l Always /l/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /l:/ m Always /m/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /m:/ Can be found without a vowel at the end of a word in dhm /ðm̩/ and ghm /ɣm̩/ n Always /n/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /n:/ r Always /r/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /r:/ Often modifies the value of a preceding vowel s Always /s/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /s:/ w y - Always /w/ Never modifies the value of a preceding vowel Always /j/ Often modifies the value of a preceding vowel Always a glottal stop /ʔ/ VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS Letter(s) a au Sound Value(s) Usually /æ/, but in word-final positions /ə/ and in ay /aɪ.j/ Always /ɔʊ/ e Usually /e/, but virtually silent in word-final positions and in ey /eɪ.j/ ea Always /ɪjæ/ eo Always /ɪjɒ/ i Usually /ɪ/, but in iy /i:.j/ o Usually /ɒ/, but in oy /ɔɪ.j/ ou Always /aʊ/ u Always /u/, but in word-final positions long /u:/ RHOTICITY Vowels followed by r (in word-final positions or before another consonant) gain rhoticity and are usually lengthened:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/03/14/audhrinn-v023/

14/03/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

Post M. 2007 . A Grammar of Galo. PhD Di 80%

Vowel length alternations ................................................................................ ... Initial cluster simplification and vowel shifts...........................

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/02/29/post-m-2007-a-grammar-of-galo-phd-di/

29/02/2016 www.pdf-archive.com

Unicode Standard - Combining Diacritical Marks 77%

open variety of vowel → 02D5 ˕  modifier letter down tack COMBINING UP TACK BELOW • IPA:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/02/01/unicode-standard-combining-diacritical-marks/

01/02/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

wollof 72%

A long vowel is indicated a doubling of the symbol, and it must be pronounced a little longer than a short vowel (which is not doubled).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/12/08/wollof/

08/12/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

05209103 61%

Table 1 summary of datasets in our experimental Dataset Adult Aneal Austra Breast Credit Dermatology Diabetes Ecoli Flag German Glass Haberman Heart Hepatitis Horse-colic Hypothyroid Ionosphere Iris Labor Letterrecognition Liver Musk_clean Pendigits Pima Satimage Sonar Vehicle Nominal/ Continuous attributes 8/6 32/6 8/6 0/9 Instance size Number of Class 32561 898 690 699 2 6 2 2 9/6 33/1 0/8 1/8 10/18 7/13 0/9 0/3 7/6 6/13 7/19 7/18 0/34 0/4 0/8 690 366 768 336 194 1000 214 306 270 155 368 3163 351 150 57 2 6 2 8 6 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 0/16 20000 26 0/6 0/188 0/16 0/8 0/36 0/60 0/18 345 6598 10992 768 6435 208 846 2 2 10 2 6 2 4 990 11 178 80 3 4 Vowel-context 1/10 Wine 0/13 Salary 0/1 3.1.Performance Comparison on C4.5 classifier We apply AEFD, EW, MDL method, PKID method[17] method to discretize the selected 29 datasets respectively, and use C4.5 with10-fold cross-validation to classify the datasets before and after discretization.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/10/20/05209103/

20/10/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Untitled 2 59%

masculine country beginning with vowel = en (includes H) ex.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/03/21/untitled-2/

21/03/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Final Clue 58%

Decipher the puzzle below to discover the final clue!

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/09/01/final-clue/

01/09/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

1-02-Lesson 58%

More details on vowel reduction in Lesson 9.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/02/10/1-02-lesson/

10/02/2018 www.pdf-archive.com

dgg xword 57%

Neutral vowel sound 41. Forever and a day 42.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/06/14/dgg-xword/

14/06/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

IMG 54%

"ffiŁ /p,b/ a r,-tpnt vowel.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/03/24/img/

24/03/2014 www.pdf-archive.com

Meditation Explained 54%

5 - Why we “ALL” need meditation 6 - Chakra Vowel Meditation 7 - Self Sound Healing 8 - Sungazing 9 - Walking Meditation 10 - Guided Meditation 11 - Mantra Meditation 12 - Third Eye Meditation 13 - Candle Gazing Meditation 14 - Visualization 15 - Becoming Present 16 - Observe The Mind 17 - Cleaning Meditation 18 - Astral Projection 19 - I AM Meditation 20 - Prayer 21 - Partner Meditation 22 - Breathing Meditation 23 - Hugging Meditation 24 - Crystal Meditaiton 25 - Yoga 26 - Conclusion Introduction This book will detail what mediation is, why it’s so needed in the lives of all living beings and then break down 20 great meditation practices and techniques that anyone can do to take their meditation practice to the next level.

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/12/27/meditation-explained/

27/12/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Iconicity in Language 52%

It can reproduce only some parts of the object, so that an iconic relation may not be isomorphic, as is the case of the phonic value of the [i] vowel to represent smallness (Kilani-Schoch 1988:

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2015/12/19/iconicity-in-language/

19/12/2015 www.pdf-archive.com

activity cansnowman primary 51%

Words indicated here in bold are not real words, and the word wan is not likely to be familiar to many students (nor does it have the same vowel sound as the other –an words).

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2011/02/23/activity-cansnowman-primary/

23/02/2011 www.pdf-archive.com

lyrics 49%

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2017/08/24/lyrics/

24/08/2017 www.pdf-archive.com

Day 5-Counting Techniques 44%

Problem 11 How many 4 letter words are there with at least one vowel?

https://www.pdf-archive.com/2014/01/24/day-5-counting-techniques/

24/01/2014 www.pdf-archive.com